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A manuscript document written by hand, as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way. Before the arrival of printing, all documents and books were manuscripts

Manuscript In publishing and academic contexts, a manuscript is the text submitted to the publisher or printer in preparation for publication, regardless of the format


scrolls codex

Manuscripts were produced onvellum and other parchment, on papyrus, and on paper. In Russia birch bark documents (11th century In India the Palm leaf manuscript, from ancient times until the 19th Paper spread from China via the Islamic world to Europe by the 14th century, and by the late 15th century had largely replaced parchment for many purposes.

British Library the Bodleian Library of Oxford University

the scriptoria of monasteries by members of the clergy. Anglo-Saxon manuscripts were written exclusively on parchment or vellum Old English manuscripts = AngloSaxon

Nowell Codex The manuscript came into the possession of Laurence Nowell, an early Anglo-Saxon scholar, and author of the very first Old English dictionary, Vocabularium Saxonicum. the manuscript bears his signature on its first page and is bound in the so-called Nowell Codex.

1753-the Beowulf manuscript British Museum

8th - 11th

Illuminated manuscript,
handwritten book that has been decorated with gold or silver, brilliant colours, or elaborate designs or miniature pictures. Though various Islamic societies also practiced this art, Europe had the longest and probably the most highly developed tradition of illuminating manuscripts

Illuminated Manuscripts
The period AD 400 to 600, initially produced in Italy and the Eastern Roman Empire 3th C. an increasing number of secular texts were illuminated. Most illuminated manuscripts were created as codices a luxury item for wealthy customers.