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The Power of Attitudes

Attitude: a lasting, general evaluation of


people, objects, advertisements, or issues

Attitude object (A ): anything toward which


O

one has an attitude

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Functional Theory of Attitudes

UTILITARIAN FUNCTION:
Relates to rewards and punishments

VALUE-EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION: Expresses consumers values or self-concept

EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION: Protect ourselves from external threats or internal feelings

KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION:
Need for order, structure, or meaning

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Discussion

Imagine that you work for the marketing


department of your college or university and have segmented students into four different clusters, each representing one of the four functions identified by Katz.

Develop a marketing strategy based on each


of the four functions to motivate students to stay in school and complete their degrees.

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ABC Model of Attitudes

An attitude has three components: Affect: the way a consumer feels about an
attitude object Behavior: persons intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object Cognition: beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object

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Figure 7.1 Hierarchies of Effects

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Attitude Toward the Advertisement

We form attitudes toward objects other than


the product that can influence our product selections.

We often form product attitudes from its ads Ad: attitude toward advertiser +
evaluations of ad execution + ad evoked mood + ad arousal effects on consumer + viewing context

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Attitude Commitment
INTERNALIZATION Highest level: deep-seeded attitudes become part of consumers value system IDENTIFICATION Mid-level: attitudes formed in order to conform to another person or group COMPLIANCE Lowest level: consumer forms attitude because it gains rewards or avoids punishments

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Consistency Principle

We value/seek harmony among thoughts,


feelings, and behaviors

We will change components to make them


consistent

Relates to the theory of cognitive dissonance


we take action to resolve dissonance when our attitudes and behaviors are inconsistent

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Discussion

Interview a student next to you about a


behavior that he or she has that is inconsistent with his or her attitudes (e.g., attitudes toward healthy eating or active lifestyle, attitudes toward materialism, etc.)

Ask the student to elaborate on why he or


she has the behavior, then try to identify the way the person has resolved dissonant elements.

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Self-Perception Theory

FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR TECHNIQUE Consumer is more likely to comply with a request if he has first agreed to comply with a smaller request
LOW-BALL TECHNIQUE Person is asked for a small favor and is informed after agreeing to it that it will be very costly. DOOR-IN-THE-FACE TECHNIQUE Person is first asked to do something extreme (which he refuses), then asked to do something smaller.

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Social Judgment Theory

We assimilate new information about attitude


objects in light of what we already know/feel Initial attitude = frame of reference Latitudes of acceptance and rejection Assimilation effects Contrast effects Example: Choosy mothers choose Jif Peanut Butter

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Balance Theory

Considers how a person might perceive


relations among different attitude objects and how he might alter attitudes to maintain consistency

Triad attitude structures: Person Perception of attitude object Perception of other person/object

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Figure 7.2 Balance Theory

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Multiattribute Attitude Models

Consumers attitudes toward an attitude


object depend on beliefs she has about object attributes

Three elements of multiattribute Attributes of Ao Beliefs about Ao Importance weights

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The Fishbein Model

Salient Beliefs

Object-Attribute Linkages
Evaluation

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Table 7.1 Saundras College Decision


Beliefs () Attribute Academic reputation All women Cost Proximity to home Import. (I) 6 7 4 3 Smith 8 9 2 2 Princeton 9 3 2 2 Rutgers 6 3 6 6 Northland 3 3 9 9

Athletics
Party atmosphere Library facilities Attitude Score

1
2 5

1
1 7 163

2
3 9 142

5
7 7 153

1
9 2 131

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Marketing Applications of the Multiattribute Model


Capitalize on Relative Advantage Strengthen Perceived Linkages Add a New Attribute Influence Competitors Ratings
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The Extended Fishbein Model: The Theory of Reasoned Action

Intentions versus behavior: measure


behavioral intentions, not just intentions

Social pressure: acknowledge the power of


other people in purchasing decision

Attitude toward buying: measure attitude


toward the act of buying, not just the product

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Figure 7.3 Theory of Trying

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How Do Marketers Change Attitudes?


Reciprocity Scarcity

Authority

Consistency

Liking

Consensus

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Tactical Communications Options

Who will be source of


message?

How should message be


constructed?

What media will transmit


message?

What target market


characteristics will influence ads acceptance?
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Figure 7.4 The Traditional Communications Model

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Figure 7.5 An Updated Communications Model

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New Message Formats

M-commerce - marketers promote goods and


services via wireless devices

New social media platforms Blogging Video blogging (vlogging) Podcasting Tweeting Virtual worlds Widgets
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The Source

Source effects mean the same words by


different people can have very different meanings

A source may be chosen due to expertise,


fame, attractiveness, or similarity

What makes a good source? Source credibility: a sources perceived


expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness Source attractiveness: social value
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Star Power

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Nonhuman Endorsers

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Decisions to Make About the Message

Should we use pictures or words? How often should message be repeated? Should it draw an explicit conclusion? Should it show both sides of argument? Should it explicitly compare product to competitors?

Should it arouse emotions? Should it be concrete or based on imagery?


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The Message
Table 7.2 Characteristics of Good and Bad Messages

Positive Effects
Showing convenience of use

Negative Effects
Extensive information on components, ingredients, nutrition

Showing new product/improved features


Casting background (i.e., people are incidental to message) Indirect comparison to other products

Outdoor setting (message gets lost)


Large number of onscreen characters Graphic displays

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Figure 7.6 Two-Factor Theory

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How Do We Structure Arguments?

One-sided: supportive arguments Two-sided: both positive and negative


information Refutational argument: negative issue is raised, then dismissed Positive attributes should refute presented negative attributes Effective with well-educated and not-yetloyal audiences
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Comparative Advertising

Comparative advertising: message compares


two+ recognizable brands on specific attributes Unlike McDonalds, all of Arby's chicken sandwiches are made with 100% all-natural chicken Negative outcomes include source derogation

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Types of Message Appeals


Emotional versus Rational Appeals Sex Appeals Humorous Appeals Fear Appeals
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Discussion

Name ads that rely on sex appeal to sell


products.

What benefits are communicated in the ad? Is the message implicit or explicit? How?

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Message As Art Form

Advertisers use literary elements to


communicate benefits and meaning

Allegory: story about an abstract concept


personified in a fictional character

Metaphor: two dissimilar objects in a close


relationship (A is B)

Simile: compares two objects (A is like B) Resonance: play on words with pictures
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Table 7.3 Examples of Advertising Resonance


Product Embassy Suites Toyota auto parts Bucks filter cigarettes Headline This Year, Were Unwrapping Suites by the Dozen Out Lifetime Guarantee May Come as a Shock Herd of These? Visual Chocolate kisses with hotel names underneath each Man holding a shock absorber Cigarette pack with a picture of a stag

Bounce fabric softener


Pepsi ASICS athletic shoes

Is There Something Creeping Womans dress bunched up on Up Behind You? her back due to static
This Year, Hit the Beach Topless We Believe Women Should Be Running the Country Pepsi bottle cap lying on the sand Woman jogging in a rural setting

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Forms of Story Presentation

Lecture: speech in
which the source speaks directly to the audience Attempts to
persuade Cognitive responses may occur

Drama: story that


draws viewers into the action Characters indirectly

address the audience Interact with each other in an imaginary setting

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Discussion

Sell the steak or the sizzle? Whats more important in an advertisement: What is said? or Who says it? Give examples of ads that use one strategy
versus the other. What types of ads are more effective for each strategy?

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Figure 7.7 Elaboration Likelihood Model

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Chapter Summary

Attitudes are very powerful, and they are


formed in several ways.

People try to maintain consistency among


their attitudinal components and their attitudes and behaviors.

The communications model includes several


important components which can be influenced by marketers to enhance the persuasiveness of the message.
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