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Acknowledgments: English-Speaking Union, Chiew N Pang

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JUDGES

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The order of speeches:
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3. 1st Proposition 4. 1st Opposition 5. 2nd Proposition 6. 2nd Opposition

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7. Opposition Summary 8. Proposition Summary

Speaking Time:

1st Speaker – 5 minutes 2nd Speaker – 5 minutes Summary – 5 minutes

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Motion: This House would legalise voluntary euthanasia (example) Procedures: 3. The first duty of the chair is to call the debate to order and to welcome all that are present. The chair explains the rules and the procedures. The timekeeper will be called upon to demonstrate the time signals. There will be a warning bell 1 minute before the maximum time allowed, and another signal when the maximum time is reached. If the speaker continues, the bell is sounded every 15 seconds until he stops. 4. The chair introduces the names of the speakers and the judges. 5. The chair calls upon the 1st speaker of the proposition. 6. The 1st prop. speaker defines the motion, previews proposition arguments, delivers arguments and summarises. 7. The chair waits for a nod from the judges before introducing the 1st opposition speaker. 8. The 1st opp. speaker previews opposition arguments, deals with (or rebuts) some of the 1st prop’s arguments, delivers own arguments and summarises. 9. The chair waits for a nod from the judges before introducing 2nd prop. speaker. 10.The 2nd prop. speaker rebuts, presents own arguments and summarises.

Procedures, cont.: 10.The chair waits for a nod from the judges before introducing 2nd opp. speaker. 11.The 2nd opp. speaker rebuts, presents own arguments and summarises. 12.The chair invites speeches from the floor. Floor questions are not answered straight away by the teams, but can be referred to by the summary speakers in their summary speeches. 13.The chair introduces the opposition summary speaker (3rd speaker). 14.The opp. summary speaker summarises by referring to own case, opponents’ case and the floor debate. 15.The chair waits for a nod from the judges before introducing the proposition summary speaker. 16.The prop. summary speaker summarises by referring to own case, opponents’ case and the floor debate. 17.The judges retire to decide the winners. 18.The chair takes an audience vote, and invites more comments from the floor until the judges return. 19.The judges return and give some general feedback before announcing the winners.

Defining the motion The definition is delivered at the start of the 1st proposition speech and is very important, although it must be kept brief (about 20-30 seconds). Without a solid definition, the debate may end up going nowhere, or worse, all over the place. The definition is a way of making the point of the debate clear. Challenging the definition Definitions may only be challenged if it is unreasonable, and only by the 1st opposition speaker. He must state their reasons for the challenge and introduces their alternative interpretation. This must be accepted by the 2nd proposition speaker unless they can prove that their original definition was valid.

Debaters have to show that they can respond to the arguments of the other side. They do this in two main ways: Rebuttal It is important to address the other side’s arguments during your own speech. This is called ‘rebuttal’. The aim of rebuttal is to undermine the opposition’s case, thus leaving your case looking even stronger by comparison. All speakers (except the first proposition) are expected to rebut the other side, even if their arguments seem very convincing. Summary Speeches The aim of the summary speeches is to review the major issues of the debate and leave a lasting impression in the audience’s (and the judges’) mind that is favourable to your side. v DO sum up the major areas of difference between the 2 sides, but DON’T focus on trivial points or areas where you agreed. v DON’T just list all the arguments that came up. This won’t show up the areas of difference and is boring. v DO refer to some of the points from the floor debate, if they support your side, or if they were particularly damaging to your case. v DO make sure your summary is well structured; it’s easy to panic and zigzag

Planning your debate: Initial brainstorm v Brainstorm everything you already know about the topic. It’s also important to think about the other side’s possible arguments. v Group the thoughts into different areas, and decide which team member will do further research into each area. Research v Make sure your information is up to date and reliable. v Keep a note of where your information come from so you can refer to your exact source in your speech. Secondary brainstorm v After completing your research, brainstorm the topic again, but this time divide your arguments into pros and cons. v Note down ALL the arguments you can think of, including the weak ones. v The first arguments you come up with often provoke questions about what the motion means. These are useful in determining possible definitions.

Guidelines for Judges v Total Score: 100 points (40 points each for the 1st & 2nd speeches and 20 points for the summary). Main speeches v Reasoning & Evidence Ø Clarity and logic Ø Examples and analogies Ø Relevance to the motion Organization & Prioritisation Ø Team Structure Ø Individual Structure Ø Adaptability Ø Timing Listening & Response Ø Rebuttal (not applicable to the 1st speaker) Expression & Delivery Ø Use of notes Ø Use of voice Ø Use of words

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Summary v Reasoning & Evidence Ø Clarity and logic Ø Revisited material - did the speaker choose the most powerful examples and analogies? Ø New material – is only permitted if it elaborates or responds to material already mentioned by another speaker. A small amount of interesting relevant new material of this type can be rewarded. Totally new material should be penalised. Organization & Prioritisation Ø Choice of arguments Ø Structure Ø Adaptability Ø Timing Listening & Response Ø Rebuttal Ø Own Team Ø Floor Debate Expression & Delivery Ø Use of notes Ø Use of voice Ø Use of words Ø Use of body language

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© Slides Design: Chiew N. Pang

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