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# CIRCUIT

ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION TO
AC CIRCUITS
CHAPTER GUIDELINE
Introduction to alternating current
Characteristics of Sinusoidal Function
Phasor representation of sinusoids
Impedance and reactance
Parallel and series combinations in the frequency
domain
Ohms law and Kirchoffs law in the frequency domain
Delta-Wye Transformation

COURSE OUTCOMES (CO)
Understand the concept of ac
Identify the characteristics of ac signal & sinusoidal
functions
Understand the concept of phasor and its application
in ac circuits
Understand the concept of impedance, admittance,
reactance and susceptance
Understand the Ohms law and Kirchoffs law in ac
circuit and relate them with dc circuit
Construct an AC circuit to investigate the relation
between sinusoidal signals and phasor
PHASOR REPRESENTATION OF SINUSOIDS
Sinusoids are easily expressed in terms of phasors
A phasor is a complex number that represents the amplitude and phase
of a sinusoid.
It can be represented in one of the following three forms:
| Z = r z
| j
re z =
) sin (cos | | j r jy x z + = + =
a. Rectangular
b. Polar
c. Exponential
2 2
y x
z of magnitude r
+ =
=
x
y
z of phase the
1
tan

=
= |
where
1 = j
| cos r x =
| sin r y =
j
j
=
1
PHASOR REPRESENTATION OF SINUSOIDS
Mathematic operation of complex number:
2. Subtraction
3. Multiplication
4. Division
5. Reciprocal
6. Square root
7. Complex conjugate
8. Eulers identity
) ( ) (
2 1 2 1 2 1
y y j x x z z + + + = +
) ( ) (
2 1 2 1 2 1
y y j x x z z + =
2 1 2 1 2 1
| | + Z = r r z z
2 1
2
1
2
1
| | Z =
r
r
z
z
| Z =
r z
1 1
2 | Z = r z
|
|
j
re r jy x z
-
= Z = =
| |
|
sin cos j e
j
=

(Rectangular form)
(Rectangular form)
(Polar form)
(Polar form)
EXAMPLE
Evaluate the following complex numbers:

a.

b.

Solution:
a. 15.5 + j13.67
b. 8.293 + j2.2
] 60 5 j4) 1 j2)( [(5
o
Z + +
o
o
30 10
j4 3
40 3 j5 10
Z +
+
Z + +
PHASOR REPRESENTATION OF SINUSOIDS
Transform a sinusoid to and from the time domain to the
phasor domain:

(time domain) (phasor
domain)

) cos( ) ( | e + = t V t v
m
| Z =
m
V V
Amplitude and phase difference are two principal concerns in the
study of voltage and current sinusoids.
Phasor will be defined from the cosine function in all our proceeding
study. If a voltage or current expression is in the form of a sine, it will
be changed to a cosine by subtracting from the phase.
PHASOR REPRESENTATION OF
SINUSOIDS
Time domain
representation
Phasor domain
representation
) cos( | e + t V
m
) sin( | e + t V
m
) cos( u e + t I
m
) sin( u e + t I
m
| Z
m
V
o
m
V 90 Z|
u Z
m
I
o
m
I 90 Zu
Sinusoid-phasor transformation
EXAMPLE
Transform the following sinusoids to phasors:
i = 6cos(50t 40
o
) A
v = 4sin(30t + 50
o
) V

Solution:
a. I A
b. Since sin(A) = cos(A+90
o
);
v(t) = 4cos (30t+50
o
+90
o
) = 4cos(30t+140
o
) V
Transform to phasor => V V
Z = 40 6
Z = 140 4
EXERCISE:

Find the sinusoids corresponding to these phasors:
a.
b.
V 30 10 Z = V
A j12) j(5 = I
Solution:
a) v(t) = 10cos(et + 210
o
) V
b) Since
i(t) = 13cos(et + 22.62
o
) A
Z = Z + = + =

22.62 13 )
12
5
( tan 5 12 j5 12
1 2 2
I
PHASOR REPRESENTATION OF SINUSOIDS
The differences between v(t) and V:
v(t) is instantaneous or time-domain representation
V is the frequency or phasor-domain representation.
v(t) is time dependent, V is not.
v(t) is always real with no complex term, V is
generally complex.

Note: Phasor analysis applies only when frequency is constant; when
it is applied to two or more sinusoid signals only if they have
the same frequency.
Relationship between differential, integral operation
in phasor listed as follow:

) (t v | Z =V V
dt
dv
V je
}
vdt
e j
V
PHASOR REPRESENTATION OF SINUSOIDS
So now we know how to represent a voltage or current in the phasor or
frequency domain
But how can we apply this to circuits involving the passive elements R,
L and C?
transform the voltage-current relationship from the time domain to the
frequency domain for each element
PHASOR REPRESENTATION OF SINUSOIDS
Time
domain
Frequency
domain
Time
domain
Frequency
domain
Time
domain
Frequency
domain
Summary of voltage-current relationship
Element
Time domain Frequency domain
R

L

C
Ri v =
I R = V
dt
di
L v =
I V L je =
dt
dv
C i =
C j
C j
e
e
I
V
V I
=
=
PHASOR REPRESENTATION OF SINUSOIDS
EXAMPLE

If voltage v(t) = 12cos(60t +45
o
) is applied to a 0.1 H
inductor, calculate the current, i(t), through the inductor.
A t t i
domain time to this Converting
V
L j
o
o
o
o
) 45 60 cos( 2 ) (
,
45 2
90 6
45 12
=
Z =
Z
Z
= =
e
V
I
EXERCISE
If voltage v = 10 cos (100t+30
o
) is applied to a 50F
capacitor, calculate the current through the capacitor.
Answer: 50 cos (100t + 120
o
) mA
IMPEDANCE AND REACTANCE
The impedance Z of a circuit is the ratio of the phasor
voltage V to the phasor current I, measured in ohms .

where R = resistance
X = reactance

The admittance Y is the reciprocal of impedance,
measured in siemens (S).
jX R
I
V
Z + = =
V
I
Z
Y = =
1
Positive X is for L
Negative X is for C
R
Y
1
=
L j
Y
e
1
=
C j Y e =
Impedances and admittances of passive elements
R
L
C
R Z =
L j Z e =
C j
Z
e
1
=
IMPEDANCE AND REACTANCE
OHMSS LAW AND KIRCHOFFS LAW IN THE FREQUENCY
DOMAIN
N series connected shown in figure impedances
Applying KVL:
V = V
1
+ V
2
+ + V
N
= I(Z
1
+Z
2
++Z
N
)
similar to the series connection of resistances

If N = 2 as shown in figure below,

1 2
=
+
V
I
Z Z
1 1 2 2
, = = V Z I V Z I
1 2
1
1 2 1 2
=
+ +
2
Z Z
V V, V = V
Z Z Z Z
OHMSS LAW AND KIRCHOFFS LAW IN THE FREQUENCY
DOMAIN
N Parallel connected impedances
Voltage across each impedances is same
Applying KCL:

1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
.....
1 1 1
......
1 1 1 1
......
....
N
N
eq N
eq N
I I I I
V
Z Z Z
I
Z V Z Z Z
Y Y Y Y
= + + +
(
= + + +
(

= = + + +
= + + +
OHMSS LAW AND KIRCHOFFS LAW IN THE FREQUENCY
DOMAIN
N Parallel connected impedances
If N = 2 as shown in figure below,

1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 1 2 2
2 1
1
1 2 1 2
1 1
1/ 1/
eq
= = =
+ + +
= = =
=
+ +
eq
eq
2
Z Z 1
Z =
Y Y Y Z Z Z Z
V IZ I Z I Z
Z Z
I I, I = I
Z Z Z Z
DELTA-WYE TRANSFORMATION

The delta-to-wye and wye-to-delta transformations that we applied to
resistive circuits are also valid for impedances
1 2 2 3 3 1
1
1 2 2 3 3 1
2
1 2 2 3 3 1
3
3
a
b
Z Z Z Z Z Z
Z
Z
Z Z Z Z Z Z
Z
Z
Z Z Z Z Z Z
Z
Z
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
Y conversion: - Y conversion:
1
2
3
( )
( )
( )
b c
a b c
c a
a b c
a b
a b c
Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
EXAMPLE:Find the input impedance of the circuit shown
below. Assume that the circuit operates at =50 rad/s.
1
3
2
3
3
2 2
1 1
10
50 2 10
1 1
3 3 (3 2)
50 10 10
8 8 ( 50 0.2) (8 10)
(3 2)(8 10)
1 ( 2 || 3) 10
11 8
(44 14)(11 8)
10 10 3.22 1.07
11 8
3.22 11.07
in
Z j
j C j x x
Z j
j C j x x
Z j L j x j
j j
Zin Z Z Z j
j
j j
j j j
Z j
e
e
e

= = = O
= + = + = O
= + = + = + O
+
= + = +
+
+
= + = + O
+
= O
EXERCISE:
Determine v
o
(t) in the circuit shown below.
Tips: to do the analysis in frequency domain, we must first transform the time-
domain circuit to the phasor domain equivalent
o
(t) = 17.15 coz (4t +15.96
o
)V
SOLUTION
3
1
2
2
1 2
20cos(4 15 ) 20 15
1 1
10
4 10 10
5 4 5 20
60
25 20
25|| 20 100
25 20
100
(20 15 )
60 100
(0.8575 30.96 )(20 15 ) 17.15 15.96
( ) 17.15cos(4 15.
o o
x
o
o s
o o o
o
v t Vs V
mF
j C j x x
H j L j x j
Z
j xj
Z j j j
j j
Z j
V V
Z Z j
V
v t t
e
e

= = Z
=
= = O
= O

= = = O
+
= = Z
+ +
= Z Z = Z
= + 96 )
o
V
Calculate v
o
in the circuit shown below.
EXERCISE