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to GSM Architecture Introduction to GSM Channels
What is GSM ?
Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation .
GSM in World
Figures: March, 2005 3% 3% (INDIA) 4% 3% 3% 37% 4% Arab World Asia Pacific Africa East Central Asia Europe Russia 43% 1% India North America South America
GSM Services • Tele-services • Bearer or Data Services • Supplementary services .
Mobile telephony .Tele Services • Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones • Offered services .Emergency calling .
up to 160 character alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal • Voice mailbox . ISDN etc at rates from 300 to 9600 bps • Short Message Service (SMS) .Bearer Services • Include various data services for information transfer between GSM and other networks like PSTN.
All calls.Notification of an incoming call while on the handset • Call Hold. outgoing calls.Calls can be sent to various numbers defined by the user • Multi Party Call Conferencing .Put a caller on hold to take another call • Call Barring. or incoming calls • Call Forwarding.Supplementary Services Call related services : • Call Waiting.Link multiple calls together .
GSM System Architecture .
GSM System Architecture-I Mobile Station (MS) Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC) Network Switching Subsystem(NSS) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Authentication Center (AUC) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) .
System Architecture Mobile Station (MS) The Mobile Station is made up of two entities: 1. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) . Mobile Equipment (ME) 2.
vehicle mounted. .8W – 20 W 160 character long SMS. hand held device Uniquely identified by an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) Voice and data transmission Monitoring power and signal quality of surrounding cells for optimum handover Power level : 0.Mobile Equipment Portable.
Subscriber Identity Module(SIM) Smart card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Allows user to send and receive calls and receive other subscribed services Protected by a password or PIN Can be moved from phone to phone – contains key information to activate the phone .
2. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC) .System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts that communicate across the standardized Abis interface allowing operation between components made by different suppliers 1.
Base Transceiver Station (BTS): Encodes. multiplexes. encrypts. modulates and feeds the RF signals to the antenna. Communicates with Mobile station and BSC Consists of Transceivers (TRX) units .
Base Station Controller (BSC) Manages Radio resources for BTS Assigns Frequency and time slots for all MS’s in its area Handles call set up Handover for each MS It communicates with MSC and BTS .
Inter BSS and inter MSC call handoff .Location Updating .Registration .Mobile Switching Center (MSC) • • • • Heart of the network Manages communication between GSM and other networks Billing information and collection Mobility management .
As soon as mobile subscriber leaves its current local area. roaming restrictions. database contains IMSI. supplementary services.Home Location Registers (HLR) Stores information about each subscriber that belongs to it MSC in permanent and temporary fashion. . prepaid/ postpaid. the information in the HLR is updated. MSISDN.
MSISDN. by HLR database Assigns a TMSI to each MS entering the VLR area which keeps on changing.Visitor Location Registers (VLR) Temporary database which updates whenever new MS enters its area. Controls those mobiles roaming in its area Database contains IMSI. authentication key . Location Area.
Authentication Center (AUC) Contains the algorithms for authentication as well as the keys for encryption. . Situated in special protected part of the HLR. Protects network operators from fraud.
unauthorised or defective mobile devices .Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Stores all devices identifications registered for this network. Database that is used to track handsets using the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) Prevents calls from stolen.
storage of system software and data .Operation and maintenance centre (OMC) The centralized operation of the various units in the system and functions needed to maintain the subsystems.performance supervision/management .fault report and alarm handling . Dynamic monitoring and controlling of the network.configuration management . Functions : .
1800 MHz frequency band. Low speed data services (upto 9. Full international roaming capability.6 Kb/s). Compatibility with ISDN. . User/terminal authentication for fraud control. Support of Short Message Service (SMS).Characteristics of GSM Standard Fully digital system using 900.
8 Kbps (9.6 Kbps (data rate) 2.115.2 Kbps (max) • 3 Generation WCDMA(Wide band CDMA) Data rate : 0.348 – 2.0 Mbps .Future Of GSM • 2nd Generation GSM -9.4 .6 x 8 kbps) GPRS (General Packet Radio service) Data rate: 14.5 Generation ( Future of GSM) HSCSD (High Speed ckt Switched data) • Data rate : 76.2 Kbps EDGE (Enhanced data rate for GSM Evolution) Data rate: 547.
network UE: User equipment .High level network architecture (1/2) Services / Applications Access Network (AN) SIM ME: Mobile equipment Core Network (CN) Ext.
handles all switching and routing Services and applications lie above the network .High level network architecture (2/2) The network contains functionally of: User Equipment (UE). handles radio functionality Access network: Communication to and from the user equipment. and Core Network (CN) User equipment: Interfaces the user. handles all radio related functionality in the network Core network: Communication between access network and external networks. Access Network (AN).
1885 MHz: Uplink 1805 .1880 MHz: Downlink Carrier bandwidth: Channels / carrier: Multiple access: Duplex: Gross bit rate pr carrier: Modulation: Spectrum efficiency: 200 kHz 8 TDMA / FDMA FDD 270.35 bps/Hz .960 MHz: Downlink (MS receive) 1710 . Frequency bands: GSM radio interface – Main characteristics GSM 900: GSM 1800: 890 – 915 MHz: Uplink (MS transmit) 935 .833 kbit/s GMSK 1.
output power: 43 dBm Numbers in parenthesis for GSM-1800 . output power: 33 (30) dBm BTS: Sensitivity: -104 (-104) dBm Typical: – 107 dBm Max.Radio parameters: MS: Sensitivity: -104 (-102) dBm Typical – 106 dBm Max.
Channels in GSM900 45 MHz 8 8 7 7 6 6 45 45 23 23 4 1 1 4 123 124 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 123124 200 kHz 890 MHz MS transmit 915 MHz 935 MHz MS receive 960 MHz .
time frame 8 slots per frame .principle GSM uses TDMA within each carrier Each user occupies the entire carrier one time slot pr.TDMA .
GSM Channel structure 25 MHz 124 carriers Burst period Time slot 1 Time slot 2 …..615 ms Time slot 8 . Logical channels built up of physical channels 577 s =Physical channel Control channels Traffic channels Logical channels divided between: Dedicated channels Common channels TDMA frame = 4.
6 ms 3 57 Data bit 1 26 Training sequence 1 57 3 8.25 Data bit Normal burst Traffic channels (TCH) are used to carry voice or data Typically uses one time slot per frame Gross data rate per TCH: 22 kbps Effective data rate lower because of forward error correction .GSM traffic channels 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 frame length: 120 ms BP0 BP1 BP2 BP3 BP4 BP5 BP6 BP7 TDMA frame length: 4.
frequency etc. Contains information about cell identity. Frequency Correction CHannel / Synchronisation CHannel – Used to correct/synchronise the frequency (FCCH) + time synchronise to the frame structure. This is a slotted Aloha channel. no pre-allocation possible Access Grant CHannel – Used by the network to inform the mobile that access has been granted and information about which channel to use Paging CHannel – Used by the network to notify users about incoming calls. .Some GSM control channels BCCH FCCH SCH RACH AGCH PCH Broadcast Control CHannel – Continuously transmitted from the BTS. Each cell has a FCCH and a SCH Random Access CHannel – Used by the mobile to send a request to the network for access.
GSM Channels Traffic Channels (TCH) Control Channels (CCH) Common Control Channels (CCCH) Paging Channel (PCH): Used by the BTS to inform the MS about an incoming call. Shared by all MS in cell. . Access Grant Channel (AGCH): Used to indicate the slot assignment. Broadcast channel. Random Access Channel (RACH): Used by the MS for call establishment. Slotted-ALOHA random access.
to maintain the link. Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH): Two-way channel assigned to a TCH or SDCCH. such as signal power. Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) : Two-way channel used to support fast transitions when SACCH is not adequate. About 2Kbps per MS.GSM Channels Control Channels (CCH) Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH): Used to control individual MS Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) : Two-way channel assigned to each MS for keeping track of movement and call establishment. Used to report parameters. Certain slots periodically. . FACCH steals the TCH.
… Can also be used to keep track of signal strength for handoff .GSM Channels Control Channels (CCH) Broadcast Channels (BCH). available services. Used to broadcast information to the MSs in the cell Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH) and Synchronization Channel (SCH): Keep the MS synchronized Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH): provides information such as cell ID.
The MSC connects to the PSTN and allocates the voice communication channel between the BSS. 7. The MSC informs the PTSN about the call release and the PTSN will inform the call has been released on its end. User presses the “end” button. including the frequency and time slot. User enters the phone number and presses the “send” button. 4. To set up the phone call. The MSC releases the voice channel with the BSS. Make the conversation. and broadcast it in the AGCH. 3. The BSS just forwards the message. MSC informs the MS then releases the TCH. . The BSS allocates a Traffic Channel (TCH). It also contains information about time and frequency corrections. 5. The MS applies the corrections and tune to the assigned TCH.GSM Call Flow (Simplified) When the MS wishes to make a phone call 1. 2. MSC checks whether the MS is authenticated. 6. At this step the connection has been set up between the MS and MSC. The MS sends a connection set up request to the MSC with the called phone number. the MS needs to send information to the MSC. The BSS enables ciphering with the phone. 9. The MS sends “Radio Resource Channel Request” to the associated BSS on the Random Access Channel (RACH) according to ALOHA The phone then waits to hear from the BSS at the Access Grant Channel (AGCH). 8.
GSM: indirect routing to mobile HLR 2 home MSC consults HLR. gets roaming number of mobile in visited network home network home Mobile Switching Center correspondent 1 3 VLR Mobile Switching Center Public switched telephone network call routed to home network 4 mobile user visited network 39 home MSC sets up 2nd leg of call to MSC in visited network MSC in visited network completes call through base station to mobile .
GSM: handoff with common MSC VLR Mobile Switching Center new routing new BSS Handoff goal: route call via new base station (without interruption) reasons for handoff: old routing old BSS stronger signal to/from new BSS (continuing connectivity. only how (mechanism) handoff initiated by old BSS 40 . less battery drain) load balance: free up channel in current BSS GSM doesn’t mandate why to perform handoff (policy).
new BSS signals MSC. old BSS tells mobile: perform handoff to new BSS 6. old BSS: ready 5. provides list of 1+ new BSSs 2. mobile signals via new BSS to MSC: handoff complete. MSC reroutes call 8 MSC-old-BSS resources released VLR Mobile Switching Center 2 1 8 old BSS 4 7 3 6 new BSS 5 41 . old BSS informs MSC of impending handoff. MSC sets up path (allocates resources) to new BSS 3. new BSS allocates radio channel for use by mobile 4.GSM: handoff with common MSC 1. mobile. new BSS signal to activate new channel 7.
it knows which SGSN to forward to. Maintains routing information related to the MS.General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) General Packet Radio Service Supports data service. such that given an IP packet. Gateway GRPS Supporting Node (GGSN): interface to the Internet. . Send and receive packets from the MS. Use the same physical link between the network and the MS An MS maybe assigned with 1 or multiple time slots in a channel The number of time slot in uplink and downlink may be different Special network infrastructure added to support data traffic Serving GRPS Supporting Node (SGSN): a router serves a group of BSCs.
determined by the GSM slot. Packets are constant length. dynamic TDMA for data transmission .GRPS Multiple Access Users are assigned frequency channels and time slots. Downlink: first come first served Uplink: Slotted ALOHA for reserving.
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