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5 Major RAN Complaint Heads
• Coverage Outdoor / Indoor
• Distortion • Call Drop • GPRS / EDGE
CONGESTION / COVERAGE / DISTORTION ANALYSIS & ACTIONS
CONGESTION Introduction and Analysis .
Unit of Traffic is Earlings.Introduction to Traffic Traffic is total number of incoming and outgoing CS or PS calls per unit time. .
Congestion • When Traffic increase more than what number of resources can support then it is called congestion. • Congestion can be Temporary and Permanent both have different scope of analysis and solution. • Temporary Congestion is sometimes called Soft Congestion • Permanent Congestion is sometimes called Hard Congestion .
• Soft congestion is temporary so there is no need to perform any expansion or parametric change as it will die down. . • Any emergency situation. outage or any unforeseen circumstances causes congestion that is called soft congestion. fluctuations.Soft Congestion • Sudden increase in traffic due to some unseen incident. political marches can cause extra load on our network and cause soft congestion. hardware failure. match.
Soft Congestion .
• All decisions regarding Hard Congestion is taken upon Busy Hour Trend of at least 7 days.Hard Congestion • When increase in Traffic becomes permanent and our existing network is not able to support the Traffic then it is called Hard Congestion. • Hard Congestion can be catered through Network Expansion and Capacity Sites Induction. .
Hard Congestion .
However we have limited number of resources so sometimes we face SDCCH congestion. .SDCCH & TCH Blocking • As we already know SDCCH Channel is responsible for • • • • preliminary signaling. SMS in idle mode are also delivered on SDCCH channel. SDCCH blocking can be catered either by adding static or dynamic SDCCH or through other methods. Because of SDCCH congestion TCH cannot be allocated and blocking occurs.
SDCCH Blocking .
• Apart from Hard Blocking none other types are in domain of RAN. . TCH blocking is actually called CALL BLOCK. Soft Blocking and Low TCH availability. • TCH Blocking can be from variety of reasons such as Hard Blocking.TCH Blocking • TCH Blocking is different from SDCCH Blocking.
• Step 2 • Identification of the problem. • Step 3 • Suggest appropriate action.Statistical Analysis • Step 1 • Extraction of stats from INSPUR. .
For this we need a new capacity site.Network Limitations • In Hard Congestion we can propose network expansion but we have limitations such as on one cell only S_444 configuration is currently being used. • On half rate. one TRx can carry 9E traffic at most theoretically. . This means one cell is able to carry 36E of traffic at Half rate during BH. • If a cell is carrying more than 36E traffic during BH and has congestion trend (more than 2%) for at least 1 week than expansion is not possible.
Capacity Sites • Capacity sites are planned especially for congestion. • The criteria of capacity site is that site is at maximum configuration. • When no further Hardware Expansion can be performed than we plan new site called Capacity Sites .
Case Studies Case A Customer is facing Congestion from yesterday. Case B Customer is facing Congestion from last one week Case C Customer is facing congestion from last one year Case D Customer is facing congestion indoor but not outdoor Case E Customer is facing congestion indoor but only in some parts of house .
COVERAGE INDOOR / OUTDOOR Introduction and Analysis .
Radiation Pattern • Radiation Pattern is the pattern of Antenna’s Radiations • Horn Antennas have directional Radiation Pattern and High Antenna Gain • Gain of Horn Antenna often increases and Beam Width decreases as the frequency of operation increases • GSM Antennas are Horn Antennas .
Radiation Pattern of Horn Antenna .
Theoretical Pattern .
• Slow Fading Slow fading is the result of shadowing by buildings. Fast fading occurs when the coherence time of the channel TD is smaller than the symbol period of the transmitted signal Fast Fading is due to reflections of local objects and the motion of the objects relative to those objects. and other objects. . Slow fading arises when the coherence time of the channel is large relative to the delay constraint of the channel The average within individual small areas also varies from one small area to the next in an apparently random manner . mountains.Types of Fading • Fast Fading Fast fading occurs if the channel impulse response changes rapidly within the symbol duration. hills.
Fast Fading (Short-term fading) Slow Fading (Long-term fading) Signal Strength (dB) Path Loss Distance .
Two independent fading issues .
Doppler Effect • When a wave source and a receiver are moving towards each other. the frequency of the received signal will not be the same as the source. the frequency of the received signal is higher than the source. • When they are moving toward each other. the frequency decreases. fD is the Doppler frequency. . is the wavelength of carrier. the frequency of the received signal is f R fC f D where fC is the frequency of source carrier. Thus. • Doppler Shift in frequency: fD v MS cos Signal Moving speed v θ where v is the moving speed. • When they are opposing each other.
.Null Zone • The area between two main lobes where EM field intensity is negligible due to slow fading is called null zone.
that is. short-term averages to remove fluctuations due to multipath fading. These fluctuations are experienced on local-mean powers.Shadowing • Shadowing is the effect that the received signal power fluctuates due to objects obstructing the propagation path between transmitter and receiver. .
.Tunnel effect • The ability of a particle to pass through a region of finite extent in which the particle's potential energy is greater than its total energy. Also known as tunneling. this is a quantum-mechanical phenomenon which would be impossible according to classical mechanics.
CASE D Customer is far away from operational site. . CASE B Customer is in guaranteed coverage area but has weak outdoor coverage.Case Study CASE A Customer is in service area but has indoor coverage issue. CASE C Customer has no service outdoor.
image.Distortion A distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of an object. waveform or other form of signal . sound.
DISTORTION Introduction and Analysis .
GSM RF power adjustments occur in 2 dB steps. .Power Control RF power control is a process of adjusting the power level of a mobile radio as it moves closer and further away from a base station. RF power control is typically accomplished by the sensing of the received signal strength level and the relaying of power control messages from a transmitter to the mobile device with commands that are used to increase or decrease the mobile device's output power level.
. • Distortion can also occur due to low battery of mobile station because with low battery mobile may or may not transmit at full power as required.Power Control & Distortion • Distortion may occur due to power control as we have limited band so if mobile or BTS transmits at full power it may become interferer for some other cell.
.Case Study CASE A Customer located near a frequency jammer. CASE B Customer is located in congested area. CASE C Customer’s mobile battery is unstable.
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