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FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE CONTROL

P2M FTUI September 2008

load control under part-load conditions. In addition. temperature control under maximum capability conditions or during startup conditions.INTRODUCTION  Control System is designed to fulfill all gas turbine control requirements. gas or both fuels in accordance with the requirements of the speed. basic system. These include control of liquid. inlet guide vanes and water or steam injection are controlled to meet emissions and operating requirements. .

fuel staging and combustion mode are controlled by the system. shutdown and cool down are also handled by the Control System. which also monitors the process. Turbine protection against adverse operating situations and annunciation of abnormal conditions are incorporated into the .INTRODUCTION  If emissions control uses Dry Low NOx techniques. Sequencing of the auxiliaries to allow fully automated startup.

INSTRUMENTATION    VIBRATION MEASUREMENT PRESSURE MEASUREMENT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT .

vertical c. vertical b. axial 2.At machine inlet bearing case.At machine inlet bearing case.Pressure at compressor and turbine discharge .Pressure drop across filter b. Process pressure a.Pressure at compressor and turbine inlet c.Typical Instrumentation (MinimumRequirements) 1.At the machine discharge bearing case. Accelerometer a.

Temperature at compressor and turbine discharge 4. Process temperature a.Temperature at compressor and turbine inlet b.Machine speed of all shafts 5.Thermocouples or resistance temperature elements embedded in front and rear thrustbearing . Thrust-bearing temperature a.Typical Instrumentation (MinimumRequirements 3. Machine speed a.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT  Machine vibration is monitored using:  Displacement probes  Velocity pickup detectors  Accelerometers (measurement of acceleration) .

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT  Pressure transducers to be used the locations of pressure and temperature probes in a typical gas turbine .

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  Temperature detectors such as  thermocouples (used for high-temperature measurement)  resistive thermal detectors (RTDs) .

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT    Turbine exhaust temperature Redundant RTDs are embedded in the babbitt (white metal) of the bearing to monitor the oil temperature in the bearings The compressor inlet and discharge temperatures are measured to evaluate the compressor performance .

Thermocouples  Thermocouples provide transducers used for measuring temperatures from 330 to 5000°F ( 201 to 2760°C).3 shows the useful range of each type of thermocouples. Thermocouples measure this voltage to deter-mine the temperature difference. The temperature at one of the junctions is known. Thus. Since they produce a voltage. the temperature at the other junction can be determined. there is no need for an external power supply . They operate by producing a voltage proportional to the temperature difference between two junctions of dissimilar metals. Figure 17.

Platinum is normally used in RTDs due to its mechanical and electrical stability. The RTD requires an electrical current source to operate.02°F (± 0.Resistive Thermal Detectors  Resistive thermal detectors (RTDs) determine the temperature by measuring the change in resistance of an element due to a change in temperature. Its accuracy is within ±0. Platinum RTDs are used for measuring temperatures from 454 to 1832°F ( 270 to 1000°C).01°C) .

andprotection against unsafe and adverse operatingconditions. monitoring ofall turbine. control and auxiliary functions. .CONTROL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS  Gas Turbine Control System performs many functions including fuel. sequencing of turbinefuel and auxiliaries for startup. shutdown and cooldown.air and emissions control. synchronization and voltage matching of the generator and system.

CONTROL SYSTEM  The control system of a gas turbine performs the following functions  Provides speed and temperature control in the machine  Control the unit during normal operation  Provide protection to the gas turbine  Perform start-up and shutdown sequence of events .

This measured value of the speed is then com-pared to the desired value of the speed (speed set point). . The transducers provide an output in the form of AC voltage having a frequency proportional to the rotational speed of the shaft. If there is an error. The difference between these two values is called the error.Speed Control  Magnetic transducers measure the speed of the shaft at a toothed wheel mounted on the shaft. the control system will adjust the opening of the fuel valve to eliminate it. A frequency-to-voltage converter is used to provide a voltage proportional to the speed. It relies on a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm(mathematical expression) to eliminate the error within minimal time and without instabilities (oscillations in the speed).

If the temperature error is different from zero. The redundancy improves the reliability of the control system. They are normally made from iron-constantan or chromel-alumel fully enclosed in magnesium oxide sheaths to prevent erosion.Temperature Control  A series of thermocouples mounted around the periphery at the exhaust of the turbine pro-vides an input to the control system. the control system will adjust the opening of the fuel valve to eliminate it. The output of the thermocouples is generally averaged. Two thermocouples are frequently mounted for each combustion can. The control system compares this measured value of the turbine exhaust temperature with the desired value of set point. It relies also on PID algorithm to eliminate the error within minimal time and without instabilities. The difference between these values is called the temperature error. .

Protective Systems  The protective systems provide protection during the following events:  Overspeed  Overtemperature  Vibration  Loss of flame  Loss of lubrication .

.START-UP SEQUENCE  The gas turbine control system performs the start-up sequence. accelerate it to operating speed. The control system is designed to start the unit remotely. and increase the load to the desired setting. and the turbine rotor temperature does not increase too rapidly or overheat during start-up. synchronize it automatically with the grid. It consists of ensuring that all subsystems of the gas turbine perform satisfactorily.

The functions available on the operator inter-face as follows . keyboard and printer.OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE  The operator interface is comprised of a VGA color graphics monitor (or LCD).