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Prepared by : MD. NAVID BIN ANWAR M. Number: 314848 Supervisor: Xuan Anh Nghiem
Prof. Dr. sc. techn. Renato Negra

Assistant Professor, Mixed-Signal CMOS circuits

* The
reflectometer is a measurement device that is mainly used in high-frequency electronics. It allows one to measure the amplitude ratio or the phase difference of two electromagnetic waves or both of them. The most frequent use of this device is for measuring the so-called complex reflection coefficient of a device under test (DUT), which is the ratio of the wave reflected by the DUT to the wave incident to the DUT.

Six-Port Reflectometer Over Four-Port Network Analyzers
* Simple structure * Requirement for fewer components * Measure only the amplitude (or power) of

* Waveguide 6-ports * 18–26.5 GHz (WR-42)3 * 26.5–40 GHz (WR-28) * 40–50 GHz (WR-22) * 50–75 GHz (WR-15) * 75–110 GHz (WR-10)

* A. WR-15 Reflectometer: (V-band (50–75 GHz))
The six-port module, shown in Fig. 1, consists of a section of WR-15 waveguide and three probe channels that accommodate microstrip waveguide probes with integrated zero-bias Schottky diode detectors. Note that because only three detectors are utilized, the reflectometer is actually a five ports (which can be considered a simplified version of the sixport). Provided the device to be measured is known apriori to be passive, only three detectors are required to uniquely determine its reflection coefficient. The fourth detector may be used to enhance measurement accuracy, but strictly is not required. Bias protection circuits are included in the detector output to reduce the likelihood of damage to the zero-bias Schottky diodes through electrostatic discharge.

* To
obtain the reflection coefficient for various DUT’s from the power detection readings, calibration is necessary.

* Method:
A common and straightforward calibration method is Engen’s sliding termination method.

* Calibration Steps:
1. The first step effectively converts the sixport reflectometer to an equivalent four-port reflectometer and is used to determine the complex ratio b /b from the set of power measurements.
3 4

2. A flush short, two sliding short positions
(treated as delay shorts), and a matched load are used

Body Scanning by Reflectometer
* Image Focusing
By means of a lens or by an extended aperture. The beamwidth of an aperture antenna is related to its size and the frequency which usually leads to huge apertures. A drawback is the “field of view” which is only big enough to fit onto a person several meters away from the sensor and only in the farfield a sharp beam is generated.

Body Scanning by Reflectometer
* On the other hand, Lens antennas or focal plane systems
can be small but have to be scanned or ordered in big arrays to scan a full person in the time demanded.

* Frequency Spectrum
Due to the skin effect the electromagnetic waves of the MMW range do not penetrate deeply into the human body, which consists of tissue of some conductivity. The penetration depth is in the order of magnitude of millimeters or less. This is supported by measurements of the complex permittivity ǫr of human skin. From calculating the respective reflection coefficients in case of perpendicular incident waves it is expected that skin behaves like a fairly good reflector.

Body Scanning by Reflectometer
* The reflectivity and absorption of frequency of
some common materials was measured using a 94 GHz reflectometer and are given in Table below

Body Scanning by Reflectometer

Fig: Block Diagram of Body Scanning system by reflectometer

Body Scanning by Reflectometer
* For
the body scanning purpose a wide bandwidth active MMW lens focused reflectometer system can be used in order to obtain first characteristic images.

Body Scanning by Reflectometer
* The MMW systems are based on a real-time mechanical
scanning architecture. They can image hidden objects and are an alternative for security applications.

Imaging System
* The
MMW image recovers the objects beneath the clothes very well. The image also shows a major disadvantage of perpendicular illumination. Parts of the body, which are directed perpendicular with respect to the incident field lead to spots of high reflectivity which overlay the received signal from the objects and clutter the image. The specular reflections are highly dependent on the TX–DUT–RX geometry and change rapidly as this geometry varies. To overcome that problem it is advisable to sense the DUT from many viewing angles.



Fig: Optic Image

Fig: MMW Imagein time domain, scanned area 35 cm×40 cm

* For
personnel security screening purposes are still not fully developed and remain a task for future research programs. MMW systems can provide an acceptable image quality and frame rate but cannot detect certain materials unambiguously due to the fact that materials do not show any specific signatures below approx. 500GHz. Nevertheless anomalies on the human body can be resolved very good.

* [1] G.N. Sinclair, R.N. Anderton, and R. Appleby. Outdoor
passive millimetre wave security screening. IEEE 35th International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, pages 172–179, 16-19 October 2001. * [2] R. Doyle, B. Lyons, J. Walshe, P. Curtin, A. H. Lettington, T. McEnroe, and J. McNaboe. Low cost millimetre wave camera imaging up to 140GHz. In 34th European Microwave Conference - Amsterdam, page 2004. * [3] G.F. Engen, and R.W. Beatty, “Microwave reflectometer techniques,” * in IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., pp. 351-355, July 1959. * [4] G.F. Engen, “The six-port reflectomter: an alternative network analyzer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 25, no. 12, pp.1075-1080, Dec. 1977

Thank You!