Movement of Water

•Takes place on three levels:
From soil into cells •From cells into tissues (apoplast and symplast •From xylem up the stems (bulk flow)

Movement of Water at the Tissue/Organ Level
• From Cell to Cell, Through the Root to the Stem • Apoplast • Symplast

Water Absorption by Roots
• Surface is increased by: – Root hairs – Mycorrhizae - 90% of terrestrial plants • Fungus attached to roots
– Hyphae form a mycelium – Hyphae grow into the root , between plant’s cells

Most plants form mutually beneficial relationships with fungi, which facilitate the absorption of water and minerals from the soil Roots and fungi form mycorrhizae, symbiotic structures consisting of plant roots united with fungal hyphae
Once soil solution enters the roots The extensive surface area of cortical cell membranes enhances uptake of water and selected minerals

2.5 mm

Water Movement Through Tissues
• Symplast – pathway through the cytosol of adjacent cells via plasmodesmata • Apoplast – water movement through the cell walls • Transmembrane - slow

Apoplast Symplast • Materials flowing along the apoplastic route are blocked by the waxy (suberin) Casparian strip at the endoderm • Must enter endodermal cells to move into the xylem • Enables endodermal cells to extract (active transport) minerals from soil .

pump H+ into the vacuole • Other active transport moves soil minerals into the vacuole (K+) • Makes the cytosol hyposmotic (increases Ψs ) .Symplast Pathway • Central vacuole – stores water/minerals – Tonoplast .membrane • Proton pumps in the tonoplast.

Apoplastic route Symplastic route (b) Transport routes between cells.8b . Substances may transfer from one route to another. At the tissue level. symplastic. Apoplast Symplast The apoplast is the continuum of cell walls and extracellular spaces. there are three passages: the transmembrane. and apoplastic routes. Figure 36.Key Symplast Apoplast Transmembrane route The symplast is the continuum of cytosol connected by plasmodesmata.

Only minerals already in the symplast or entering that pathway by crossing the plasma membrane of an endodermal cell can detour around the Casparian strip and pass into the vascular cylinder. The xylem vessels transport the water and minerals upward into the shoot system.Casparian strip Endodermal cell Pathway along apoplast Pathway through symplast 1 Uptake of soil solution by the hydrophilic walls of root hairs provides access to the apoplast. As soil solution moves along the apoplast. a belt of waxy material (purple band) that blocks the passage of water and dissolved minerals.9 Within the transverse and radial walls of each endodermal cell is the Casparian strip. 2 3 1 Plasma membrane Apoplastic route Vessels (xylem) Root hair Epidermis Cortex Endodermis Vascular cylinder vascular cylinder discharge water and minerals into their walls (apoplast). Casparian strip 2 Minerals and water that cross the plasma membranes of root hairs enter the symplast. some water and minerals are transported into the protoplasts of cells of the epidermis and cortex and then move inward via the symplast. Water and minerals can then soak into the cortex along this matrix of walls. 5 Endodermal cells and also parenchyma cells within the . Symplastic route 4 Figure 36.

Long Distance Transport Bulk Flow Movement of Materials From Source to Sink Roots to Leaves Leaves to Roots .

and the excess ‘leaks’ out • Root pressure sometimes results in guttation. More water enters the leaves than is transpired. (the exudation of water droplets on tips of grass blades or the leaf margins of some small. and the excess is forced out of the leaf.exudation of water droplets on the tips of leaf margins – More water enters leaves than is transpired. This root pressure can be demonstrated by cutting the stem of the plant in pot due to the root pressure in the root the water oozes out of the stem and can be measured by inserting a rubber tube with capillary tube with coloured solution and a drop of oil ( to avoid the evaporation ) due to the root pressure the coloured solution rises up this shows root pressure is present water pressure that pushes water up the xylem (positive pressure) – Root cells pump (active transport) mineral ions into the xylem at night – Lowers water potential in the root • • Guttation . .Root Pressure • Root pressure – The Hydrostastic pressure created between the roots • is known as root pressure. herbaceous dicots in the morning).

Composition of Xylem sap: It is dilute aqueous solution with pH 5 It has organic acids.endodermis.then to mesophyll cells of the leaf. the xylem vessels and tracheids. enter root cortex. and amides It has plant hormones like abscisic acid and cytokinins Xylem sap Mesophyll cells Stoma Water molecule Atmosphere Xylem cells Water potential gradient Adhesion Cell wall Transpiration • • • • • Cohesion and adhesion in the xylem Cohesion.Ascent of Sap • The water that enters the root cells is a solution of numerous and different types of soil inorganic salts and this aqueous cellular solution is called Sap Ascent of sap is the upward movement of the sap from the roots to the leaves and growing points o apical meristems and other aerial plant parts Water absorbed by root hairs. by hydrogen bonding Water molecule Root hair Soil particle Water uptake from soil Water . amino acids.

Mechanism of Ascent of Sap • Plants lose an enormous amount of water through transpiration and the transpired water must be replaced by water transported up from the roots • Xylem sap rises to heights of more than 100 m in the tallest plants .

The heat energy to convert liquid water into vapour is provided by solar energy of sunlight • Types of Transpiration: • A) Foliar or stomatal : Lossof water from tiny pores in leaf called stomata • B) Lenticular : The loss of water from lenticels which is present in stem • C) Cuticular : The loss of water from cork of cuticle (where cuticle impermeable membrane) .Transpiration • Transpiration is the evaporate loss of water by plants • Defination: Loss of water in the vapour form from any part of the plant body.

Water is drawn up the xylem in the stem by three factors: • Root pressure • Capillary action • Transpiration pull .

It is a result of loss of water vapour from the leaves (transpiration). • Capillary action plays a part in upward movement of water in small plants.• Root pressure refers to the forces that draws water up to the xylem vessels by osmosis and active transport. • Transpiration pull refers to the strongest force that causes water to rise up to the leaves of tall trees. .

Transpiration Pull Theory • Water is moved up from the roots of the plants. up the stem and out the leaves by the Transpiration-Pull Theory (Cohesion-Tension pull theory). It’s attraction to chemicals of different types The surface tension of water • 1) • 2) 3) . This theory is applied from small herbs to tall trees The theory is based on the three key properties of water: Cohesion: the ability of water molecules to stick together Molecules of water have tremendous force of attraction to one another Adhesion: the ability of water molecules to stick to the sides of hollow tubes.Proposed by Dixon and Joly 1895.

•Plants have continuous xylem vessels extending from roots to the top of the plants •One end of xylem tube is connected with root hair via. These xylem vessels are completely filled with water •The water is filled in xylem due to cohesion and adhesion forces of water .so water is drawn from the xylem vessels into mesophyll cells •In other words transpiration develops transpiration pull on water column .The water column cannot be broken or pulled away from xylem walls because of cohesion and adhesion •Transpiration results in loss of water from mesophyll cells hence osmotic pressure increased so water potential becomes negative •Xylem vessels of leaves have high water potential . endodermis and cortex and other end is connected with sub stomatal cavity via mesophyll cells .

they swell up and dorsal wall of guard cells stretch apart and leads to opening of ventral walls •This enables water vapors generated in mesophyll cells to come out in atmosphere • During Night time • Glucose again converted into starch and water •Turgor pressure of guard cells decreases since they loose water to neighboring cells •Hence the ventral walls comes one another .stomata closes .Experiment to demonstrate the existence of transpiration pull Mechanism of Transpiration : • Mesophyll are arranged loosely with intracellular spaces and mesophyll loose water continuously and cell becomes wet and intracellular space is filled with water and squeezes out through stomata • During Day time: •starch (insoluble in water) is converted into glucose •The guard cells are turgid .

14 .Stomata help regulate the rate of transpiration • Loss of water vapour in transpiration .exchange of oxygen and carbon di oxide in the leaf also occurs through pores called stomata • Stomata open in the day time and closes in night time this leads to change in the turgidity in the guard cells • About 90% of the water a plant loses – Escapes through stomata 20 µm Figure 36.

15a .Cells turgid/StomaCells open flaccid/Stoma closed Radially oriented cellulose microfibrils Cell wall Vacuole Guard cell Figure 36.

Factors affecting rate of transpiration: a) Humidity of the air b) Temperature of the air c) Strong wind d) Light .

• Active transport requires energy.Mineral Ion Uptake • Roots uptake mineral ions through a process called active transport. • The endodermal cells have many transport proteins embedded in their plasma membrane . In the form of ATP • Energy comes from the high number of mitochondria found in the root hair cells. • Minerals are present in the soil as charged particles ( ions) which cannot move across cell membranes • The concentration of minerals in the soil is usually lower than the concentration of minerals in the root • Ions are absorbed from the soil both passive and active transport.

such as mature leaves – A sugar sink is an organ that is a net consumer or storage of sugar. hormones .pH also contains amino acids.5 – 90% is the disaccharide sugars (cane sugar C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁) .vitamins .inorganic substance like potassium ions – Travels from a sugar source to a sugar sink – A sugar source is a plant organ that is a net producer of sugar. such as a tuber or bulb .2-8.Phloem Transport : Flow from source to Sink • Organic nutrients are translocated through the phloem (translocation is the transport of organic nutrients in the plant) • Phloem sap – Is an aqueous solution that is mostly sucrose – Phloem sap has 15-30% of dissolved solutes .

such as a tuber or bulb Mesophyll cell Companion Sieve-tube (transfer) cell member Cell walls (apoplast) Plasma membrane Plasmodesmata • Sugar must be loaded into sieve-tube members before being exposed to sinks • In many plant species.Phloem parenchyma cell sheath cell .17a Mesophyll cell Bundle. sugar moves by symplastic and apoplastic pathways Figure 36. • A sugar sink – Is an organ that is a net consumer or storer of sugar. sucrose exits the symplast (red arrow) near sieve tubes and is actively accumulated from the apoplast by sieve-tube (a) members and their companion cells. such as mature leaves Sucrose manufactured in mesophyll cells can travel via the symplast (blue arrows) to sieve-tube members.• A sugar source – Is a plant organ that is a net producer of sugar. In some species.

Glucose is changed into the disaccharide sucrose in order to be transported in the plant. The pressure flow or Mass Flow Hypothesis Glucose is created at the leaf (The Source) during photosynthesis. 3. 2. 5. some water moves in from the xylem to try and balance out the concentration. This creates a high amount of pressure in the phloem near the source.1. This sucrose is actively transported (uses energy) into the phloem cells in the leaf. There is a high concentration of sugar (sucrose) in the phloem at the source. 4. . Because there is so much sugar in the phloem.

7. Meanwhile sugar is being actively transported into the root or any other storage area in the plant (The Sink). Sinks have lots of sugar (usually joined together to form starch). . The phloem cells around a sink have low amounts of sugar and therefore water will leave them and cause them to have a low amount of pressure 6.6.

Due to the difference in pressure in the phloem cells at the Source and the Sink. sugar will be forced down the phloem along this pressure gradient .

seedless cucmber .Mineral Nutrition • In 1860.Julius Von Sachs. • This technique of growing plants in a nutrient solution is known as Hydroponics • Hydroponics has been successful employed as technique for tomato . demonstrated that plants can be grown to maturity in a defined nutrient solution in complete absence of soil .


. • Absence of any one of the element could prevent plants from completing its normal life cycle or some essential plant constituent or metabolite will not be manufactured. micronutrient are less than 10 mmole per kilogram of dry weight. these 17 elements are classified as macronutrients and micronutrients (trace elements). • According to the relative concentrations found in tissue (or the relative concentrations required in nutrient solution).• Essential nutrient elements • There are 17 essential elements in plants. Macronutrients are more than 10 mmole per kilogram of dry weight.

zinc. hydrogen. copper. potassium. magnesium. oxygen .are needed in very small amounts .: potassium play important role in opening and closing of stomata . molybdenum. phosphorous. calcium and magnesium • Micro nutrients: or trace elements .includes iron.phosphorous as ATP) • C) Essential elements that can activate or inhibit enzymes • D) Essential elements can alter osmotic potential of a cell E. sulphur.g.chloine and nickel • Essential elements grouped into 4 groups based on their functions • A) Essential elements as Biomolecules • B) Essential elements as component of energy-related compounds (mg as chlorophyll . boron. nitrogen. It includes Carbon.Macro nutrients • They are present in plant tissues in large amounts.

Mineral Nutrition .


: When the Mn concentration increase the dark spots appear on the leaf METABOLISM OF NITROGEN: • • • • • Nitrogen is an important component of amino acids.hormones and vitamins Molecular nitrogen cannot be consumed by plants .g. proteins.Toxicity of Micro nutrients • • • All the micro nutrients which are required by plants must be in optimum level for normal growth If these micro nutrients increase above the optimum level the toxicity increases which affects plant growth The increase in optimum level cause been seen through the symptoms of the plant E. nucleic acids and chlorophyll and other pigments .so this Mol N₂ into elemental N and then fix N to oxygen is an endergonic reaction needs lot of energy Nitrogen exists as two nitrogen atoms joined by triple covalent bond (N…N) The process of conversion of nitrogen (N₂) to ammonia termed as nitrogen fixation .

these steps are called nitrification .• Sources of Nitrogen : • • • • • • • • • • In nature . automobile exhausts. forest fires. These nitrifying bacteria are chemoautotrophs The nitrate (NO₃) is absorbed by plants and transported to plants In leaves it is reduced to form ammonia finally forms amide group of amino acids Nitrate present in soil is reduced to nitrogen by denitrification ( bacteria pseudomonas and Thiobacillus) . NO₂. and power generating stations Decomposition of organic nitrogen of dead plants and animals is called ammonification Ammonia volatiles and re-enters the atmosphere but most of them is converted into nitrate by soil bacteria 2NH₃+ 3O₂------------> 2NO₂⁻+ 2 H⁺ + 2H₂O ( Ammonia is first fixed to nitrite ( NO₂) by bacteria Nitrosomonas/ Nitrococcus 2NO₂⁻ + O₂------- 2NO₃⁻ ( Nitrite is further oxidised to nitrate with help of bacteria Nitrobacter -------------.lightning and UV radiation provide enough energy to convert nitrogen to nitrogen oxide ( NO. N₂O) Industrial combustions.

beijernickia while rhodospirillum is anaerobic and bacillus are free living Cyanobacteria like Anabena and Nostoc are also freeliving nitrogen fixers Symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation : It involves study of legume-bacteria relationship species of rod shaped Rhizobium The most common association on roots is as nodules – these are small outgrowths on roots Microbe Frankia also produces nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of non-leguminous plants Rhizobium and Frankia are free living in soil .g.Biological Nitrogen fixation • • • • Only certain prokaryotic species are capable of fixing nitrogen.: Aerobic bacteria Azotobacter . Reduction of nitrogen to ammonia by living organisms is called Biological nitrogen fixation Enzyme nitrogenase which is capable of nitrogen reduction .haemoglobin • • • • Frankia bacteria fixing nodules • • Rhizobium N₂ fixing bacteria .Microbes which has this enzyme are called N₂ .fixers Nitrogen fixing bacteria are free-living or symbiotic E.but symbionts can fix atmospheric nitrogen The pink or reddish nodules is because of leguminous haemoglobin or leg.

c) Some of the bacteria within the root tissue enlarge to become membrane bound structures called bacteroids. b) At the site of curling. e) Cell division now sets in.Nodule formation • • • • • • Nodule formation is multiple reaction between rhizobium and roots of host cells Steps involved are : a) When a root hair of a leguminous plant comes in contact with the bacterium Rhizobium. separating the infected from the rest of the plant. the rhizobia (bacteria) invade the root tissue. it curls or becomes deformed. • . The nodule thus formed establishes a direct vascular connection with the host for the exchange of nutrients. in the infected tissue leading to nodule formation. d) The plant responds to this invasion by forming an infection thread made up of plasma membrane that grows inward from the infected cell of the host.

the nodules contain o₂ scavenger called leg-haemoglobin ( Interesting abt aerobic and anaerobic condition) During this process nodule formation nitrogenase require high input of energy ( 8 ATP for each NH₃ produced) Fate of Ammonia: At physiological pΗ .hence NH₄⁺ is used to synthesis amino acids A) Reductive amination : In this ammonia reacts with α-ketoglutaric acid and forms glutamic acid B) Transamination : Transfer of amino group from one amino acid to keto group of keto acid .here asparagine and glutamine are two most important amides formed .the ammonia is protonated to form NH⁺₄ (ammonium ) ion .• • • • • • • • The nodules contain biochemical components such as Enzyme nitrogenase and leghaemoglobin . The enzyme nitrogenase is a MO-Fe protein and catalyses the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia Since enzyme nitrogenase is very sensitive to molecular oxygen it requires anaerobic condition. To protect this from o₂ .

Photosynthesis • This membrane system is responsible for synthesis of ATP and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. enzymatic reactions incorporate co₂ into plants leading • to synthesis of sugar--- starch (DARK REACTIONS) • Photosystems: (PS) • A photosystem is a small group of • pigment molecules and proteins that work togeother for the absorption and transference of light energy Thylakoids posses two photosystems Photosystem I and Photosystem II .) ( LIGHT REACTIONS) In stroma .

Photosystem I and Photosystem II
PHOTOSYSTEM -- I • It is 85nm in diameter , reaction center is chlorophyll a pigment molecule called pigment 700 ( P700) max absorption at 700 nm • It is embedded in stroma thylakoids •It is associate with light harvesting complex I (LHC I), ferredoxin reducing substance (FRS), ferredoxin (Fd) and plastocyanin (PC) PHOTOSYSTEM -- II • It is 110 nm in diameter , reaction center is chlorophyll a pigment molecule called pigment 680 (P680) max absorption at 680 nm •It is embedded in the grana thylakoids •It is also associated with light harvesting complex II (LHC II), Pheophytin, plastoquinone

•It is involved in both cyclic and Non-cyclic • This system is involved in only non-cyclic photophosphorylation photophosphorylation •It is not involved in photolysis of H₂0 and no evolution of 0₂ •It is involved in photolysis of H₂0 and evolution of 0₂

Mechanism of Photosynthesis
• • Light reactions is 1st phase of photosynthesis which is light dependent reaction Location: Thylakoid membrane of grana and stroma thylakoid It is photochemical reaction involve conversion of solar energy into chemical energy which is available in form of ATP and NADPH Light reaction is also known as HILL REACTION Light reaction involve : photolysis of H₂0 Photophosphorolyation is the conversion of ADP into ATP by addition of inorganic phosphate using light energy

• • •

Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation
•The electrons lost by P680 (PS-II) are taken up by P700 (PS-I) and do not get back to P680 i.e., unidirectional and hence it is called non- cyclic phosphorylation. •The electrons pass through the primary acceptor, plastoquinone (PQ), cytochrome complex, plastocyanin (PC) and finally to P700. •The electrons given out by P700 are taken up by primary acceptor and are ultimately passed on to NADP. •The electrons combine with H+ and reduce NADP to NADPH2. The hydrogen ions also called protons are made available by splitting up of water. •Non-cyclic photophosphorylation needs a constant supply of water molecules. •The net result of non-cyclic phosphorylation is the formation of oxygen, NADPH and ATP molecules. Oxygen is produced as a waste product of photosynthesis.

Cyclic Photophosphorylation
•The electrons released by P700 of PS-I in the presence of light are taken up by the primary acceptor and are then passed on to ferredoxin (Fd), plastoquinone (PQ), cytochrome complex, plastocyanin (PC) and finally back to P700 i.e., electrons come back to the same molecule after cyclic movement •The cyclic photophosphorylation also results in the formation of ATP molecules just like in non cyclic photo phosphorylation. •As the electrons move downhill in the electron transport chain, they lose potential energy and ATP molecules are formed in the same way as in mitochondria during respiration. •During cyclic photophosphorylation, electrons from photosystem - I are not passed to NADP from the electron acceptor. Instead the electrons are transferred back to P700. This downhill movement of electrons from an electron acceptor to P700 results in the formation of ATP and this is termed as cyclic photophosphorylation. •It is very important to note that oxygen and NADPH2 are not formed during cycle photophosphorylation

Cyclic Photophosphorylation
• It is associated with PSI • The electron expelled from chlorophyll molecule is cycled back • Photolysis of water and evolution of oxygen do not take place • Photophosphorylation takes place at two places • NADP is not reduced

Noncyclic photophosphorylation
• It is associated with both PS I and PSII • The electrons are not cycled back but compensated by the electrons from photolysis of water • Photolysis of water and evolution of o₂ takes place • Photophosphorylation takes place only at one place • NADP ⁺ is reduced to NADPH₂

carbon molecules.carbon acceptor molecule i. b) The 3 . and (3) c) After carboxylation. Reduction results in the 1.. reduction of PGA occurs by regeneration during which the CO2 acceptor ribulose utilizing ATP and NADPH2 formed during photochemical reactions.carbon molecule. during which carbohydrate is formed at the expense of the photochemically made ATP and NADPH.e. RuBP takes phosphates are diverted from the Calvin cycle and act as precursors for the synthesis of sucrose and place.carbon compound formed is the first stable The Calvin cycle proceeds in three stages: (1) product of this pathway and hence the name C3 carboxylation. during which CO2 combines with pathway. Melvin Calvin. molecule. ribulose-1. continues For the cycle to continue on its own regeneration of the d) These 3 .5 biphosphate (RuBP) and 2 molecules of 3-carbon compound that is 3phosphoglycerate (PGA) are formed. also called triose initial 5. It is also called Calvin cycle after its discoverer.phosphate using an ATP starch. Formation of PGA is called carboxylation. a) In the first step CO2 is accepted by a 5. from glyceraldehyde 3.THE CALVIN CYCLE The C3 type of carbon reactions occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast. This reaction is catalysed by an enzyme called Rubisco-Ribulose biphosphate carboxylase oxygenase. .5-bisphosphate is formed again so that the cycle formation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.5-bisphosphate (2) reduction. ribulose -1.


In C4 plants the photosynthesis takes place in a chloroplast of a thin-walled mesophyll cell and a 4-carbon acid is handed off to a thick-walled bundle sheath cell where the Calvin cycle occurs in a chloroplast of that second cell. . This protects the Calvin cycle from the effects of photorespiration.

The oxaloacetate is then converted to another fourcarbon compound called malate in a step requiring the reducing power of NADPH. the starting compound of the C4 cycle. 2. CO2 is fixed to a three-carbon compound called phosphoenolpyruvate to produce the four-carbon compound oxaloacetate. fixes CO2 very efficiently so the C4 plants don't need to to have their stomata open as much. . The CO2 combines with ribulose bisphosphate and goes through the Calvin cycle. 4. Here the four-carbon malate is decarboxylated to produce CO2. and is converted back to phosphoenolpyruvate. a three-carbon compound called pyruvate. This occurs in cells called mesophyll cells. The enzyme catalyzing this reaction. and NADPH.THE C₄ PATHWAY The C4 pathway is designed to efficiently fix CO2 at low concentrations and plants that use this pathway are known as C4 plants. PEP carboxylase. reacts with ATP. These plants fix CO2 into a four carbon compound (C4) called oxaloacetate. 3. The pyruvate re-enters the mesophyll cells. The malate then exits the mesophyll cells and enters the chloroplasts of specialized cells called bundle sheath cells. 1.

• • • • • • • Oxidation of ribulose-1. . and a 2-carbon compound. the CO2 will get used up and the O2 ratio in the leaf will increase relative to CO2 concentrations. When the CO2 levels inside the leaf drop to around 50 ppm.5-bisphosphate by Rubisco produces a 3-carbon compound. These C4 plants are well adapted to (and likely to be found in) habitats with high daytime temperatures intense sunlight. phosphoglycolate. If the plant continues to attempt to fix CO2 when its stomata are closed. Rubisco starts to combine O2 with RuBP instead of CO2. • • . the process is termed photorespiration. Because carbon is oxidized. The net result of this is that instead of producing 2 3C PGA molecules. This happens on hot dry days when a plant is forced to close its stomata to prevent excess water loss. only one molecule of PGA is produced and a toxic 2C molecule called phosphoglycolate is produced. Some examples: crabgrass corn (maize) sugarcane sorghum • Photorespiration • Photorespiration occurs when the CO2 levels inside a leaf become low. 3-phosphoglycerate.

sugarcane etc .• C ₃ PATHWAY • Photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells • The CO₂ molecule acceptor is RuBp • The first stable product is a 3c compound 3-PGA • Photorespiration rate is high and leads to loss of fixed CO₂. wheat and potato • C₄ PATHWAY • Phtosynthesis occurs in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells • The CO₂ acceptor molecule is phosphoenol pyruvate • The fist stable product is 4c compound OAA • Photorespiration is negligible and it is almost absent hence. it increases CO₂ fixation rate • Optimum temp is 30-45⁰c • Examples of C₄ plants are maize. It decreases CO₂ fixation rate • Optimum temp is 20-25⁰c • Examples of C₃ plants are rice .

the rate of photosynthesis declines by a phenomenon called photo inhibit! • • . the rate of photosynthesis starts to level off and reaches saturation Limiting to photosynthesis at extremely high light intensity.Factors affecting Photosynthesis • • • There are several factors which affect the rate of photosynthesis as described below: A) Light intensity : The rate of photosynthesis increases almost linearly with increase in light intensity further increase in light intensity. when leaves are unable to utilize the absorbed light.

photosynthesis is strongly limited by the low C02 The increase in C02 concentration. Therefore. If it gets too cold. the rate of photosynthesis will decrease.• • • B) Carbon –di. . the rate of photosynthesis increases • • • C) Water The amount of water utilized in photosynthetic reactions is quite small. At very low C02 concentration.oxide Photosynthesis occurs at a very wide range of C02 concentration. water rarely becomes a limiting factor for photosynthesis. Plants cannot photosynthesise if it gets too hot.

Respiration • Cellular respiration or the mechanism of breakdown of food materials within the cell to release energy . and the trapping of this energy for synthesis of ATP The breakdown of C-C bonds of complex compounds through oxidation within the cell .leading to release of considerable amount of energy is called Respiration • .

Glycolysis yields two molecules of ATP (free energy containing molecule). Glycolysis can occur with or without oxygen. glucose (a six carbon sugar) is split into two molecules of a three-carbon sugar.Glycolysis • Glycolysis literally means "splitting sugars. Without oxygen." In glycolysis. glycolysis allows cells to make small amounts of ATP. Fate of glucose in living systems • • • . glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration. In the presence of oxygen. two molecules of pyruvic acid and two "high energy" electron carrying molecules of NADH. This process is called fermentation.


There are two stages • Stage 1: Reactions 1-5) A preparatory stage in which glucose is phosphorylated. Thus there is a net gain of two ATP molecules per molecule of Glucose in glycolysis. converted to fructose which is again phosphorylated and cleaved into two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. In this phase there is an investment of two molecules of ATP. Stage 2: (reactions 6-10) The two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3phosphate are converted to pyruvate with concomitant generation of four ATP molecules and two molecules of NADH. • .There are 10 enzyme-catalyzed reactions in glycolysis.


• From one molecule of Glucose: • 1Gl+2ATP+2NAD++ 4ADP+ 4Pi = 2pyruvate+2NADH+4ATP+ 2ADP+ 2Pi • After balancing: 1Gl + 2NAD++ 2ADP + 2Pi = 2pyruvate+2ATP + 2NADH • • 2 molecules of ATP generated can directly be used for doing work or synthesis. . pyruvate is catabolized further in mitochondria through pyruvate dehydrogenase and cytric acid cycle where all the carbon atoms are oxidized to CO2. • The 2 NADH molecules are oxidized in mitochondria under aerobic condition and the free energy released is enough to synthesize 6 molecules of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. • Under anaerobic condition: Pyruvate is converted to Lactate in homolactic fermentation or in ethanol in alcohalic fermentation. • Under the aerobic condition. The free energy released is used in the synthesis of ATP. NADH and FADH2.

Anaerobic Respiration • • • If no oxygen is available. There are two primary fermentation processes: • 1. Fermentation is not an efficient process and results in the formation of far fewer ATP molecules than aerobic respiration. Alcohol Fermentation . cells can obtain energy through the process of anaerobic respiration. Lactic Acid Fermentation 2. A common anaerobic process is fermentation.

They then switch from respiration to fermentation. in muscle tissues during rapid and vigorous exercise. • For example.• Lactic acid fermentation occurs when oxygen is not available. muscle cells may be depleted of oxygen. .

• The pyruvic acid formed during glycolysis is broken down to lactic acid and energy is released (which is used to form ATP). • Glucose → Pyruvic acid → Lactic acid + energy .

.• The process of lactic acid fermentation replaces the process of aerobic respiration so that the cell can have a continual source of energy. even in the absence of oxygen. • However this shift is only temporary and cells need oxygen for sustained activity.

Reactions of the citric acid cycle Claisen condensation thioester + ketone The citric acid cycle has eight steps .


Balance Sheet for the Transition Reaction and Krebs Cycle • Input 2 Pyruvate 2 ADP + 2 Pi 8 NAD+ 2 FAD Output 6 CO2 2 ATP 8 NADH 2 FADH2 .


1. Formation of citrate .

2. Formation of isocitrate via cis-aconitate Iron-sulfur center in aconitase .

Formation of isocitrate via cis-aconitate Iron-sulfur center in aconitase .2.

.3. Oxidation of isocitrate to a-ketoglutarate and CO2 The NADH produced here is the first link between the TCA cycle and electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.

4. Oxidation of a-ketoglutarate to Succinyl-CoA and CO2 E1 a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 dihydrolipoyl transsuccinylase E3 dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase .

5. Conversion of succinyl-CoA to succinate .

Oxidation of succinate to fumarate Malonate is a strong competitive inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase .6.

7. Hydration of fumarate to malate .

8. Oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate .

Products of one turn of the citric acid cycle .

Electrons from NADH produced in mitochondrial matrix during citric acid cycle are oxidized by an NADH dehydogenase (complex I) Electrons ------ubiquinone via FADH2 (complex II)-----generated during oxidation of succinate Reduced ubiquinone (ubiquinol) is oxidised to transfer electron to cytochome c via cytochrome bc1 (complex III ) Cytochrome c is small protein act as mobile carrier in transfering electrons to complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase complex) containing cytochrome a and a3 When electrons pas from one carrier to another via complex I to IV .they are coupled to ATP synthase (complex V) ------poduction of ATP from ADP and Pi Finally oxidation of one molecule of NADH -----3 molecules of ATP • • .ETS • • • • • • The metabolic pathway through which the electrons passes from one carrier to another is called Electron transport system (ETS) It is present in the inner mitochondrial membrane .

Electron Transport Chain: H + e- e- NADH NADH 1. NADH transfers it’s hydrogen's (each containing a proton and an electron) to the electron carrier protein .

Some electron carrier proteins such as Coenzyme Q can accept Protons as electrons are passed through it This increases the proton gradient across the membrane and enhances the proton motive force .Electron Transport Chain: eCoenzyme Q eH + 2.

During aerobic respiration.Electron Transport Chain: e- e- 2O molecule = O2 One splits O H + O O H O H H + 3. the last protein transfers a pair of electrons to an oxygen molecule to form H20 (the O2 splits first) .

and is able to use energy formed to carry out the process of phosphorylation from ADP to ATP H + ATP ADP P . The ATP synthase enzyme utilises the proton motive force.Electron Transport Chain: H + H + H + H + H + ATP synthase enzyme 4.

6x NADH 2x FADH2 2x ATP 4x CO2 . it makes around 26/28 ATP. However due to leakiness. A total of 30 could potentially be made.Summary: Glycolysis: 2x ATP 2x NADH 2x Pyruvate (3C) Link reaction: 2x Acetyl-CoA 2x NADH 2x CO2 Electron transport chain: Krebs: All the hydrogen molecules from the previously made NADH and FADH2 molecules are converted into ATP.

During differentiation cells undergo major structural changes both in their cell wall and in protoplasm capacity to divide can regain the capacity of division • De differentiation: The living differentiated cells that by now have lost the • Re differentiation • Development : • It is a term that includes all changes that an organism goes through during its life cycle from germination of the seed to senescence : Meristem/ tissues are able to divide and produce cells that once again loose the capacity to divide but mature to perform specific functions .Growth and Development • Differentiation • : The cells derived from root apical and shoot-apical meristems and cambium differentiate and mature to perform specific functions.

• Growth Rate: • • An organism. Generally. The growth rate shows an increase that may be arithmetic or geometrical. that occur at the expense of energy. Growth can be defined as an irreversible permanent increase in size of an organ or its parts or even of an individual cell.• Growth: Growth can be defined as an irreversible permanent increase in • • size of an organ or its parts or even of an individual cell. The increased growth per unit time is termed as growth rate. only one daughter cell continues to divide while the other differentiates and matures. In arithmetic growth. growth is accompanied by metabolic processes (both anabolic and catabolic). following mitotic cell division. or a part of the organism can produce more cells in a variety of ways. .

height. number etc.• • • • • Mathematically.) W0 = initial size at the beginning of the period r = growth rate t = time of growth e = base of natural logarithms . it is expressed as Lt = L0 + rt Lt = length at time ‘t’ L0 = length at time ‘zero’ r = growth rate / elongation per unit time . • • • • • • • The exponential growth can be expressed as W1 = W0 ert W1 = final size (weight.

Plant growth regulators are variously described as plant growth substances. terpenes (gibberellic acid. simple molecules of diverse chemical composition. plant hormones phytohormones in literature. GA3) or gases (ethylene. adenine derivatives (N6-furfurylamino purine. indole compounds (indole-3-acetic acid.PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS • • • • • • The plant growth regulators (PGRs) are small. kinetin). ABA). . derivatives of carotenoids (abscisic acid. IAA). C2H4).

Auxins promote flowering e. widely used to kill dicotyledonous seeds. the growing apical bud inhibits the growth of the lateral (axillary) buds. does not affect mature monocotyledonous plants. e. Auxins like IAA and indole butyric acid (IBA) have been isolated from plants. Auxin also controls xylem differentiation and helps in cell division.. 4-D (2. They help to initiate rooting in stem cuttings.g. NAA (naphthalene acetic acid) and 2. It is used to prepare seed-free lawns by gardeners. • • • • • • • • The term ‘auxin’ is applied to the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Auxins also induce parthenocarpy. 4-D. It is widely applied in tea plantations. They help to prevent fruit and leaf drop at early stages but promote the abscission of older mature leaves and fruits. They are widely used as herbicides. a phenomenon called apical dominance.Major Plant Growth Regulators • Auxins: Auxins (from Greek ‘auxein’ : to grow) was first isolated from human urine. In application widely used for plant propagation. from where they migrate to the regions of their action. in tomatoes.g. and to other natural and synthetic compounds having certain growth regulating properties. In most higher plants. 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic) are synthetic auxins. . They are generally produced by the growing apices of the stems and roots. • . hedge-making. in pineapples. Removal of shoot tips (decapitation) usually results in the growth of lateral buds.

They also delay senescence. GA2. They are denoted as GA1. the fruits can be left on the tree longer so as to extend the market period. GA3 is used to speed up the malting process in brewing industry.• Gibberellins: • • Gibberellins are another kind of promotery PGR. cause fruits like apple to elongate and improve its shape. Their ability to cause an increase in length of axis is used to increase the length of grapes stalks. • • • • . GA3 and so on. Gibberellins. However. All GAs are acidic. Gibberellic acid (GA3) was one of the first gibberellins to be discovered and remains the most intensively studied form. They produce a wide range of physiological responses in the plants. Thus. .

It helps to produce new leaves. lateral shoot growth and adventitious shoot formation. and were discovered as kinetin (a modified form of adenine. a purine) from the autoclaved herring sperm DNA. chloroplasts in leaves. developing shoot buds. Cytokinins help overcome the apical dominance. for example.• Cytokinins: • • • • • Cytokinins have specific effects on cytokinesis. Search for natural substances with cytokinin-like activities led to the isolation of zeatin from corn-kernels and coconut milk. They promote nutrient mobilisation which helps in the delay of leaf senescence. Natural cytokinins are synthesised in regions where rapid cell division occurs. root apices. young fruits etc. Kinetin does not occur naturally in plants. .

swelling of the axis and apical hook formation in dicot seedlings. thus helping the plants to increase their absorption surface. Ethylene promotes rapid internode/petiole elongation in deep water rice plants. Ethylene breaks seed and bud dormancy. initiates germination in peanut seeds. Ethylene promotes senescence and abscission of plant organs especially of leaves and flowers. It enhances the respiration rate during ripening of the fruits. Ethylene is highly effective in fruit ripening. . This rise in rate of respiration is called respiratory climactic. It is synthesized in large amounts by tissues undergoing senescence and ripening fruits. sprouting of potato tubers. It helps leaves/ upper parts of the shoot to remain above water. Ethylene also promotes root growth and root hair formation. Influences of ethylene on plants include horizontal growth of seedlings.• Ethylene: • • • • • • Ethylene is a simple gaseous PGR.

ABA acts as an antagonist to GAs.• Abscisic Acid: It acts as a general plant growth inhibitor and an inhibitor • • • of plant metabolism. ABA plays an important role in seed development. maturation and dormancy. ABA inhibits seed germination. ABA helps seeds to withstand desiccation and other factors unfavorable for growth. ABA stimulates the closure of stomata in the epidermis and increases the tolerance of plants to various kinds of stresses. In most situations. it is also called the stress hormone. . By inducing dormancy. Therefore.

.• Photoperiodism: • • • Flowering in certain plants depends not only on a combination of light and dark exposures but also their relative durations. photoperiodism has an important role to play in evolution . This hormonal substance migrates from leaves to shoot apices for inducing flowering only when the plants are exposed to the necessary inductive photoperiod. The significance of photoperiodism is in regulating flowering in plants. This response of plants to periods of day/night is termed photoperiodism. It has been hypothesized that there is a hormonal substance(s) that is responsible for flowering. So. Flowering is an important step towards seed formation and seeds are responsible for continuing the generation of a plant. .

and over winter come out as small seedlings. they are planted in autumn. barley. This phenomenon is termed vernalisation. and are harvested usually around mid-summer. The ‘spring’ variety are normally planted in the spring and come to flower and produce grain before the end of the growing season. resume growth in the spring. rye have two kinds of varieties: winter and spring varieties. It prevents precocious reproductive development late in the growing season. Winter varieties. however. wheat. They germinate. Hence. Some important food plants. if planted in spring would normally fail to flower or produce mature grain within a span of a flowering season. and enables the plant to have sufficient time to reach maturity. . Vernalisation refers specially to the promotion of flowering by a period of low temperature.• Vernalisation: • • • • There are plants for which flowering is either quantitatively or qualitatively dependent on exposure to low temperature.

Macromolecule: Large molecules of the above that can be broken down.BIOMOLECULES 1. RNA) 5. Lipids (Fats). They make up living organisms Examples: Methane (CH4) Glucose (C6H12O6) are all organic molecules Basic Molecule: Proteins. Molecules containing Carbon. and often Oxygen. 2. Starch into sugar . • Ex. 3. Nitrogen. 4. Hydrogen. Carbohydrates (sugars). Nucleic Acid (DNA.

• Made of Amino Acid Chains • Amino Acids are bonded through a peptide bond • 3 main parts .Amino group NH2 .Carboxyl group COOH .R group (side chain) each of the 20 types of amino acids have a unique R group Protein Basics .


Protein Shapes • A protein’s shape is determined by the order that amino acids are joined in • The shape of a protein determines its function Hemoglobin antibody enzymes polymerase .

Protein Structure Four Levels of Structure allow for any shape 2-28 .

the interactions of the R groups on each amino acid cause the molecule to bend and fold – different arrangements create different shapes .Protein Structure – Primary Structure • Primary structure is the order of the amino acids that make up a a result.changing a single amino acid can change a protein’s shape.the order of amino acids determines the shape of the protein .shape determines function . . .

Secondary Structure • The folding proteins often assume one of two general shapes – pleated sheets or an alpha helix these are the protein’s secondary structure.hydrogen bonds betweenAlpha amino Helix acids stabilize the secondary structure .Protein Structure. .

most proteins are completed at this stage and are fully functioning proteins.Protein Structure – Tertiary Structure • The coiled or pleated structures continue to fold until they form a complex three dimensional structure. . Remember: Shape determines function .

Hemoglobin – 4 proteins . .Insulin – 2 forms – 2 proteins or 6 proteins .Protein Shape-Quaternary Structure • Some more complex proteins are assembled from two or more protein molecules.

feathers . spider web. hooves etc….  Hormones – chemical messengers  Cell membrane – proteins can act as channels through the cell membrane . silk.receptor proteins found on membrane transmit signals to the inside of cells • Hemoglobin – protein found in blood that carries oxygen . hair. muscles. nails.Protein Functions Proteins are the Worker Molecules of Living Things  Enzymes .horns.proteins that allow chemical reactions to occur in living things  Antibodies – proteins that protect the body from infection  Structure – cytoskeleton.

information transfer .energy transfer .P SPONCH  Monomer is a nucleotide  Functions .N.O.Nucleic Acid Basics  Made of C.H.information storage .

Meet the Monomer-Nucleotide P = Phosphate Group S= 5 Carbon Sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) B= Nitrogen Base .

called phosphodiester bonds .Meet the Polymer • Polymers of nucleic acids are chains of nucleotides joined by condensation reactions • They are held together by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of another .

Meet the Polymers • DNA 2 chains of nucleotides held together by H Bonds RNA .

recipes for the proteins • found in the cell’s nucleus .Nucleic Acid Types-DNA • Deoxyribonucleic Acid • made of two strands of nucleotides • Form a double helix • DNA stores hereditary information .

carries a protein recipe to the ribosome -ribosomes are structures in a cell that make protein .Nucleic Acid Types.RNA • • • • Ribonucleic Acid Single strand of nucleotides forms a single helix transfers information from the DNA to the ribosomes .

DNA.stores protein recipes in the nucleus RNA – transfers them to the ribosome to be built .

RNA • Double stranded • Sugar–Deoxyribose • Nitrogen Bases Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine Single Stranded Sugar – ribose Nitrogen Bases Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine .DNA vs.

ATP • • • • Adenosine Tri-Phosphate ATP is a single nucleotide high energy molecule produced by cellular respiration • transfers energy within cells .Nucleic Acid Types .

Lipid Basics  Made of C.O  monomer = glycerol + fatty acids  hydrophobic .don’t dissolve in water  oil and water don’t mix .H.

Fatty Acids • 2 types – saturated and unsaturated • .unsaturated fatty acids contain double bonds between C atoms atoms .What’s the difference? .saturated fatty acids contain no double bonds between C atoms .holds the maximum # of H atoms .

– fat = 9 cal/g sugar= 4 cal/g –Lipids have more C – H bonds which store energy • Health tip: Saturated or hydrogenated fats(bad) vs.Fats and Oils…energy insulation and more Fats & Oils (triglycerides).long term energy storage •Fat has twice the calories of carbohydrates.Lipids. unsaturated (good) 2-24 .

Lipids: types and functions  Fats/Oils – long term energy storage. insulation and protection  Phospholipids – cell membranes  Steroids – make hormones (chemical messengers)  Waxes – waterproofing .

Fats • Solid at room temperature • Energy storage in animals • contain saturated fatty acids • Stearic acid Saturated fat and fatty acid .

Oils • energy storage in plants • contain unsaturated fatty acids • liquid at room temperature Oleic acid Unsaturated fat and fatty acid Double bond causes molecule to bend .

Phospholipids• Glycerol • only 2 fatty acids (not 3 like fats and oils) • 3rd fatty acid is replaced by a SPONCH phosphate molecule .

13 (a) Structural formula (b) Space-filling model (c) Phospholipid symbol . Phospholipid structure  • Phosphate molecule forms a hydrophilic (water loving) head Fatty acid molecules make up a hydrophobic tails Hydrophilic head CH CH2 O O P O– O C CH2 H O O C O 2 + 3) N(CH 3 Choline Phosphate CH O C 2 Glycerol Hydrophobic tails Fatty acids Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tails Figure 5.

myelin .phospholipid that insulates nerve cells We are all literally “Fatheads” .

Cholesterol •connected rings of carbon • component of cell membrane – adds to the integrity of the membrane • used to make steroids .Lipids.

they travel to and cause changes in another part of the body .Steroids: Lipids that act as Hormones  Hormones are chemical messengers .produced in one part of the body. the reaction of our bodies to emergencies.Hormones control: growth development tissue function sexual function the way our bodies use food.examples estrogens testosterone Estrogen Testosterone . mood .

found on animal hair to keep it pliable .Waxes-Lipids that repel water .found on the surface of leaves .found on the feathers of water birds to prevent them from becoming waterlogged .

Carbohydrates-sugars • Made of C. H.O • Carb = Carbon hydr = water Carbohydrate = carbon + water • general formula = CH2O 2-1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen like water H2O ribose C5H10O5 glucose C6H12O6 sucrose C12H22O11 • many carbohydrate names end in -ose .

More carbohydrate basics • Monomer: monosaccharide – one sugar • Functions of carbohydrates: – Energy for metabolism (glucose) – Short term energy storage (glycogen/starch) – Structure: plants – cell wall animals – exoskeleton – Source of carbon for other molecules – Cell surface markers – cell identification .

Monosaccharide: Simple Sugars • Monossaccharides like glucose are the main source of energy in living things .

Disaccharides-2 sugars
• 2 monosaccharides linked together by a condensation reaction - form a glycosidic bond Examples:
Sucrose – Table Sugar glucose + fructose Lactose – Milk Sugar glucose + galactose Maltose – glucose + glucose

Polysaccharides-Many Sugars
• Polysaccharides are polymers composed of large numbers of monosaccharides. - the monosaccharides are joined by condensation reactions. - form glycosidic bonds • Used for short term energy storage and structure

Energy Storage Polysaccharides
• Starch
– polymer made up of glucose monomers – Stores glucose in plants


1 m

Starch: a plant polysaccharide

• Glycogen
– – – – Polymer of glucose monomers Is the major storage form of glucose in animals Stored in liver and muscle More highly branched than Mitochondria Glycogen granules starch – contains more stored energy
0.5 m

Glycogen Glycogen: an animal polysaccharide

Structural Polysaccharides
 Cellulose
 Is a polymer of glucose – connected in a straight unbranched chain  Multiple strands of cellulose are held together by hydrogen bonds – makes a rigid structure
 Is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells

Other Uses for Carbohydrates • Cell surface markers – carbohydrates attached to parts on the cell membrane where they act to identify the cell • ABO blood groups are identified by carbohydrates on their surface .

g.: Amino acids. scent.sugars • b) Animal tissues posses only primary metabolite • Secondary metabolite : They are the products formed by alteration of normal or primary metabolite Eg. colored pigments. nucleotides .: alkaloids. flavanoids.Metabolites • • • • The essential organic compounds are called metabolites Metabolites are formed as a result of metabolic activity There are two types of metabolites a) Primary b) secondary Primary metabolite: a) Biochemical intermediate and products of normal metabolic pathway E. gums • The entire collection .

g. nucleic acids and polysaccharides .Biomacromolecules • The acid soluble pool contains chemicals with small molecular mass 18-800 (Da) are biomicromolecules • The acid insoluble pool contains chemicals with generally large molecular mass more than 800 (Da) are biomacromolecules E.: proteins.

etc.Metabolism The sum total of the chemical processes that occur in living organisms.formation of lactic acid from glucose in skeletal muscles Metabolic pathway is multistep chemical reactions where each step is catalyzed by different components of either same enzyme complex or different enzyme • • .g.: proteins from amino acids Catabolism. elimination of waste material. • Anabolism.: Energy liberated during catabolic reaction up of complex molecules E. resulting in growth. production of energy.break down of complex molecules E.

Fates of Organic Building Blocks in ATP Metabolism ORGANIC BUILDING BLOCK MOLECULES Monosaccharides Amino acids Acetates Nucleotide bases ATP energy anabolic processes ADP+Pi catabolic processes energy Polymers & other energy rich molecules CO2 & H2O .

they have 3-D confirmation with one or more .Enzymes • Enzymes are proteinaceous substances produced by living cells that catalyze biochemical pathway • Term enzyme coined by Willy Kuhne • All known enzymes are proteins but all proteins are not enzymes • Non protein enzymes are: a) Ribozymes b) Ribonuclease-p c) Peptidyl transferase • Enzymes are globular.

-one molecule of catalyst can catalyze (start) many chemical reactions • Enzymes speed up reactions in living things -enzymes are not changed by the reaction they speed up .one molecule of enzyme can catalyze (start) many reactions .Enzymes Act as Biological Catalysts • Catalysts are inorganic molecules that speed up chemical reactions .catalysts remain unchanged by the reaction that they speed up.

Active Site • Enzymes have an area called an active site. .the active site is where the chemical reaction occurs .

• Substrate is the molecule that the enzyme acts on. • The fact that the active site can only accept one type of substrate is known as enzyme specificity .The Shape of the Enzyme Determines Function • The active site of the enzyme fits with only one type of molecule known as the substrate.

ES refers to the enzyme substrate complex. Example Catalase + 2H2O2 enzyme ES enzyme substrate complex substrate Catalase + 2H2O + O2 enzyme product product .Enzyme Reactions • Written as : Enzyme + Substrate ES Enzyme + Product .the time when the substrate joins with the active site.

inhibitors can slow or even stop an enzyme’s activity • Two types of Inhibition .Competitive Non Competitive .Enzyme Inhibitors • Inhibitors control the rate of enzyme activity .if there is too much of an enzyme’s product.

Competitive Inhibition • The inhibitor is a molecule that can occupy part of the active site • While the inhibitor is in the active site. substrate can’t bind with the enzyme – inhibitors compete with the substrate for the active site inhibitor competes with substrate inhibitor blocks the active site .

• Inhibitor causes enzyme to change shape – prevents substrate from entering the active site Inhibitor binds with enzyme Enzyme changes shape keeps substrate from active site .Noncompetitive Inhibition • The inhibitor binds with the enzyme at a site away from the active site.

co-enzymes and co-factors often act as carriers of electrons. . atoms or functional groups needed to complete a reaction.Co-Enzymes and Co-factors  Co-enzymes and Co-factors are molecules that help certain enzymes to catalyze a reaction .

Co-Enzymes and Co-Factors
- while they bind to an enzyme’s active site, and participate in the reaction, they are not changed by the reaction and aren’t considered substrates.

- Co-enzymes are organic molecules and include: NAD, NADP, FAD, vitamin B 1, vitamin B 6, and vitamin B 12 - Co-factors are inorganic molecules and include dietary minerals like zinc, iron, copper & potassium

Denatured Enzymes
• Enzymes are proteins and if they are exposed to extremes of temp or pH lose their shape - if a protein loses its shape, it loses its function - a protein that loses its shape is said to be denatured - if an enzyme is denatured, substrate can’t enter the active site

extreme temp or pH

Common Enzymes
• • • • • • Amylase - breaks down starch Catalase – breaks down H2O2 DNA polymerase – joins DNA nucleotides to build DNA Lipase – break apart fats Lactase – breaks apart lactose – milk sugar Protease- breaks apart protein molecules

How do enzymes bring about high rate of chemical conversions
•For any chemical to react ,they must collide, collision Occurs when certain molecules pick energy • After picking energy ,the reactant /substrate reaches High energy state called Transition state • Chemicals react only in transition state , •The difference in average energy content of (s) from that of this transition state is called activation energy

Properties of Enzymes
• • • • • All enzymes are proteins, enzymatic proteins are globular in nature Biocatalyst : They catalyze the biochemical reactions , they either initiate biochemical reaction nor change equilibrium They speed up the rate of chemical reaction and helps to attain equilibrium Complexes : E+ S ↔ES→EP→E+P Reversibility : Enzymes catalyze the reaction in both directions E.g. Fumarase changes malic acid to fumaric acid @ 7.8 pH while @ pH 6.2 it promotes reverse reactions Enzyme concentration : Only small quantity of enzyme is sufficient for bringing about biochemical change Temperature and pH Sensitivity : Enzymes operate @ temperature of 25-35°c . Enzymes become inactive on freezing and denatures above 45°c .Enzymes show optimum activity @ neutral pH

• •

• What are the factors affecting Enzyme Activity? .

• This increases the rate of enzyme-substrate complex formation This increases the rate of enzymesubstrate complex formation and product formation. • Enzyme and substrate molecules move with increasing speed and collide more frequently with each other. Rate of reaction increases .20°C (increasing temperature) • Increasing the temperature will lead to the increase in kinetic energy of enzyme and substrate molecules.

the rate of enzyme activity also increases until the optimal temperature is reached.37°C • As the temperature continues to increase. • Optimal temperature is the temperature at which the enzyme works best. Rate of product formation is highest! .

weak bonds within the enzyme molecule are broken • Enzyme loses its shape and its active site.Beyond Optimal Temperatures • At high temperatures (>60°C). • Loss of shape leads to a loss of function. causing it to lose its function. Enzyme is said to have denatured • Denaturation is the change in 3D structure of an enzyme or any other protein caused by heat or chemicals such as acids or alkali. .

Most enzymes denature at temperatures higher than 60°C. there are some enzymes that stay active even at high temperatures like 80°C (Enzymes in the bacteria Thermus aquaticus) .Denaturation Different enzymes denature at different temperatures. However.

enzymes lose their shape and function and become denatured. known as its optimum pH level. • At extreme pH levels.Effect of pH on enzyme activity • Enzyme works best within a narrow pH range • Each enzyme works best at particular pH. .

Effect of pH on enzyme activity .

There is no further increase in the velocity of enzymes catalyzed reaction • Michels –Menten constant or Km value is defined asThe substrate concentration to produce half max velocity ½ V max in any enzyme catalyzed reaction .Effect of Substrate on Enzyme Activity •An increase in enzyme concentration increases the rate of reaction until it reaches a max velocity known as Vmax •When all the active sites are occupied by the substrate Complex.

Classification of Enzymes • • • • • Oxidoreductases/Dehydroenase Transferase Hydrolases Lyases (removal of double bonds) Isomerases .

rectangular. polygonal d) Cells have prominent nucleus . and similar cells .vacuole generally absent : .Anatomy of Plants • • A tissue is group of similar and dissimilar cells having common origin .and are in continuous state of cell divisions and forming Features of Meristem: a) They are found in the growing regions of the plant body b) Cells are compactly arranged without intracellular spaces c) They are various shapes like oval.structure and function Based on capacity to divide cells can be a) Meristems b) Permanent Meristematic tissue a) These are the formative tissues which are made up of immature.

they show rapid growth C) Lateral : They are found in sides of the stem and root Permanent Tissues: The derivatives of meristematic tissue undergo differentiation and develop into permanent tissue . polygonal .• • • • • Classification of meristem based on position: A) Apical meristem: Found at root tip and shoot tip B) Intercalary : These are found at the base and on lateral side.vacuole are large and prominent It functions in buoyancy . The cells have definite shape and size and they never divide A) Simple : Tissue containing similar structure and carry out similar function a) Parenchyma b) collenchyma c) sclerenchyma A) Parenchyma : a) It is simple permanent living storage tissues found in soft parts of plant body b) It appears in various shapes like oval. food and water conducting and secondary growth • • • • • • • .cells can be loosely arranged or compactly arranged C) Cells are thin made of cellulose .


it helps in food and water conducting COMPLEX PERMANENT TISSUES: They are composed of several kinds of cells and perform a common function .• • • • • • • • • • • B) Collenchyma : a) It is simple permanent. They are two types of tissues: A) Xylem B) Phloem . cell wall is thick due to deposition of pectin .don’t have cytoplasm and nucleus It functions as mechanical is compactly arranged without intercellular spaces c) Cell is thick due to deposition of lignin . pedicle and other tender parts c) It appears shapes like polygonal . rigid to various part of plant. living mechanical tissue b) It is found in aerial part of petiole.vacuolated cytoplasm It function in mechanical support.irregular shapes. take part in photosynthesis and secondary growth C ) Sclerenchyma : a) It is found in all parts of body along with xylem and phloem b) It appear spindle shaped (star shaped) .

help in conduction of water Cells are dry without nucleus and cytoplasm Tracheae : Vessels are elongated cylindrical tube like structures with hard .vessels also occur in some petridophytes The cell wall is thick due to deposition of lignin but not uniform distribution Xylem parenchyma: It is the living component of xylem They help in better conduction of food and water Xylem fiber : They provide mechanical support and strength to xylem . thick lignified walls They are found in almost all angiosperms .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Xylem : It is type of complex tissue which help in conducting of water in the plant . Xylem has four different kind of cells a) Tracheids b) Tracheae (vessels) c) Xylem fibers and d) Xylem parenchyma (wood parenchyma) Tracheids : These are primitive water conducting cells found in pertridophytes. gymnosperms Their cell wall is thick due to deposition of lignin .


The components of phloem are a) Sieve cells b) companion cells c) phloem parenchyma d) phloem fiber A) sieve cells : a)They are narrow. cytoplasm is granular They help in conduction of food and play role in maintaining pressure gradient . elongated cells with tapering ends b)These cells have sieve areas (perforated areas) throughout lateral walls B) Companion cells : a) They are parenchyma cells associated with sieve tube cells .they are thin walled . triangular.• • • • • • • • • • Phloem : It is type of complex permanent tissue which help in food conduction . a prominent nucleus. or rectangular cells c) They have dense cytoplasm.elongated b) They appear small rounded.

broadly cylindrical in shape • They help in storage of organic food material like starch.C ) Phloem parenchyma : • a) They are living cells with distinct cytoplasm and nucleus • b) They contain crystals. and help in translocation of food materials D) Phloem fibers : a) Cell wall is thick. tannins and mucilage • c)Cells are elongated . lignified with pits b) They occur in groups .threads . used in making ropes . as sheets or cylinders Phloem give mechanical support to tissues and organs. tannin.

Fig. 35-10e 3 µm Sieve-tube elements: longitudinal view (LM) Sieve plate Sieve-tube element (left) and companion cell: cross section (TEM) Companion cells Sieve-tube elements Plasmodesma Sieve plate Nucleus of companion cells 30 µm 10 µm Sieve-tube elements: longitudinal view Sieve plate with pores (SEM) .

Tissue System and Its Functions Dermal Tissue System • protection • prevention of water loss Ground Tissue System • photosynthesis • food storage • regeneration • support • protection Vascular Tissue System • transport of water and minerals • transport of food Component Tissues Epidermis Periderm (in older stems and roots) Location of Tissue Systems Parenchyma tissue Collenchyma tissue Sclerenchyma tissue Xylem tissue Phloem tissue .


* Presence of uniseriate pericycle made up of parenchyma. * Presence of unicellular root hairs. * Presence of conjuctive tissue.Diagnostic Features of a Dicot Root * Presence of thin walled cells in the epiblema. and stomata. * Presence of passage cells and casparian thickenings in the endodermis. . * Absence of pith. * Presence of radial vascular bundles exhibiting tetrach condition with exarch xylem. * Absence of hypodermis. * Absence of cuticle.


* Absence of cuticle and stomata.Diagnostic Features of a Monocot Root * Presence of thin walled cells in the epiblema. * Presence of conjuctive tissue. * Presence of unicellular root hairs. . * Presence of radial vascular bundles with polyarch condition and an exarch xylem. * Presence of parenchyma cells in the pericycle. * Presence of a distinct pith. * Presence of passage cells and casparian thickenings in the endodermis.

* Presence of undifferentiated ground tissue.Diagnostic Features of a Monocot Stem * Absence of trichomes. * Presence of a hypodermis made up of sclerenchyma. * Presence of a lysigenous cavity. * Presence of stomata. * Vascular bundles are conjoint. collateral & closed with endarch xylem. * Presence of a bundle sheath made up of sclerenchyma. . * Presence of only two protoxylem & two metaxylem vessels in each bundle. * Presence of numerous vascular bundles irregularly scattered with cerifugal arrangement. * Absence of phloem parenchyma.

. * Presence of conjoint. formed by sclerenchyma. * Presence of a wavy endodermis containing numerous starch grains. * Presence of a bundle cap above each vascular bundle. collateral and open vascular bundles with an endarch xylem. * Presence of stomata. arranged in the form of a broken ring. * Presence of eight vascular bundles. * Presence of a hypodermis made up of collenchyma.Diagnostic Features of a Young Dicot Stem Following are some of the diagnostic features of a young dicot stem * Presence of cuticle and trichomes.

metabolized ----- CO₂ + H₂O + ammonia Ammonia is highly toxic . urea. phosphate. • • • • • . Many bony fishes. K+..Excretion • Animals accumulate ammonia. Cl–. urea and uric acid are the major forms of nitrogenous wastes excreted by the animals Definition : Excretion is the physiological process of eliminating the nitrogenous waste substances from the body Fats and carbohydrates -----metabolized ---------> CO₂ + H₂O with liberation of energy. water and ions like Na+. carbon dioxide. should be disposed off from body or converted into less toxic substances like urea or uric acid The process of excreting ammonia is Ammonotelism. either by metabolic activities or by other means like excess ingestion The nitrogenous wastes. Ammonia. aquatic amphibians and aquatic insects are ammonotelic in nature. etc. Proteins ------. uric acid.

(b) Ureotelism : It is a type of excretion where urea is the main nitrogenous waste material. camels. insects. Animals showing ureotelism are called ureotelic animals. seals.g: It is commonly found in man. Animals showing uricotelism are called uricotelic animals.g: It is a common method seen in birds. E.g: aquatic animal groups like sponges. land reptiles. (c) Uricotelism. land snails and some land crustaceans . : Elimination of uric acid as the main nitrogenous waste material is called uricotelism. coelentrates. whales. E.• • • • Different animals expel different nitrogenous compounds. On the basis of the type of nitrogenous end product. They are: (a) Ammonotelism :It is the type of excretion in which ammonia is the main nitrogenous waste material. Such animals are called ammonotetic E. crustaceans. There are 3 modes of excretion. desert mammals like kangaroo rats.

renal artery. renal vein and the nerves enter the kidney through the hilus. The outer layer of kidney is a tough capsule. The inner surface has a deep notch called hilus. Each kidney is bean shaped. The medulla is divided into a few conical masses (medullary pyramids) projecting into the calyces (sing. an outer cortex and an inner medulla.: calyx). there are two zones. one on either side of the vertebral column. slightly flattened.• • • • • • • The kidneys are dark-red. The ureters. bean shaped organs about 10 cm long. The outer surface is convex and the inner surface is concave. The cortex extends in between the medullary pyramids as renal columns called Columns of Bertini Each kidney has nearly one million complex tubular structures called nephrons (the functional units) . Inside the kidney. 5 cm wide and 4 cm thick each weighing about 27 gms They are placed against the back wall of the abdominal cavity just below the diaphragm.

is called the malpighian body or renal corpuscle The tubule continues further to form a highly coiled network – proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). The Malpighian corpuscle. PCT and DCT of the nephron are situated in the cortical region of the kidney whereas the loop of Henle dips into the medulla. A minute vessel of this network runs parallel to the Henle’s loop forming a ‘U’ shaped vasa recta. The ascending limb continues as another highly coiled tubular region called distal convoluted tubule (DCT). A hairpin shaped Henle’s loop is the next part of the tubule which has a descending and an ascending limb. Glomerulus alongwith Bowman’s capsule.• • • • • • • Each nephron has two parts – the glomerulus and the renal tubule Glomerulus is a tuft of capillaries formed by the afferent arteriole – a fine branch of renal artery The renal tubule begins with a double walled cup-like structure called Bowman’s capsule. . which encloses the glomerulus.

: ultrafiltration occurs at the barrier between the blood and the filtrate in the renal corpuscle or Bowman's capsule in the kidneys Blood flows into these capillaries through the afferent arteriole and leaves through the efferent arteriole The blood pressure in the afferent arteriole is higher than the blood pressure in the efferent arteriole. (b) Selective reabsorption (c) Tubular secretion Ultra filtration or glomerular filtration. . The high pressure forces small molecules such as water. This is because the efferent arteriole has a smaller diameter than the afferent arteriole. from the blood in the glomerular capsule across the basement membrane of the Bowman's capsule and into the nephron This type of high pressure filtration is ultrafiltration. glucose. reabsorption and secretion at different parts of the nephron (a) Ultra filtration or glomerular filtration. • • • • • Glomerular pressure is about 75 millimeters of mercury (10 kPa). amino acids.Formation of • • urine• • • • • The formation of urine takes place by 3 processes Filtration. The fluid formed in this way is called glomerular filtrate. sodium chloride and urea through the filter.


Urine formation :Ultrafiltration • Ultrafiltration occurs from the capillaries of the glomerulus into the lumen of the renal capsule Filters out molecules which are much smaller than RBC and plasma proteins Substance forced through the capillary wall and between the podocytes by blood pressure enter the lumen of Bowman’s capsule .

Filtrate • H2O • Salts (NaCl and others) • HCO3• H+ • Urea • Glucose. amino acids • Some drugs .

loop of Henle. vitamin and other organic nutriens present in the initial filtrate are reabsorbed .2) Reabsorption (proximal convoluted tubule. distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct) Nearly all the sugar.

i) Proximal tubule Help maintain a constant pH in body fluid By controlled secretion of hydrogen ions and By reabsorbing about 90% of HCO3from filtrate • Reabsorbing of NaCl (salt) and water – Salt moves from the filtrate to the interstitial fluid by active transport – Water follows passively by osmosis .

Reabsorption and secretion at proximal convoluted tubule Reabsorption from proximal tubule into blood Secretion from blood into proximal tubule .

diffusion and osmosis • • . vitamin and other useful materials are also reabsorbed into the blood This is accomplished by a combination of active transport.i) Proximal tubule (cont. amino acids .) Glucose .

Decending limb of the loop of Henle • Permeable to water but not to salt • Water move out of the tubule by osmosis • Filtrate moving downward and continues to lose water • NaCl concentration inside the loop of Henle increase .ii.

iii. Ascending limb of the loop of henle • Consist of thin segment and thick segment • The walls become more permeable to NaCl • and less permeable to water • Salt that was concentrated now diffuse out of the thin segment of ascending limb .

Reabsorption and secretion at distal convoluted tubule Reabsorption from distal tubule into blood Secretion from blood into distal tubule .

• Water molecules is reabsorbed into the blood by osmosis.iv.are also reabsorbed into the blood by active transport. . NaCl and HCO3. Distal tubule • Here.

v. Collecting duct • Carries the filtrate in the direction of the medulla and renal pelvis • The special tissue epithelium is permeable to water but not to salt .

v. Collecting duct (cont.) • The filtrate become more and more concentrated as water is lost to the interstitial fluid • The bottom portion is permeable to urea and leakage of this solute into the interstitial fluid contributes to the high osmolarity of the medulla .

.3) Secretion The opposite direction of reabsorption K+ and H+ are among the substances actively secreted from blood into the filtrate NH3 and certain drugs are also removed from blood by secretion Secretion occurs mainly in the regions of the distal convoluted tubule.


2.The filtrate now moves down the descending limb of the Loop of Henle 1. . making the filtrate more concentrated 3. The concentration of water in the interstitial fluid is lower than the filtrate (hyperosmotic) so water continues to move out of the descending loop. The filtrate is at its greatest concentration (1200mosm/L) at the bottom of the Loop. The epithelium here is permeable to water but not to solutes.

1. The filtrate becomes less concentrated as it moves up. About 1/2 way up the ascending limb salts are actively transported out 4. The filtrate is very concentrated as it enters the ascending limb and so Na+ and CL. 3. 2. due to the selective permeability of the cells.The filtrate now moves up into the ascending limb. The epithelium in the ascending limb is permeable to solutes but not to water.move out down their concentration gradients but water can’t move in. until it is even less concentrated than it was when it entered the descending limb .

•The passive and active movement of solutes ensures that the interstitial fluid will have a high osmolarity. Na+ and Cl-. It also regulates pH by controlling secretion and reabsorption of H+ and HCO3 ions . • The filtrate now moves into the distal tubule •The distal tubule’s function is to regulate the concentration of K+.

The cells here are permeable to water but not salts. Na+ and Cl. so water moves out due to high osmolarity in the interstitial fluid.can be actively reabsorbed if needed. This helps to keep the interstitial fluid very concentrated. 2. This is dependent on hormonal control.The filtrate now enters the collecting duct 1. 3. Some urea diffuses out as the filtrate becomes more concentrated. . 4. Filtrate goes from the medulla to the renal pelvis then to the ureter.



Presence of blood or blood cells in urine. Some of the abnormal conditions of Urine are given below: Proteinuria . Uremia .Presence of abnormally high ketone bodies in urine. Glycosuria . the permeability of which is controlled by vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) of the posterior lobe of pituitary gland.Presence of excess urea in urine. Albuminuria . the greater is the ability of an animal to form hypertonic urine.Presence of haemoglobin in urine. Hematuria .Role of AHD • • • • The water reabsorption mainly occurs through the wall of the collecting tubules.excess protein level in urine.presence of albumin in urine. • • • • • • • • . Haemoglobinurra . Ketonuria . The longer is the loop of Henle in the nephron.presence of glucose in urine. The urine is about 4 times as concentrated as blood plasma in humans. The secretion of ADH is controlled by the osmotic pressure of the blood Effect of ADH on the permeabilities of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to water and urea So counter current mechanism is that process which changes isotonic filtrate to hypertonic urine.

reproductive tract .Locomotion and Movement • • • • • • • • • • • • • Locomotion is the movement of an animal as a whole from one place to another . Movement is one of the characteristic features of living organisms Types of movement: A) Amoeboid : by Pseudipodia B) Ciliary : by lining of respiratory tract in humans C) Muscular: is based on use of muscle fibers Types of muscles : a) Skeletal muscles : Associated with skeletal muscles . they can be involuntary in nature .hence called smooth (non striated muscles) c) Cardiac muscles These are the muscles of heart.they are under voluntary control of nervous b) smooth muscles : These are located in the inner walls of hollow visceral organs like alimentary canal .they have striped appearance hence called striated muscles .they are smooth in appearance .

muscle shortens (contracts) .Mechanism of contraction • • • • • • The skeletal muscles in our body made up of number of muscle bundles These are held together by a common collagenous connective tissue called fascia Each muscle bundle contains a number of muscle fibers Each muscle fiber is lined by plasma membrane called Sarcolemma enclosing sarcoplasm The sarcoplasm contains many nuclei . Actin filaments (thin filaments) 2. Myosin filaments (thick filaments) – At each end of the fiber.e: sarcoplasm reticulum of muscle fibers is the store house of calcium ions The feature of muscle fibers is the presence of large number of parallely arranged filaments in sarcoplasm called Myofilaments / myofibrils – Are bundles of protein filaments (=myofilaments) • Two types of myofilaments 1. myofibrils are anchored to the inner surface of the sarcolemma – When myofibril shortens.the endoplasmic reticulum i.

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) Figure 9.5 .

Skeletal muscle • Fibers (each is one cell) have striations • Myofibrils are organelles of the cell: these are made up of filaments • Sarcomere – Basic unit of contraction – Myofibrils are long rows of repeating sarcomeres – Boundaries: Z discs (or lines) This big cylinder is a fiber: 1 cell -an organelle .

Myofibrils • Made of three types of filaments (or myofilaments): – Thick (myosin) – Thin (actin) – Elastic (titin) titin_____ ______actin _____________myosin .

Sliding Filament Model __relaxed sarcomere__ _partly contracted_ fully contracted Sarcomere shortens because actin pulled towards its middle by myosin cross bridges “A” band constant because it is caused by myosin. which doesn’t change length Titin resists overstretching .

Another pic .

Actin filaments are thinner than compare to myosin filaments . keep thick and thin filaments in proper alignment .hence called thin and thick filaments respectively – – – – A bands: a dark band.protein to which myosins attach H zone . full length of thick (myosin) filament M line . from Z disks to ends of thick filaments • • Thin but NO thick filaments Extends from A band of one sarcomere to A band of the next sarcomere • • • – – Z disk: filamentous network of protein.• • Myofibril Myofibril has alternate dark and light bands . The myofibril has striated appearance due to distribution of two important proteins a) Actin and b) Myosin Light bands contain --actin called as I-band/Isotropic Dark bands contain – myosin called as Aband/Anisotropic Both proteins are arranged as rod-like structure parallel to each other .thick but NO thin filaments I bands: a light band. Serves as attachment for actin myofilaments Titin filaments: elastic chains of amino acids.

(Actin binding site) 2.• Myosin (Thick) Myofilament • • • Many elongated myosin molecules shaped like golf clubs. Part of the energy is used to bend the hinge region of the myosin molecule during contraction . Attached to the rod portion by a hinge region that can bend and straighten during contraction. Single filament contains roughly 300 myosin molecules Molecule consists of two heavy myosin molecules wound together to form a rod portion lying parallel to the myosin myofilament and two heads that extend laterally. Myosin heads 1. releasing energy. Can bind to active sites on the actin molecules to form cross-bridges. Have ATPase activity: activity that breaks down adenosine triphosphate (ATP). 3.

Troponin is composed of three subunits: – Tn-A : binds to actin – Tn-T :binds to tropomyosin. – Composed of G actin monomers each of which has a myosin-binding site (see yellow dot) – Actin site can bind myosin during muscle contraction. attached at either end at sarcomere. Tropomyosin 3. F (fibrous) actin 2. Actin (Thin) Myofilaments . Tropomyosin: an elongated protein winds along the groove of the F actin double helix.• • • • Thin Filament: composed of 3 major proteins 1. – Tn-C :binds to calcium ions. Troponin Two strands of fibrous (F) actin form a double helix extending the length of the myofilament.

Structure of Actin and Myosin .

the myosin head bends inward pulling the actin filaments towards center inducing muscle contraction .there is opening of acetylcholine gated ion channel which influences the influx of Na+ ions and efflux K+ ions This changes the membrane potential . The junction between the neuron and sarcolemma of a muscle fiber constitute neuromuscular junction or motor end plate On stimulus from CNS this junction releases a neurotransmitter -Acetlycholine In the presence of Acetlycholine .the myosin heads binds to the actin filaments at actin sites forming cross bridges.During this the length of Z line and I-band decreases with H-zones being unaffected • • • . F following his .Mechanism of Muscle contraction (Sliding filament theory) • • • • It was proposed by J.E Huxley.E Huxley in 1954.this change in the membrane potential stimulates sarcoplasm reticulum to release Ca 2+ ions that removes the masking effect of actin filaments on myosin heads In presence of ATP . & H .


Skeletal muscles .

spinal column  Appendicular skeleton – limbs and girdle Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.The Skeletal System  Parts of the skeletal system  Bones (skeleton)  Joints  Cartilages  Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to muscle)  Divided into two divisions  Axial skeleton. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.skull.

Functions of Bones  Support of the body  Protection of soft organs  Movement due to attached skeletal muscles  Storage of minerals and fats  Blood cell formation Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.2b .Bones of the Human Body  The skeleton has 206 bones  Two basic types of bone tissue  Compact bone  Homogeneous  Spongy bone  Small needle-like pieces of bone  Many open spaces Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. Inc.

flat . Long.Bones are classified by their shape: 1. legs) 2. ankle) 3. Flat.usually square in shape. cube like (wrist. curved (skull.bones are longer than they are wide (arms. Sternum) 4. pelvis) . Irregular. Short.odd shapes (vertebrae.

neck and trunk Axial skeleton: skull (cranium and facial bones) hyoid bone (anchors tongue and muscles associated with swallowing) vertebral column (vertebrae and disks) bony thorax (ribs and sternum) .Axial skeleton supports and protects organs of head.

connect.where joints meet. coccyx) lower limbs (legs) Articulation.Appendicular skeleton includes bones of limbs and bones that anchor them to the axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton: pectoral girdle (clavicle. scapula) upper limbs (arms) pelvic girdle (sacrum. . and are formed.


6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.The Axial Skeleton Figure 5. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide .

The Skull •8 sutured bones in cranium •Facial bones: 13 sutured bones 1 mandible Cranium encases brain attachments for muscles sinuses .


publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.11 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education.Bones of the Skull Figure 5.

Allows for growth .

Paranasal Sinuses  Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity Figure 5. Inc.10 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide .

26 .12 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. and other muscle attachments Figure 5. Inc.The Hyoid Bone  The only bone that does not articulate with another bone  Serves as a moveable base for the tongue. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 5.

14 Slide 5.28 . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.The Vertebral Column  Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs made of cartilage  The spine has a normal S curvature  Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education. Inc.


22 bones in skull 6 in middle ears 1 hyoid bone 26 in vertebral column 25 in thoracic cage
4 in pectoral girdle 60 in upper limbs 60 in lower limbs 2 in pelvic girdle 206 bones in all Vertebral column 7 cervial vertebrae 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 1 sacrum (5 fused 1 coccyx (4 fused) Vertebrae vary in size and morphology

The Structure of the Eye
• Gross Anatomy of the Eye
– Pupil: Opening where light enters the eye – Iris: Control the amount of light coming into eye (aperture)
• The sphincter muscle lies around the very edge of the pupil. In bright light, the sphincter contracts, causing the pupil to constrict. The dilator muscle runs radially through the iris, like spokes on a wheel. This muscle dilates the eye in dim lighting. • Of which pigmentation determines the eye color

– Sclera: White of the eye
• provides tough wall of eyeball • Extraocular muscles (3pairs) are embedded and control the Slide 236 movement of eyeball

The Structure of the Eye
• Gross Anatomy of the Eye
– Eye’s orbit: bony socket of skull – Conjunctiva: membrane connecting sclera with eyelids – Cornea:
• Glassy transparent external surface of the eye (lens-like regractive power) • Innervated by unmyelinated nerve endings : very sensitive to pressure (touch)

– Optic nerve: Bundle of axons from the retina

Slide 237

The Structure of the Eye
• Ophthalmoscopic Appearance of the Eye
– Blood vessels on the surface of Retina – Optic disk :
• A pale circular region • Gate for entering blood vessels and Exiting optic nerve fibers • Blind spot
– No photoreceptors present – Brain is deceiving you!

– Macula (spot):
• • • • Central vision Relative absence of blood vessels - improves the quality of central vision A thinner center of macula The center of retina - serves as a anatomical reference point
– Nasal vs temporal – Superior vs inferior

– Fovea (pit):

Slide 238

The Structure of the Eye
• Cross-Sectional Anatomy of the Eye
– Aqueous Humor
• fluid filling space between cornea and lens • supply nourishment

– Ciliary muscles
• Ligaments (zonule fibers) that suspend lens are attached • Connect to sclera

– Lens: Change shape to adjust focus
• Aqueous humor in anterior chamber • Jelly-like vitreous humor in posterior chamber
– its pressure serves to keep the spherical shape of eyeball
Slide 239

this causes membrane permeability changes As result potential difference are generated in photoreceptor cells . this produces action potential in ganglion cells through bipolar cells These action potential (impulses) are transmitted by the optic nerve to visual cortex area of brain .Mechanism of vision • • • • • The light rays in visible wavelength focussed on the retina through the cornea and lens generate potential (impulses) in rods and cones The photosensitive compounds (photopigments) in human eye is composed of opsin (a protein) and retinal (an aldehyde of Vit A) Light induces dissociation of retinal from opsin resulting in change in structure of opsin.


involved with maintaining body balance/ equilibrium.the vestibular system. . and 2. the auditory system.Three Major Section of the Ear • Introduction The ears are paired sensory organs comprising 1. The ear divides anatomically and functionally into three regions: the external ear. All three regions are involved in hearing. the middle ear. involved in the detection of sound. and the inner ear. Only the inner ear functions in the vestibular system.

or earwax. . the part you can see) – serves to protect the tympanic membrane (eardrum). – collects and directs sound waves through the auditory canal to the eardrum. long. – Too much cerumen can block sound transmission. – About 3 cm.Anatomy of the Ear • The external ear (or pinna. the canal contains modified sweat glands that secrete cerumen.

as needed for equalization. • This ear-throat connection makes the ear susceptible to infection (otitis media). • Normally the walls of the tube are collapsed. – It connects to the throat/nasopharynx via the Eustachian tube. . • Equalizing air pressure ensures that the eardrum vibrates maximally when struck by sound waves. Swallowing and chewing actions open the tube to allow air in or out. is an air-filled cavity (tympanic cavity) carved out of the temporal bone. separated from the external ear by the eardrum.Anatomy of the Ear • The middle ear. • The eustachian tube functions to equalize air pressure on both sides of the eardrum.

" which convert the sound waves striking the eardrum into mechanical vibrations. • The anvil (incus). – The smallest bones in the human body. movable bones called "ossicles. fills the oval window which leads to the inner ear. connects to the hammer and to the stirrup (stapes). the ossicles are named for their shape. . the footplate. • The hammer (malleus) joins the inside of the eardrum.Anatomy of the Ear • Adjoining the eardrum are three linked. • The base of the stirrup. the middle bone.

Anatomy of the Ear .

– This sets the fluid of the inner ear sloshing back and forth. the cochlear nerve for hearing and the vestibular nerve for equilibrium.Anatomy of the Ear • The inner ear has two membrane-covered outlets into the airfilled middle ear . – Nerve impulses generated in the inner ear travel along the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). – The oval window sits immediately behind the stapes. The round window serves as a pressure valve.the oval window and the round window. bulging outward as fluid pressure rises in the inner ear. which leads to the brain. (acoustic or auditory nerve) – This is actually two nerves. and begins vibrating when "struck" by the stapes. the third middle ear bone. somewhat joined together. .

which generates waves in lymph and ripples in basal membrane • As a result nerve impulses are transmitted by afferent fibers via auditory nerves to auditory cortex of the brain .Mechanism of Hearing • The external ear receives sound waves and directs them to ear drum • Ear drum vibrates in response to sound waves and these vibrations are transmitted through ear ossicles to the oval window • Vibrations are passed through oval window on to fluid of cochlea.


Chemical coordination and Integration .

Hormones may reach all parts of the body. Pheromones carry messages outside the body – to other individuals . made up of endocrine glands. enzyme-secreting glands in the digestive tract Hormones convey information via the bloodstream to target cells throughout the body. – Sweat glands. secretes hormones that coordinate slower but longer-acting responses to stimuli. Exocrine glands have ducts for discharging secretions onto a free surface. are equipped to respond The endocrine system. but only certain types of cells. target cells.• • • • • • • A hormone is a chemical signal that is secreted into the circulatory system and communicates regulatory messages within the body. salivary glands. – Obtain raw materials from and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. Many hormones are secreted by ductless endocrine glands.

Each releasing hormone stimulates the pituitary to release a corresponding hormone which travels to an endocrine gland and causes it to start producing a particular endocrine hormone . – The hypothalamus can use motor nerves to send short-lived electrical messages or hormones to send chemical messages with a longer duration The hypothalamus produces seven different “releasing” hormones that travel to the pituitary gland. maintaining homeostasis in the body.• • • The hypothalamus regulates the neuroendocrine system.

milk letdown. The anterior lobe regulates the other endocrine glands .The Pituitary • • • • • The pituitary gland is located below the hypothalamus. Nine major hormones are produced here. The posterior lobe of the pituitary regulates water conservation. and uterine contraction in women. These hormones act primarily to influence other endocrine glands.

. Some regulate glucose production. • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) – in reptiles & amphibians. • Growth hormone (GH) – stimulates the growth of muscle and bone.The Anterior Pituitary • • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) – stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine which stimulates oxidative respiration. • Prolactin – stimulates milk production. It also stimulates the production of testosterone in males . this hormone stimulates color change. In males. others balance sodium & potassium in the blood. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) – stimulates the adrenal gland to produce steroid hormones. it causes the testes to produce a hormone that regulates sperm production. Luteinizing hormone (LH) plays an important role in the menstrual cycle. • • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) – plays an important role in the menstrual cycle.

. Oxytocin initiates uterine contraction during childbirth and milk release in mothers. These hormones are actually synthesized in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary.The Posterior Pituitary • • • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates the kidney’s retention of water.

The Thyroid • The thyroid gland. – Calcitonin – stimulates calcium uptake by bones. – The thyroid hormones play crucial roles in stimulating metabolism and influencing development and maturation . – Two iodine-containing hormones. produces: – Thyroxine – increases metabolic rate and promotes growth. located in the neck. triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

The hormone they produce is parathyroid hormone (PTH) which regulates the level of calcium in the blood. – Essential that calcium is kept within narrow limits for muscle contraction. including the heart. – Two antagonistic hormones. play the major role in calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis in mammals .The Parathyroids • • The parathyroid glands are four small glands attached to the thyroid. parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin.

– Adrenal cortex is the outer shell that produces the steroid hormones cortisol and aldosterone. . – Adrenal medulla is the inner core which produces adrenaline (epinephrine) and norepinephrine.The Adrenals • Mammals have an adrenal gland above each kidney.

• Accelerated heartbeat. higher levels of blood sugar and increased blood flow to heart and lungs. – Identical to the effects of the sympathetic nervous system. – These salts are important in nerve conduction. – Stimulates carbohydrate metabolism The adrenal cortex also produces aldosterone. Aldosterone acts in the kidney to promote the uptake of sodium & other salts from the urine. increased blood pressure. – Reduces inflammation.• • • • • The adrenal medulla releases adrenalin (epinephrine) and norepinephrine in times of stress. but longer lasting. Aldosterone and PTH are the only two hormones essential for survival . The adrenal cortex produces the steroid hormone cortisol (hydrocortisone). • Synthetic derivatives such as prednisone are used as anti-inflammatory agents.

The islets of Langerhans in the pancreas secrete insulin and glucagon. It secretes digestive enzymes into the digestive tract (exocrine function). – Diabetes mellitus. is caused by a deficiency of insulin or a decreased response to insulin in target tissues. perhaps the best-known endocrine disorder. Endocrine function – production of insulin and glucagon. .The Pancreas • • • • The pancreas is located behind the stomach and is connected to the small intestine by a small tube. – Glucagon returns glucose to the blood. – Insulin removes glucose from the blood.

The Gonads (testes and ovaries) main source of the steroid sex hormones • Testes – Interstitial cells secrete androgens – Primary androgen is testosterone • • Maintains secondary sex characteristics Helps promote sperm formation • Ovaries – Androgens secreted by thecal folliculi • Directly converted to estrogens by follicular granulosa cells – Granulosa cells also produce progesterone – Corpus luteum also secretes estrogen and progesterone 261 .