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Group members: Ivy Clare Danius Lau Ngie Cheon Leanza Wong Sie Bo Muhammad Ismady Tiong Wong


 CLT is an approach rather than method. (Richard and

Rogers, 1986)  Approach: integrate the real life situations into the learning environment and ask for learners’ participation  Language practise should resemble real-life communication, with genuine exchange of information and opinions. (Swan and Walter, 1990)  There is not one accepted methodology for CLT. No single authority/text on it. Can be carried out in different ways.

 Aims- two fold:

a) to make communicative competence the goal of language teaching b) to develop procedures for teaching of four skills that acknowledge interdependence of language and communication.
 Also as an attemption to replicate genuine

communication- difficulty faced by coursebook writers

Why it can be carried out in different ways
 Materials of different kinds can be communicative in

different ways.  General coursebook: Include interactions that display real-life communication/setting up realistic situations  In written language: Set up realistic activities (reading and writing)  Eg of realistic activity in classroom context: Jigsaw reading/ listening useful for promoting communicative language use, not based on commonly real-life communication

When Evaluating Activities
 A) Consider to what extent the skills, strategies

learned and practiced are transferable to the real world (in communication context).  B) Greater the potential for transfer, more valuable the activity  A more rigorous approach in evaluating- analyze all complexity (real life interactions that students would be expected to participate in, match them against the models, practice activities incorporated in the materials)

How Coursebook can Help…
 A jump from learning situation to real world outside.  A way to make coursebook activity closer to real-life is by

replacing dialogue with instructions- allowing students to converse (not wholly communicative but valuable in creation of spoken discourse)  strategic planning of communication, structuring of longer stretches of discourse and co-operative element for effective exchange of meaning and understanding of speakers’ intentions.  Discourse creation element- ROLEPLAY student formulae own language but know meaning already (limited to level of language form)

a) Coursebook dialogue and real life language use
 Scotton & Bernsten (1988): the structure of naturally-

occurring conversation was not reflected with the coursebook that were studied.  When given a similar type of situation in real-life and in the coursebook, the overall discourse structure used were remarkably similar but, there are variation of semantic and lexical choices.  Real conversation is much less ‘well-formed’; contains hesitations, fillers, incomplete sentences-

b) Style and Appropriacy
 Learners need to develop a stylistic variation so they

can participate actively in spoken interaction.  Awareness and sensitivity should be linked to a recognition of types of speech situation where different formality is appropriate (able to differentiate informal, neutral, formal)  Coursebook helps by presenting examples in different styles with appropriate context.  Important variables are physical context, social roles of participants, goals of participants (purpose)

 Advanced level: students will be taught to differ the

degree of formality by using particular utterances.  2 things:  1) Examples need to be integrated into a realistic piece of discourse (provide context in terms of social roles, goals and etc.  2) Students need to understand why some

utterances are more polite or formal than others rather than simply repeat (parrot fashion).

The Checklist
 Focuses mainly only on CLT (Communicative
 -



Language Teaching) The criteria involved were mostly related to: whether the content in the coursebook can be applied/used in real-life situations (is it authentic/realistic?) In interactive communications: Do students have the opportunities to structure own discourse, learn skill of turn-taking, Can students learn the style and appropriacy used in different situations.

Checklist sample for textbook regarding the design and content

Checklist for Interactive Communications

Checklist sample of style and appropriacy


a) Element of Unpredictability
 Coursebooks are written products, designed and

produced in advance of use therefore, it is difficult to predict what will happen in real-life interactions while more sophisticated technologies (interactive video) might be able to replace coursebook in the future  There are real-time constraints- learners have to understand and respond in matter of seconds.

b) Relative Complexity
 Eg: Transactional interactions are predictable to a

certain degree (know outcome before it begun), their nature is more complex than coursebook-simple Q & A sequences, rarely take straightforward ones, they include openers, pre-closers, hesitations.

Elaborate Substitution Table
 Not necessarily saying things that are true for them
 Controlled interactions can be genuinely

communicative (students are encouraged to talk about own experiences)

Features not Reproduced in Coursebooks
a) Organization of Conversation  provide models and practice in turn taking, a basic unit of conversation and interruption techniques (illustrates collaborative nature of conversation)  Can also focus on adjacency pairs- help learners to develop prediction skills and being able to respond in a real time.  Preferred sequence (elicit an offer rather than direct request)

Why we like the Checklist
 This checklist is fully focusing on the communicative

language learning of students. It is very specific in helping to identify whether a coursebook can help them to converse in real life (authentic and realistic).  Most criteria stated are to ensure will be able to improve their skills in communication, mainly the productive skills; speaking and writing.

Why we do not like the Checklist
 The checklist is too limited to be used in evaluating a

coursebook as it focuses only on CLT. A good checklist should include a bigger range for criteria of evaluation.  There are no criteria in evaluating the activities for other skills such as reading and listening.  Generally, it is only good to be used if a teacher is trying to find a coursebook to improve the students’ communication skills.