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National Central University Master Program for Environmental Sustainable Development

Presented by: Guillermo Esquivel古培榮 Advisor: 陳繼藩博士


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Overview Objectives Introduction Study Area What to measure? Why to measure? How to measure? Literature review


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Data used Methodology Results and Discussions Conclusions Recommendations

The Gulf of Fonseca is one of the most dynamic spots on Central America, shared by three countries;El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua is scenario of constant land use changes, increase of urban developments, establishment of aquaculture industries at big scale, industrial fishery, logistics and marine transport.

This study has two major aims:  First one is to investigate spatial patterns in selected water quality indicators (Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids), by using Landsat 7 ETM+ and in situ measurements  The second aim is to determine temporal variations patterns in order to identify whether or not there is a factor that progressively affects to the environment or a permanent impact.

Normalization of images to apply the model to other years .    To achieve those aims the approach used is Remote Sensing application. In situ measurements were used taken in the same day as the satellite image of the Landsat 7 ETM+. Linear regression model to correlate physical measures and remote sensed data.

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and estuarine ecosystems the planet. bordered by the countries of El Salvador.  . Honduras. Coastal habitats alone account for approximately 1/3 of all marine biological productivity. The Gulf of Fonseca is a large estuarine embayment on the Pacific coast of Central America. and Nicaragua.

Untreated discharge of municipal water to the sea. . The accelerated growth rate of the urban area. Dredging activities to build and access channel and to deeper the turning basin.   In El Salvador area the construction of one of the biggest ports of the region was developed from 2005 to 2008. and population.

The grand scale shrimp aquaculture activities developed in Honduras and Nicaragua. . The illegal cut of the mangrove forest.   Many industries waste water discharges to the bays.

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Port of La Union .

Shrimp Ponds Mangrove Urban area .

it becomes denser and less clear due to a higher concentration of these light-blocking particles. in a body of water (NOAA.  Turbidity is defined as a measure of the level of particles such as sediment. plankton. or organic by-products. As the turbidity of water increases. . 2010).

the murkier it appears the higher the measured turbidity. silt. which interfere with the passage of light through the water. Suspended matter such as clay. can cause Turbidity. as well as plankton and other microscopic organisms. and organic matter. .  The greater the amount of total suspended solids in the water.

. Reduced plant matter means less food and habitat for herbivorous organisms such as snails.  Increased turbidity affects a stream and the organisms that live in it in many ways and if the water becomes too turbid. insects and juvenile fish. it loses the ability to support life.

. and some nutrients. heavy metals. Suspended solids also provide adsorption surfaces and a route of transmission for many organic contaminants.

Jensen. 1996) . Jensen.(Source T. 1996) (Source T.

  Traditionally water samples are taken for laboratory analysis. . (more precise but expensive) Nowadays we have better understanding of the relationships between the light response and the physical properties of the water bodies. Remote Sensing is a very strong tool when it comes to address big spatial extensions and time patterns.

2010 .76 Lake Beysehir. (USA) Gulf of Finland Zhou et al.974 Bilgehan Nas et al. Turkey South Bay of Biscay Turbidity TSS Turbidity TSS 0.60 0. (2005) Wang et Landsat-5/TM TSS 0.Location Satellite Sensor Landsat-5/TM Parameter TSS Turbidity Correlation R2 0.996 0. Tennessee and Kentucky.522 al.67 0.. 2010 Petus et al. (China) Lake Reelfoot.2006 Koponen t al.537 Reference Lake Taihu. 2009 EOS TerraMODIS Landsat-5/TM MODIS-Aqua 1000-m Turbidity 0.63-74 0.

 The Ministry of Environment of El Salvador (MARN) supplied a report made by the Autonomous Port Executive Commission (CEPA) with date of August 2005. containing water quality analysis such as concentration of suspended solids (mg/l) and turbidity (NTU) of a campaign realized during dredging activities for the port being developed. .

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63-0.75 10.5 orbits/day •Repeat Coverage : 16 days •No cost images .35 0.2° •Orbit: polar.Band Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 µm 0.) local time (descending node) •Period of Revolution : 99 minutes.09-2.69 0.525-0.45-0.4-12.52-0. 2003 •Sensors: ETM+ •Altitude: 705 km •Inclination: 98. 1999 •Status: operational despite Scan Line Corrector (SLC) failure May 31. sun-synchronous •Equatorial Crossing Time: nominally 10 AM (± 15 min.5 2.605 0.9 Spectral response Blue-Green Green Red Near IR Mid IR Thermal Mid IR Panchromatic Resolution 30 m 30 m 30 m 30 m 30 m 60 m 30 m 15 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper +: •Launch Date: April 15.55-1.90 1. ~14.75-0.515 0.

Dredging works Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec season 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Dry Rainy Dry .

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2 STEP 1 Georeference of monitoring stations Values of samples in situ .Gap filled multispectral images Landsat 7 ETM+ Digital numbers Band 1 STEP 4 Band 2 Layer Stack Band 3 Radiance multispectral image STEP 2 Read radiance value 5x5 STEP 3 Linear regression analysis Total Suspended Solids Model TSS Model NTU Model Map of Suspended Solids August 2005 Turbidity Model Map of Turbidity August 2005 Band 4 Radiance correction EQ 5.

(band3/band2). band3. (band2 and band4).variate: band1. and band4). band2. (band4/band1). band3. (band2 and band3). (band4/band3) Bi-variate (band1 and band2). . (band1 and band4). (band1. (band2/ band1). and band4). (band2. and band3).Uni. (band1. band2. (band3 and band4) Multi-variate (band1. band4. (band4/band2). band3. band2. and band4). (band1 and band3). band2. (band1/band3). (band4/band3). (band3/band1).

10 Choose the higher R value 2 Overall is the model significant ? No Discard model No Are the variables significant ? yes Final Linear Model .Satelite Image August 2nd 2005 In situ measurements TSS and Turbidity August 2nd 2005 For a 90% of confidence: Linear Regression Analysis ANOVA test Significance value <0.10 coefficientt significance value <0.

74) TSS =-7.77*band3-1.715*band3-2.669+1.73) NTU=-2.072*band4  Total Suspended Solids linear model (R2=0.223+0.Turbidity linear model (R2=0.408*band4  .

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   Ideal situation is having in situ measurements and satellite images same day for every season from 2004 to 2010. we used radiance image. Radiance corrected images were normalized in order to simulate same atmospheric conditions. Since performing an atmospheric correction was not possible because there is a lack of atmospheric information. .

2005 . . bands 3 and 4. in our case the image of august 2nd 2005 . Mean Band X : is the mean value of the pixels identified as water in the band X. Mean REF Band X : is the mean values of the pixel identified as water in the band X of the reference image. Sdev Band X: stands for the standard deviation of the band X Sdev REF Band : is the standard deviation of the reference image. in our particular case. august 2nd .Normalized Band X = (Band X – Mean Band X) * Sdev REF Band X Sdev Band X + Mean REF Band X Where: Band X : is the radiance values of the band X before normalized.

6 Maps of Suspended Solids from 2004-2010 TSS Model Maps of Turbidity from 2004-2010 NTU Model STEP 4 Nomalized radiance Bands 3 and 4 .Gap filled multispectral images Landsat 7 ETM+ Digital numbers STEP 1 Classification land and water Band 3 Only water radiance Bands 3 and 4 STEP 3 CROP Band 4 Radiance correction EQ 5.2 STEP 2 Radiance Normalization Using August 2005 As reference value EQ 5.

Dry season-Rainy season = Seasonal Variation From rainy to dry season Decrease Increase . to Apr.Dry season image From Nov. to Oct. SAME YEAR MAPS Rainy season image From May.

Dry season image Year 2006 CONSECUTIVE YEARS Dry season image Year 2007 Dry season 2007-Dry season 2006 = Yearly variation of the dry season From 2006 to 2007 Decrease Increase .

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  Our results on turbidity model as previous studies is a multivariate combination (Bilgehan Nas et al. . that explains at least the 74% of the behavior of the turbidity .736. 2010) by the use of the bands 3 and 4 of the Landsat 7ETM+ with a correlation coefficient of 0. Statistically proven the analysis on the variance (ANOVA) indicates that both models are significant with a confidence level of 90%.

followed by the Bay of La Union.  The resultant maps of turbidity and Total Suspended Solids provides a powerful tool to assist the interpretation on the spatial patterns of these two important indicators of pollution. . Generally speaking our maps suggest that a major concentration on total suspended solids and turbidity on the Bay of San Bernardo (Honduras and Nicaragua).

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as well as dredging works for the construction of the port observed in August. 2005. . such as municipal waste water discharge to the ocean without previous treatment. These high concentrations on suspended solids and turbidity are most likely associated with anthropogenic activities. and industrial activities in the city of la Union. and the waste water coming from the shrimp aquaculture activities.

patterns suggest that the rivers during this season carry solids in suspension from upstream of their path . the turbidity as well as TSS concentrations are higher during the dry seasons. During the rainy season the predominant factor is the inflow of fresh water coming from every river that ends in the Gulf of Fonseca.  Throughout seasonal variations (from rainy to dry) it can be observed that in the central area of the Bay of San Bernardo and La Union.

less dense upon the oceanic water which has more salinity and thus a higher specific weight. . carrying within organic matter from the anthropogenic activity. waste water from the shrimp farms and some other suspended pollutants (PROGOLFO. cause carries out the flux of fresh water. 2000) and that fact is congruent with the results observed in the present study. In addition in the rainy season the gravitational circulation plays a very relevant role.

There is no evidence of a permanent impact on the natural turbidity to the Bay of La Union and for the entire Gulf of Fonseca. stronger predominant factors are seasonal variations and extreme meteorological events. no factor can be identified to be generating a constant change on Turbidity and TSS on our study area. .  According with our results on change analysis for consecutive years of each season. such as an increase on the precipitation average values or tropical storms. there is no relation between year to year variations.

The ideal scenario will be to have always monitoring campaigns at the moment of acquisition of the images. We recommend having at least one model for every season. Most of the previous reviewed studies use more than 40 in situ measurements. to address seasonal variations. at least having a model for each season in order to use it in long terms observations. .   Quantity and distribution of in situ samples should be high enough to have a good correlation and also to let some amount of data for validation process. since that is rather impossible and costly.

and within the complete Bay. To measure the impact from dredging works activities is recommended a shorter period of time observations.  . to study day to day variations and fluctuations during high and low tidal levels. in the flux of the river. If there is any interest on monitoring the impact of Shrimp related activity on the Bays of the Gulf of Fonseca. this should integrate a monitoring at source of discharge. until reaching the central part of the Gulf of Fonseca.

Every monitoring program corresponding to water quality should be properly geo-referenced and integrated into a geo-database for further uses and help to the promotion of this revolutionary technology the Remote Sensing .  Finally the researcher encourage to do further research in order to have more precise data and results that reveals how anthropogenic activities affect the quality of the water in the Gulf of Fonseca.