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Different generation of various cellular networks Why leap towards 4G? 4G  Features of 4G  Comparison of 4G with other networks  Comparison of speed of various generations  4G Network Structure  4G Layered Architecture How 4G Network Works??  WiMAX,LTE,802.20 Key Technologies in 4G  OFDMA,SCFDMA,MIMO,MU-MIMO,SDR Challenges in 4G 4G in India 4G across the world Applications of 4G

WIRELESS GENERATIONS: progression[6] .

          User friendliness User personalization Terminal and Network heterogeneity High Performance Interoperability Intelligent Networking Network Convergence Scalability Lower power consumption Low costs .

It is used broadly to include several type of broadband wireless access communication not only cellular telephone system. 4G is a IP-based heterogeneous network.    The 4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. M-Mobile Multimedia A-Anytime anywhere G-Global mobility Support I-Integrated wireless solution and C-Customized personal service . One of the term used to describe 4G is “MAGIC”.

4G system is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure all-IP based mobile broadband solution to laptop computer wireless modems. smartphones . and other mobile devices. It has been launched in China. Norway and Sweden. gaming services and streamed multimedia may be provided to users. the same organization that developed the wired Internet.    Fourth generation (4G) wireless was originally conceived by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). 4G has become operational in number of countries during last three months (which was expected to be operational by 2012). setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 Mbps for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1Gbps for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users). IP telephony. In 2008. . Facilities such as ultra-broadband Internet access. Due to sustained attempts undertaken by DOCOMO (a Japanese Company). USA. the ITU-R organization specified the IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G standards. Samsung and Apple Inc.

Global roaming and inter-working among various other access technologies. wireless internet. an extension of 2G and 3G. Larger bandwidth . Better scheduling and call admission control techniques. Terminal Heterogeneity and Network Heterogeneity. User Friendliness and Personalization.higher data rates. Smoother and quicker handoff. Supports interactive multimedia. WLAN for hot spots. voice and various other broadband services. . video.         Wider and extensive mobile coverage region.

6Mbps 7.5 G 2.6 HSPA 7.7 Mbps 60Mbps Availabilty Today Today Today Today Today Today Today Today End 2010 2011 Today 2012 3G Pre-4G 4G ----- ----- 2012+ .A HSPA 3.8Mbps 348Kbps 2Mbps 56Mbps 50Mbps 22Mbps 5.2.1Mbps 3.4Mbps 3-6Mbps 5-12Mbps ----2Mbps ---30Kbps 60Kbps 500Mbps 260Kbps 700Kbps 1Mbps 2-5Mbps ----700Kbps ----- Theoratical (max) Download Upload 114Kbps 20Kbps 384Kbps 6oKbps 384Kbps 2Mbps 3.75G GPRS EDGE UMTS W-CDMA EV-DO Rev.2Mbps 100Mbps+ 100Mbps+ 56Mbps 14Mbps 100Mbps mobile/1Gbps Fixed 100Mbps mobile/1Gbps Fixed 64Kbps 153Kbps 1.16m) Avanced LTE RealWord (avg) Download Upload 32-42Kbps 15Kbps 175Kbps 30 /kbps 226Kbps 800Kbps 1Mbps 650Kbps 1.2 WiMax LTE HSPA+ HSPA 14 WiMax 2(802.

3 To 5 Mbps But Potential Estimated At A Range Of 100 To 300 Mbps.1 Mbps 4G Practically Speaking. 2 – 8GHz .8 – 2. 500 Mbit/S 1 Gbit/S Peak Upload Rate Peak Download Rate Switching Technique Network Architecture Services And Applications 50 Mbits/S 100 Mbit/S Packet Switching Wide Area Cell Based CDMA UMTS.3G Data Throughput Upto 3. 1. etc Packet Switching. Message Switching Integration Of Wireless LAN And Wide Area. Wimax2 And LTEEDGE Advance Forward Error Correction (FEC): Frequency Band 3G Uses Turbo Codes For Error Correction. 2000.5GHz Concatenated Codes Are Used For Error Corrections In 4G.



Mobility Management -This layer provides quality and uniform services to the mobile/stationary terminal across various heterogeneous networks. location management. It provides features of low handover latency and packet loss during the provision of real-time and non-real time services to the end user moving across different networks.    Application This layer is composed of various third party applications which provide value added services to its subscribers. it performs tasks such as binding update (updating the care-off address of the mobile user). handover control mechanism and so forth. common control signaling (signaling required to perform wireless network discovery). Network This layer consists of various sub layers described as follows: Services -This layer manages the interaction between various value-added services and networks. address assignment. To achieve this. .

It provides the best trade-off mechanisms depending on the application’s preference. de-allocation and reallocation of the network resources which are acquired during the communication sessions within the same or different network domains. Quality of service (QoS) management -This layer provides best optimal utilization of the available resources. In scenarios where the network resources are limited it provides an option to the applications to choose between high overall throughput and low end-to-end delay. This activity is performed during or before the communication activity. .  Resource Management -This layer incorporates the functionalities of allocation. bandwidth control and so forth. It encompasses several activities such as link utilization control. packet scheduling and packet classification. This layer also performs the task of congestion control.

network monitoring and fault detection.Physical This layer consist of the core IPV6 network of 4G and other heterogeneous access networks such as GSM . . This layer is composed of two sub-layers namely:  Convergence layer  Different RAN Operation. authorization. Maintenance and Provisioning This layer spans across all the layers of the network architecture and provides the functionalities of network controlling. Security This layer also branches across all the layers of the 4G network architecture which perform the function of authentication. encryption. establishment and implementation of service policy agreement between the various vendors.CDMA and WLAN in their physical view. Administration. It also maintains the repudiation between various services and resources of several heterogeneous and core networks.

20 . WiMAX 2. 802. three technologies are supposed to be the based features of 4G. 1. LTE 3. Talking about the standard of 4G technology. still not defined as set standard.

and increase band. stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Now the modified standard 802. WiMAX can support data rates up to 75 Mbps with a range of nearly about 30 miles. wide spectrum.   Mobile WiMAX. .16m has been developed with the properties of speed. is a sophisticated next generation mobile broadband wireless network based on IEEE 802.16e-2005 which supports 4G.


    LTE(Long Term Evolution) was first proposed in Toronto conference in 2004 for attaining higher speed and lesser packets latency in UMTS 3G wireless systems. To support broadband service there will be an additional spectrum band with current 3G spectrum band. . 3GPP LTE plan to support All-IP based backbone network to connect with other heterogeneous networks seamlessly. Current 3G service is evolved into 3GPP LTE (long term evolution) which is one of the candidate technologies for 4G. Under the 3GPP LTE. 4G technology will be used basically in 3G spectrum and platform that means existing carriers maintain present customer base and services are integrated 4G.


20 also share synchronous efficiency between uplinks and downlinks. 802. Both 802.16e's roaming support is generally limited to local and regional areas. which is an inherently highlatency architecture.20 or so-called Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) specification is also the first IEEE standard that explicitly addresses the needs of mobile clients in moving vehicles. relative to their downlinks. as opposed to the asynchronous nature of 3G cellular networks.16e and 802. unlike 3G cellular data service.   The IEEE 802. . The design parameters of the specification include support for vehicular mobility up to 250 Km per hour. Whereas 802. This criterion will support use in fleet cars and trucks. which have lower-efficiency uplinks.20 shares with 3G the ability to 802. as well as in the high-speed commuter trains in use throughout much of the world.20 supports QoS to give good quality for low-latency services.

WAN scale WCDMA band with additional band 2009 ~ 2010 Frequency Band Commercial ready 2 ~ 6GHz 2007 ~ 2008 Below 3.20 OFDMA.WiMAX 802. WiBro Key technology Duplex Channel Bandwidth Peak data rate (network) Mobility Coverage DL UL OFDMA.16e. MIMO TDD/FDD 10 MHz 46 Mbps 14 Mbps Middle 2 ~ 5Km (typical) IEEE 802. MIMO TDD/FDD 1.25 ~ 20 MHz 100 Mbps 50 Mbps High (~250 Km/h) < 20km. MIMO TDD/FDD 5 ~ 20 MHz 260 Mbps 60 Mbps High (~250 Km/h) MAN scale 3GPP LTE OFDMA/SC-FDMA.5 GHz unexpected .


    OFDMA or Orthogonal Frequency –division multiplexing which is also known as Discrete Multitone Modulation (DMT). as low rate modulations are less sensitive to a modulation method for the modulation of a frequency channel based on the FDM(frequency division multiplexing) OFDMA can be used for the downlink transmission (signal transmission from the base station to mobile terminal) of the symbols for achieving high spectral efficiency. . The main aim of OFDMA is to send the low rate modulations in a parallel stream rather than sending a high rate wave front. the frequencies and modulations of frequency division multiplexing are arranged orthogonally to each other to eliminate any interference between the channels. Basic principle:In this technique. It provides high performance on full bandwidth usage.

. • This spacing provides the "orthogonality" in this method which prevents the receivers/demodulators from seeing frequencies other than their own specific one.•Orthogonal FDM's spread spectrum technique spreads the data over a lot of carriers that are spaced apart at precise frequencies.

The first symbol in the frame is used for preamble transmission. groups of subcarriers are considered together since subcarriers are too large in number to handle the allocation plane. OFDMA is employed both on the uplink (UL) and the downlink (DL) . The frame is then divided into OFDM symbols (for e. For supporting numerous services. a group of OFDM symbols are handled together for minimizing the signaling overhead and achieving granularity in the achievable rates. .e. The base station (BS) announces a schedule after every frame period (i.. Subcarrier’s resource mapping Subcarrier (also known as resource elements in LTE) is the smallest granular unit in the frequency domain and OFDM symbol duration is the smallest granular unit in the time domain [2].. Frame Structure: In WiMAX. 48) Some of them are allocated for downlink (DL) and the rest for uplink (UL) transmissions. frame duration of 5 ms is used along with time division duplexing (TDD). For control and data transmissions sub channels are then formed out of a group of subcarriers [2]. 5 ms) to convey the downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) allocation.g.        In WiMAX. In an OFDM symbol.

Sub channels will be different for different users. Frequency Diversity o In WiMAX sub channels are formed by grouping 24 subcarriers. For sending all the basic control messages diversity based sub channelization approach is employed. Hence interference diversity cannot be used for BAMC transmissions . A group of four bins is termed as a band where each bin constitutes 8 data and 1 pilot subcarrier. groups of adjacent subcarriers are spread out over a few OFDM symbols in the BAMC approach. in the PUSC (partially used subcarriers) sub channelization method. This pseudorandom selection of the positions of the subcarriers over the entire band depends on the CELL_ID. the user experiences interference diversity which is likely to provide improved performance as compared to the dominant interferer case.  Multiuser Diversity ◦ For achieving multiuser diversity in WiMAX. present in different parts of the spectrum. Hence. The subcarriers are then arranged into groups of 9 adjacent subcarriers called as bins. Note that interference diversity leverages only in the case of PUSC transmissions. . The base station chooses 2 bins in one of these bands and assigns the same bin over 3 consecutive OFDM symbols which results in 48 data subcarriers for a BAMC slot.  Interference Diversity ◦ Sub channel formation in WiMAX depends on the CELL_ID.

a different RB can be used in the second slot of the sub frame to leverage FD (frequency diversity) instead of using the similar RB in the second part of the sub frame [2]. Hence there is no interference diversity on the downlink (DL) in LTE [2].   Interference Diversity . The base station (BS) programs transmissions after every 1 ms and the subcarriers form resource blocks for allocation on the downlink (DL) [2].   Multiuser Diversity In LTE. The base station receives configuration from the channel feedback in LTE for its scheduled downlink (DL).    Subcarrier’s resource mapping Frequency Diversity In LTE.5 ms duration. the frame duration of 10 ms is divided to form sub frames of 1 ms duration. A sub frame is used to form two slots each of 0. a RB (resource block) constitutes the similar 12 adjacent subcarriers for 7 OFDM symbols. Usually. In LTE. the BTS opts for the RB for sending data to a user. it cannot coexist in time [2]. It makes use of the channel feedback from the mobile device to schedule a RB for the user in a frame. RBs are allocated to the users independent of the CELL_ID.   LTE uses OFDMA only on the downlink (DL). Frame Structure: In LTE. The interference on the downlink (DL) will not be randomly distributed across RBs of adjacent cells. In LTE simultaneous use of FD and MUD for different users is possible whereas in WiMAX. 160 ms is the maximum gap between feedback messages and is 2 ms is the minimum duration between feedback messages and the channel status report is requested from the mobile by the BTS in a periodic feedback. However.

SCFDMA provides low peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) as compared to OFDMA.       It can be used for the uplink transmission of the symbols. . It is a channel allocation scheme used for data transmission based on single carrier frequency division multiplexing technique that allows the transmission of the symbols across a single carrier . The techniques used for splitting the data is IFFT and Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) which performs the task of splitting the data across multiple sub-carriers and transmitting virtually as a single carrier. DFT is performed prior to IFFT. as the data is transmitted along the multiple subcarriers and if one subcarrier is in problem it is easy to recover the data from the other subcarriers based on frequency selection for the channel. But the recovery of data at the receiver side requires the selection of the data from the multiple subcarriers and requires more efforts for removing the error in the data. In this scheme.

It provides high spectral efficiency and link reliability facilitating significant increase in the data throughput and radio link usage without additional bandwidth and transmission power.  This is an antenna technology which uses multiple channels in radios to provide the functions of both the transmitter and receiver of data signals sent over the network as shown in the figure. . This high efficiency is due to the availability of an independent path in a rich scattering environment for each transmitter and receiver antennas in the radio.

This allows transmission and reception to and from multiple users using the same band. .  This is the variant antenna technology that enhances the communication capabilities of the individual radio terminal used by radios in the network by introducing multiple independent radio terminals.

multi-standard user terminals and base stations which allows accessibility across various wireless and wireline heterogeneous networks. multi-band. Advantages flexibility in network expansion i. It is used for implementation of the multimodal. operator can expands its network infrastructure by adding few modems to base station transceiver system. multiband and multi-standard user equipments. It reduces the cost for development of multimodal.      SDR is a radio communication system implemented as software on the personal computer or embedded devices. . It scans the available networks and then reconfigures itself for the selected network by downloading the software specific to that network.e.

   Mobile station:  Multimode user terminal  Wireless network discovery  Wireless network selection System:  Terminal mobility  Network infrastructure and QoS support  Security  Fault tolerance Services:  Multiple operators and billing system  Personal mobility .

. Apple iPhone 5s supports the TD LTE 40 band but its yet to be launched in India. Jio Infocomm. Mumbai and Kolkata and expand to cover 700 cities. Bangalore. including 100 high-priority markets. Pune and Chandigarh region (The Tricity or Chandigarh region consists of a major city Chandigarh. India uses the TD LTE frequency #40 (2. RIL is launching 4G services through its subsidiary. RIL 4G services are currently available only in Jamnagar. using TD-LTE technology. RIL 4G rollout is planned to start in Delhi.    Bharti Airtel launched India's first 4G service. where it is testing the new TD-LTE technology. in Kolkata on April 10. Mohali and Panchkula. Airtel 4G services are available in Kolkata. 2012.3 GHz).

Ofcom announced that mobile network operators would be allowed to repurpose their existing 2G and 3G spectrum. specifically in the 900.Both O2 and Vodafone launched their 4G networks on August 29.100 MHz bands. It was the first US carrier to offer a WiMAX phone. 2013. for 4G services.800 and 2.  United Kingdom-On July 9.O3 will launch their 4G network in December 2013. 1.Canada-Telus and Bell Canada. have announced that they will be cooperating towards building a fourth generation (4G) LTE wireless broadband network in Canada.  . the major Canadian cdmaOne and EV-DO carriers. .  United States-Sprint had deployed WiMAX technology which it has labeled 4G as of October 2008. 2013.

The WiMax and Long Term Evolution (LTE) 4G networks now being built will be able to handle broadcast-quality data loads over much cheaper. functional and secure for the mobile users. Live Mobile Video.This has led to the development of special gears and services for the health-care operations that will provide better. faster. Mobile/Portable Gaming  Since most gaming platforms have Wi-Fi connectivity built in. one developer. and less expensive medical and emergency care. For instance. Emergence Response and Tele-medicine  4G networks have the ability to transfer large files(like x-rays) in quick time along with providing interactive video for remote physician monitoring and direction. faster. D. obviating the need for satellite connectivity in the field. .A. and more mobile connections than satellite trucks.  4G wireless networks provide many features to handle the current challenges in video communication . you can easily use the portable modem to share a 4G connection with five to eight different devices thus broadening the use of 4G for swift portable gaming experience. C. offers a WiMax-based modem that attaches to the back of a professional video camera. Cloud-Based Apps  The emergence of the 4G wireless network will make cloud computing—working with data and apps that are stored online—even more winsome than it is today with the cloud services becoming considerably more reliable. B. Nomad Innovations.

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