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# The Four Fundamental Forces

1. Gravity
Weaker 1. 2. Announcements Exam#3 next Monday. HW10 will be posted today. Solutions will be posted Sat. afternoon or Sunday AM. (I’m not collecting HW#10) Q&A session on Sunday at 5 pm. Tentative course grades will be posted by Tuesday evening. You can do no worse than this grade if you skip the final (but you could do better if you take it) Final Exam, Friday, May 2 10:15 – 12:15 in Stolkin.

2. Weak Force

3. 4. 5.

3. Electromagnetic force
6.

Stronger

4. Strong Force

All other forces you know about can be attributed to one of these!

the photon can mediate interactions between quarks and charged leptons. .The Photon (g) Property Mass Charge Value 0 0  The photon is the “mediator” of the electromagnetic interaction  The photon can only interact with objects which have electric charge  So.

Feynman Diagram for e+ e.  In this interaction (scattering). .since the emission (or absorption) of a photon (Q=0) cannot produce a change in electric charge. the charge of the e+ cannot be replaced by an e.  After emission or absorption of the photon.(e+). the incoming particles are deflected but the electron & positron in the final state are the same ones as the initial state.Scattering Initial (e+e-) Final (e+e-) e+ e+ g Electron-Positron Scattering eImportant Points etime  The photon may be emitted (absorbed) by either the e+ (e-) or the e.

in the initial or final state.on each side of the photon.Annihilation Initial (e+e-) Final (e+e-) e+ Electron-Positron Annihilation eImportant Points e- g e+  The electron and positron annihilate into pure energy in the form of a photon  The photon’s energy is equal to the sum of the electron & positron energies. but you must have one e+ and one e. .  In this process.  You can flip the arrangement of the e+ or e. the photon must break back into a particle & its antiparticle.  The combined energy of the particle and anti-particle must be equal to the energy of the photon.Feynman Diagram for e+ e.

Conservation Laws are Key ! . total energy and total charge is always conserved throughout. Initial (e+e-) Final (e+e-) e+ e- e+ e- e- g g e+ eg Energy 10 GeV Q 0 Energy e+ Notice that total energy and total charge never changed !!! .Conservation Laws In any physical process.They allow you to predict things! Energy Q +1 -1 0 Q +1 -1 0 e+ eTotal 5 GeV 5 GeV 10 GeV e+ eTotal 5 GeV 5 GeV 10 GeV .

7 GeV /c2) C) t (175 GeV /c2) D) s (0. D) The other particle is an anti-up quark. What is the energy of the produced photon? A) 8 [GeV] B) 4 [GeV] C) 16 [GeV] D) 0 [GeV] If the photon splits into an up quark and a second particle. which of the following is true? A) The other particle is an electron B) The other particle is a positron.2 GeV /c2) . What is the heaviest quark which can be produced ? A) c (1. C) The other particle is a d quark.5 GeV/c2) B) b (4.Example 1 Suppose you collide a 4 [GeV] electron into a 4 [GeV] positron and they annihilate. E) The other particle is an anti-down quark.

99 4.995 4.005 0.5 Kinetic Energy (GeV) 4.7 0.3 -1/3 +1/3 g 10 GeV 0 . qq Initial (e+e-) Final (uu) e+ q q/q u Total Energy (GeV) 5 GeV 5 GeV 5 GeV 5 GeV 5 GeV 5 GeV Mass Energy (GeV) 0.01 1.995 4.005 0.7 4.01 0.5 3.5 1.e+e.99 3.5 Q +2/3 -2/3 -1/3 +1/3 +2/3 -2/3 eEnergy g Q +1 u q d d c c e+ 5 GeV eTotal 5 GeV 10 GeV -1 0 Energy b b Q 5 GeV 5 GeV 4.3 0.

Example 2 e+ q e- g q Suppose you wanted to have a top quark and top antiquark in the final state. Which of the following choices are capable of producing this final state with reference to this figure? (mass of top quark is 175 GeV/c2)? A) Energy(electron) = 175 [GeV] B) Energy(electron) = 300 [GeV] C) Energy(electron) = 175 [GeV] D) Energy(electron) = 200 [GeV] and Energy(positron) = 0 [GeV] and Energy(positron) = 50 [GeV] and Energy(positron) = 175 [GeV] and Energy(positron) = 200 [GeV] .

e.Example 3 e+ t+ Assume the energy of the electron and positron are each 3 [GeV]. m. how much total energy would each have? A) 0.8 [GeV] C) 1.lepton in the final state (mass of t lepton is ~1.2 [GeV] D) 0 [GeV] 2) If the leptons were a pair of muons (m~0. and t have that allow the photon to produce them? .0 [GeV] C) 2.1 [GeV]). e- g t- Suppose you wanted to have a t+ and t.9 [GeV] D) 6 [GeV] 3) What property is it that quarks.8 [GeV/c2])? 1) How much kinetic energy does the t+ have after the collision? A) 3 [GeV] B) 1.1 [GeV] B) 3.

Where did you get the quarks and antiquarks in the first place ? (Not at Wal-Mart. I can assure you)! .Hmmm. I’ve got a few question. Mister! Quark Antiquark Annihilation q e+ q g e- 1.

the ANTIPROTON… . the PROTON… And. antiquarks?… u d u Introducing.Where do we get quark and anti quarks from? Hmmm… u d u Introducing. the humble antiparticle of the proton.

quark-antiquark collisions ! .Proton-Antiproton Collisions u d u u u d u u d u u d u u d u u d At high energies. the collisions actually occur between the quarks in the protons and the antiquarks in the antiproton! That is.

db. tt (Nature does not make g  uc. cc.Summary of EM Interactions 1. ss. dd. g  e+e-. bb. etc) 4. Feynman diagrams are a pictorial method for expressing a type of interaction. . m+m -. The Photon is the mediator of the EM Interaction. 2. like-type leptons or quarks. t+t— g  uu. You can apply energy and momentum conservation to all these interactions ! . 5. 3. The photon is massless and has no electrical charge. Photon can convert into pairs of oppositely-charged.This means that EM interactions occur via photons.

The Need for a “Strong Force” Why do protons stay together in the nucleus. despite the fact that they have the same electric charge?  They should repel since they have like charge Why do protons and neutrons in the nucleus bind together?  Since the neutron is electrically neutral. there should be no EM binding between protons and neutrons. .

The Strong Force  For the EM interactions.  Gluons can interact with other gluons !!!! . but the photon does not carry electric charge. the quarks)  The most striking difference between the gluon and the photon is: The gluon carries color charge. A force carrier. we learned that: The photon mediates the interaction between objects which carry electrical charge  For the Strong Interactions. we conjecture that: Quarks have an additional „charge‟ called “color charge” or just “color” for short. called the gluon mediates the interaction between objects which carry color charge (that is.

Comparison Strong and EM force Property Force Carrier Mass Charge ? Charge types Mediates interaction between: EM Photon (g) 0 None +. All objects with electrical charge Infinite ( 1/d2) Strong Gluon (g) 0 Yes. color charge red. green. blue All objects with color charge 10-14 [m] (inside hadrons) Range .

you would see them as being colored.  Experiments show that there are 3 colors. not 2. This “color” that we refer to is an “intrinsic property” and color is just a nice way to visualize it. without much explanation. we stated.  Again. this does not mean that if you could see quarks. that quarks come in 3 colors. but 3.Color Charge of Quarks  Recall. .  “color charge”  “electrical charge”  strong-force as EM force. not 4.

Color of Hadrons (II) BARYONS q1 q3 q2 RED + BLUE + GREEN = “WHITE” or “COLORLESS” MESONS q q q GREEN + ANTIGREEN = “COLORLESS” RED + ANTIRED = “COLORLESS” BLUE + ANTIBLUE = “COLORLESS” q q q Hadrons observed in nature are colorless (but there constituents are not) .