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Global Positioning System

Global Positioning System (GPS) is an
experimental technology that uses satellites to view specific fields and crops. The GPS uses its view from space to provide a computerized picture that will aid field crop management and increase yield per acre.

*A single crop producers field can contain 3 or 4 different soil types, with varying fertility, drainage, organic content and nitrogen levels. Traditionally, agricultural production method required that fields be treated uniformly despite these field variances in soil type, weed and disease incidence, and topography. Often this led to over or under applications of inputs such as fertilizer, seed, water, and pesticides. Overused often results in wasted resources and pollution. By mapping fields using the GPS, farmers can vary their seeding, irrigation, fertilization and cultivation practices to accommodate each section of their field thus creating an increase of yield.

Origin of GPS

GPS was originally designed for military defense systems of the U.S. Department of Defense. The system consists of 24 satellites that circle the earth every 12 hours, orbiting 10, 900 miles above the earth. Infrared vision found in satellites can distinguished healthy crops from sick ones, locate problem spots, distinguish high weed and other less productive areas. The GPS system consists of 4 components: a GPS receiver, a crop yield monitor, a digital soil fertility map, and variable rate application technology (VRT). In many cases, the crop producers may use an inexpensive hand-held GPS receiver or attach the GPS system to equipment that will automatically vary application rates. The application rate of seed, fertilizer, pesticides and water is varied by sensors mounted on a truck or tractor that will allow computer-controlled nozzles to know the location of the field; here, soils and crop needs are amended by specific applications of inputs.

Genetic Engineering

bypasses the natural selection process by inserting the desired gene into the chromosomes of a living organism.

Advantages of Using Genetic Engineering 1. Transforming a single gene. 2. Transfer to a totally unrelated plant. 3. Making hybrids from plants that can not be crosspollinated. - can create hybrid by pollinating plants back to themselves and planting the seed. 4. Producing disease-resistant plants. 5. Producing plants that are toxic to insects but not to humans. 6. Producing crops that are tolerant of herbicides.

Gene Mapping
Gene Splicing

the process of finding and recording the location of a particular gene on a chromosome.

allow scientists to transfer genes within and between species to obtained desired characters without waiting for useful gene mutations to occur naturally. - allows science to control and direct genetic changes in organisms in a much more orderly manner and at a much more rapid rate compared to selective breeding.


a process through which genetically identical individuals are produced or the creation of an exact genetic copy of another.

Under cloning includes:

Cloning Plants Embryo Splitting Embryo Transfer


accomplished by stimulating cell division in a single plant cell to produce a complete plant. To do this, the cell must be returned to a state in which it is undifferentiated into special tissues. If the cells in the culture medium came from leaves, they must be changed by adding hormones to cause all the genes to become functional again. The cells resulting from this treatment are called callus. Once this is accomplished, the culture medium is changed to include nutrients and hormones that cause the genes to switch on and off in a proper order to stimulate growth of roots, stems, leaves, and other plant organs. This procedure is referred to as tissue culture.


a form of individuals produced through the use of this technology are genetically identical. It is accomplished by dividing a growing embryo using a form of microscopic surgery. An embryo in the 16- to 32-cell stage can be successfully split into two or more viable embryos.


transfer of embryo without first splitting it can obtain pregnancy rate for about 65 percent.

Gender Selection

is the ability to control the sex of offspring at the time of mating.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the only difference between X (female) and Y (male) sperm. The X chromosome is larger and contains slightly more DNA than the Y chromosome. * Flow cytometer an instrument that can identify X and Y sperm cells.

Advantages of Sperm Sexing Dairy farmers could produce female calves for herd replacement, thus reducing the time and expenses of raising bull calves for slaughter. Beef producers want mainly male cattle because they gain weight faster than females and usually command a higher price at slaughter.


Production Hormones Hormones chemical messenger produced by a ductless gland a

tissue and carried in the blood to a target organ where it effects a change in cellular activity. Types of Hormone

2. 3.

Protein Glycoprotein protein hormone with carbohydrate molecules

Hormone Receptor is a receptor protein on the surface of a cell or in its interior that binds to a specific hormone. 1. Bovine Somatotropin (BST) production of milk can be increased as much as 20 to 40 percent by treating dairy cows with growth hormones.

Animal Growth Hormones

2. Porcine Somatotropin (PST) - enhance muscle growth on young pigs.

3. Fish Growth Hormones fish injected with such hormones increases 11 growth up to 50 percent faster than other fish.

Domesticated Animals in the Future

Dairy Cattle Beef Cattle Poultry

Sheep Catfish

Swine Bees Transgenic Animals - created through gene transfer.



Agricultural Computer Use computer is an

important tool for efficient and time saving progress in agriculture. Computer software applications record milk productivity in dairy herds, and compare milk output to feed consumption. Also help gardeners and landscaping professionals. It also aid the livestock industry by calculating balance animal diets consisting o0f effective combinations of feeds that will provide all necessary nutrients at the least cost to the producer. It evaluates production records in order to aid in the selection of superior animals for breeding.


Electronic Animal Management Systems

Robotic Milking System to eliminate manual labors in milking.

Electronic Sensors control livestock ventilation in confinement livestock production. Robotic Sheep Shearing Birthing Sensors detect when a pregnant animal is ready to give birth.


Tissue Culture - plants are grown from tissue

obtained from the parent plant, such as buds, leaf parts or terminal shoots. It allows many new plants, which are genetically identical to the parent stock, to be propagated rapidly.

Advantage of Tissue Culture

One leaf-tip cutting can produce 4,096 plants in a year Can propagate woody ornamental plants that are hard-topropagate naturally Each plant produced is a clone, an exact replica of the parent plant.


Chance of introducing a contaminant into the laboratory, which could spread and cause the death of the plants in the lab that would result in great monetary loss and as well as loss of time and labor.




- many fruit and vegetable plants are highly sensitive to freezing temperatures. Some plants sustain severe damage anytime freezing occurs during the growing season. Other plants are damaged only when they are flowering or when fruit is immature. The length of time the temperature is at or below freezing and the number of degrees below freezing make a major difference in the amount of damage that occurs. Special frost-free spray when applied to plants it prevents them from freezing. Some bacteria help ice to form on plants at temperatures just above the freezing point.



chemical compounds that are found naturally in plants to express certain genes. They play a role in regulating the growth of roots, stems and leaves, and in controlling the development of fruits and seeds.
genetic engineers have been successful in transferring salt-tolerant genes into some species of useful forage crops. Using ocean water as the only source of water available to these new plants, good yields have been produced. As additional plants are developed that are tolerant to salt, crop production using ocean water for irrigation may become reality on some desert lands.


INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) uses many methods to control pests.

1. Cultural Control a practice that is less favorable for the survival, growth and
reproduction of the pest. Some cultural methods are frequent cultivation, adjusting dates of planting and harvest, crop rotation, appropriate choice of good seed and proven varieties, water management and solarization.

2. Mechanical Control use machines and equipment to remove or destroy pest


> Use of barriers such as screen and netting > Artificially raising or lowering temperatures

> Direct mechanical destruction such as the use of shredders, rollers, plows and soil pulverizers
> sterilizing of soil pathogens on the host. > Flaming

3. Biological Control depend on the action of the parasites, predators and

> Conservation of parasites and predators

> Introduction of species

> Augmentation of parasites, predators and pathogens

4. Pesticide Control 17

Thirteen Essential Elements for Growing Plants

Nitrogen (N) accumulates the tissues of young plants. Phosphorus (P) most often found in great concentration in the fruiting tissue of a plant rather than a vegetative tissue.. Potassium (K) cell plasma and leaf tips will be the site of potassium storage. Magnesium (Mg) element can move from one plant to another with ease. Sulfur (S) element is not mobile and is required in small amounts. Calcium (Ca) not a transferable element.

Iron used to prevent chlorosis in the tissue of the plant. Boron is supplied to a plant as boric acid or borax. Manganese helps keep tissue healthy. Manganese helps keep tissue healthy. Zinc works with light quantity and helps leaf tissue grow. Copper helps head off chlorosis. Molybdenum needed only in minute quantities and is sometimes identified as an impurity in the nutrient solution. Chlorine about 10 20 ppm is needed by plants for optimum growth.