# Lecture 24 - EE743

Lecture 24 - EE743
3-Phase Induction Machines
Torque Speed characteristics
Professor: Ali Keyhani Professor: Ali Keyhani
2
Importance of T-speed characteristics
s
Torque speed characteristic of a motor is important from
the point of view of its applications to specific situations.
To calculate the torque produced by the machine, first, we
compute the motor power. The motor power, or the
mechanical power supplied to the load is
The electrical power inputted to the machine can be
calculated from the eq. circuit given below
losses in em
P P P − ·
3
Importance of T-speed characteristics
4
Machine Torque
s
Power dissipated is
s
Motor power P
em
is
s
Motor torque can be calculated from
{ ¦

,
`

.
|
+ · ·
s
R
R I I V P
'
2
1
2
1
*
1 1 1
3
~ ~
Re 3
ext rotor
R R R
X a X
R a R
+ ·
·
·
2
2
2 '
2
2
2 '
2
( ) ( )
'
2 1
2
1 2
2
1
2
1
3 3 R R I R a R I P + · + ·

( )
2
1
'
2
'
2 1
'
2
1
2
1
1
3 3 I R
s
s
R R
s
R
R I P
em

·
]
]
]

+ −

,
`

.
|
+ ·
m em em
T P ω ·
2
1
'
2
1 3
I R
s
s
T
m
em

,
`

.
|

·
ω
5
Machine Torque
s
Since T
m
can be written as
s
Substituting for I
1
in equation (3), we will have
( ) s
sync m
− · 1 ω ω
2
1
'
2
3
I
s
R
T
sync
em
ω
·
( )
2
'
2 1
2
'
2
1
2
1
2
1
X X
s
R
R
V
I
+ +

,
`

.
|
+
·
( )
2
'
2 1
2
'
2
1
2
1
'
2
3
X X
s
R
R
V
s
R
T
sync
em
+ +

,
`

.
|
+
·
ω
6
Power calculations
s
Figure 2 shows the plot of equation (3) for the values of slip
from zero to unity. In Fig.1 . This
corresponds to the normal range of the speed of an induction
motor from starting (ω
m
=0, s=1) to the synchronous speed (ω
m
=
ω
sync
, s=0)
( )
ext
R R a R + ·
2
2 '
2
7
s
max
and T
max
calculation
s
To find s
max
first set derivative of (4) with respect to s
equal to zero.
s
Which will results in
s
substituting s
max
in (4) will result in T
max
0 ·
ds
dT
m
( )
2
'
2 1
2
1
'
2
max
X X R
R
s
+ +
t ·
( )
]
]
]

+ + +
t ·
2
'
2 1
2
1 1
2
max
2
3
X X R R
V
T
sync
ω
8
Torque-speed characteristic
s
Equation (5) shows that the slip at which the maximum torque
occurs is proportional to the rotor resistance. Equation (6) shows
that the maximum torque is independent of the rotor resistance
9
Torque-speed characteristic
s
The machine is operating as a motor for the range of s for
which the torque-speed curves are shown in fig.1 and fig.2.
In this range, torque is positive and ω
sync
is greater than rotor
speed ω
m
. Note that the torque is zero at slip equal to zero.
As was state before, slip is given by
s
Let us consider three different cases:
sync
m sync
s
ω
ω ω −
·
10
Torque-speed characteristic
s
Case 1: ω
sync
and ω
m
are rotating in the same direction and ω
sync
is rotating faster than ω
m
.
s
Case 2: ω
sync
and ω
m
are rotating in the same direction and ω
sync
is rotating slower than ω
m
.
s
Case 3: ω
sync
and ω
m
are rotating in different directions.
11
Torque-speed characteristic. Case 1.
s
Case 1: ω
sync
and ω
m
are rotating in the same direction and ω
sync
is rotating faster than ω
m
.

This case is the normal operation of the induction machine. Machine
operates as a motor. Note also in equation (7) ω
sync
and ω
m
are in
the same direction and the slip is positive for motor operation
12
Torque-speed characteristic. Case 2.
s
Case 2: ω
sync
and ω
m
are rotating in the same direction and ω
sync
is rotating slower than ω
m
.

If the speed of the machine is increased beyond its synchronous
speed by an external prime motor, but still rotated in the same
direction as the stator field, the slip will be negative (s<0). This
region (s<0) corresponds to the generator operation. For this region,
torque is negative. This means that the mechanical power is required
to drive the machine, which in turn delivers electric power at the
stator terminals
13
Torque-speed characteristic. Case 3.
s
Case 3: ω
sync
and ω
m
are rotating in different directions.

Suppose an induction motor is operating under normal conditions at
the same value of positive slip in stable region (0<s<s
max
). Now we
interchange any two terminals of the stator. This reverses the
direction of the stator rotating field. The rotor speed ω
m
may now be
considered as a negative with respect to that of the stator field. For
this case, s>1 and power loss in the variable resistance is
negative, indicating that mechanical energy is being converted to
electric energy. Both the power fed from stator and power fed from
rotor are lost as heat in the rotor resistance. This region is called the
braking region
'
2
1
R
s
s −
14
Example 1
s
On no-load a 3-phase delta-connected induction motor
takes 6.8A and 390W at 220V line to line. R
1
=0.1Ω/phase,
friction and windage losses are 120W. Determine X
m,
and
R
m
of the motor equivalent circuit.
A
I
I
line
phase
926 . 3
3
8 . 6
3
· · ·
L L phase
V V V

· · 220
W R I
phase phase
54 . 1
2
·
m
phase
R
V
W losses Core
2
46 . 88 54 . 1
3
120 390
· · −

·
Ω · · 14 . 547
46 . 88
220
2
m
R

⋅ · ·

1
10 828 . 1
1
3
m
m
R
G
15
Example 1

⋅ · · ·

1
10 84 . 17
220
926 . 3
3
V
I
Y
m
m

⋅ · − · ·

1
10 746 . 17
1
3 2 2
m m
m
m
G Y
X
B
Ω · 35 . 56
m
X
16
Example 2
s
The motor of the previous example take 30A and 480W at
36V line-to-line, when the rotor is blocked. Determine the
complete equivalent circuit of the motor. Assume that
X
1
=X’
2
.
( )
eq eq eq
X R Z X X · Ω · −

,
`

.
|
· − · + 0 . 2 533 . 0
3 / 30
36
2
2
2 2 '
2 1
( )
( )
eq
R R R · Ω · · + 533 . 0
3 / 30
3 / 480
2
'
2 1
Ω · Ω · 433 . 0 1 . 0
'
2 1
R so R
Ω · ≅ · 1
2
2 1
eq
X
X X
17
Example 3
s
An induction motor has an output of 30kW at η=0.86. For
this operating condition P
coil,1
=P
coil,2
=P
core
=P
rot.
Determine the slip
φ 3 ,
0
in
P
P
Eff ·
W
Eff
P
P
in
884 , 34
86 . 0
000 , 30
0
3 ,
· · ·
φ
W P
loss
884 , 4 000 , 30 884 , 34
3 ,
· − ·
φ
M
18
Example 3
W P P P P P
rot core
R
AG
663 , 33
'
2
0
· + + + ·
φ
φ
3 ,
3 ,
'
2
AG
R
P
P
s ·
W P
R
221 , 1
4
884 , 4
'
2
· ·
% 6 . 3 036 . 0
663 , 33
221 , 1
or s · ·
19
Example 4
s
A wound rotor six-pole 60Hz ind. motor has R’
2
=0.8Ω and
runs at 1152 rpm (s=0.04) at a given load. The load torque
remains constant at all speeds. How much resistance must
be inserted in the rotor circuit to change the speed to 960
rpm (s=0.2). Neglect the motor leakage reactance, X
1
and
X
2
.
The air gap power function is:
( )
2
'
2 1
2
'
2
1
2
1
'
2
'
2
2
'
2
3 3
X X
s
R
R
V
s
R
s
R
I P
g
+ +

,
`

.
|
+
≅ ·
20
Example 4
s
If (see eq. circuit ), the voltage, current,
air-gap power, and torque conditions remain the same, i.e
t cons
s
R
tan
'
2
·
. .
'
2
Const T then Const
s
R
· ·
2 . 0 04 . 0
' '
2
'
2 insert
R R R +
·
Ω · − · − · 2 . 3 8 . 0 ) 8 . 0 ( 5
04 . 0
2 . 0
'
2
'
2
'
R R R
insert
21
Example 5
s
A 400V, 3-phase WYE connected motor has
, and
using the approx. eq. circuit. Determine the max.
electromagnetic power, P
d

( ) phase j Z / 2 . 1 6 . 0
1
Ω + ·
( ) phase j Z / 3 . 1 5 . 0
'
2
Ω + ·
( )
2
'
2 1
2
'
2
1
1
2 1
1
'
2
X X
s
R
R
V
Z Z
V
I
+ +

,
`

.
|
+
·
+
·
V V 231
3
400
1
· ·
( )
2
2
'
2
5 . 2
5 . 0
6 . 0
231
+

,
`

.
|
+
·
s
I
22
Example 5
( ) ( ) s function I R
s
s
P s R I P P
g g d
·

· − · − ·
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
2
'
2
1
1
( )
C Bs s
s s A
P
d
+ +

·
2
2
( ) ( )
( )
( ) B s
C Bs s
s s A
C Bs s
s A
ds
dP
d
+
+ +

+ +

· · 2
2 1
0
2
2
2
2
155 . 0
max
·
d
P at
s
( )
( )
W
C Bs s
s s A
P
s
phase d
962 , 6
155 . 0
2
2
2
max, ,
·
+ +

·
·
W P
phase d
886 , 20 962 , 6 3
3 max, ,
· × ·

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