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Spring 2004
ECE 8830  Electric Drives
Generic Electric Motor
Below figure shows cartoon of induction
motor. Most (but not all) machines have
this structure.
Ref: J.L. Kirtley, Jr. MIT Course 6.11s (June 2003)Course Notes
Generic Electric Motor (cont’d)
Rotor  mounted on shaft supported by
bearings (usually rotor on inside
 but not always)
 shown with conductors but may
have permanent magnets instead
 sometimes just an oddly shaped
piece of steel (variable reluctance
machines)
Stator  armature (electrical input) on
stator (opposite to DC brush motor)
 on outside with windings
In most electric motors, rotor and stator
are made of highly magnetically permeable
materials  steel or iron.
In many common motors, rotor and stator
are made of thin sheets of silicon steel
(laminations). Punched into these sheets are
slots which contain rotor and stator
conductors.
Generic Electric Motor (cont’d)
Generic Electric Motor (cont’d)
Timevarying magnetic fields passing
through ferromagnetic materials
(iron/steel) > eddy currents to flow
> energy loss (power dissipation).
Laminations (thin sheets of steel) are used
to minimize eddy current losses.
Windings  many turns of Al/Cu conductor
concentrically wound about a common
axis.
Field winding carries excitation flux.
Armature winding carries electrical power.
Basic Principles of Operation of
Electric Motors
Changes in flux linkage between
rotor and stator creates torque and
therefore relative motion between
rotor and stator.
F=q(vxB)
F= l(ixB)
Basic Principles of Operation of
Electric Motors (cont’d)
Electrical Radians and
Synchronous Speed
Electrical Radians and
Synchronous Speed (cont’d)
frequency of
induced voltage
where P= # of poles
p=# of pole pairs and
N=synchronous speed of rotor (rpm)
m m e
p
P
θ θ θ · ·
2
m m e
p
P
ω ω ω · ·
2
π
ω
2 60 60 2
m
p
N
p
N P
f · · ·
electrical rads.
electrical rads./sec.
Hz
Flux per Pole
Consider a sinusoidally distributed flux
density, B(θ
e
)=B
pk
cos θ
e
. The flux per pole
is given by:
lR B
P
lRd B
pk m e pk pole
e
e
4
cos
2 /
2 /
· ·
∫
−
θ θ φ
π
π
Induced Voltage
Fullpitched coil w/N turns moving
laterally w.r.t. sinusoidal flux density.
Induced Voltage (cont’d)
At t=0 coil’s axis coincides w/flux density
wave peak. Thus, at time t, flux linked by
coil is given by:
∴ induced voltage in fullpitch coil is
given by:
) cos( ) ( t N t
e pole
ω φ λ ·
t N t
dt
d
N
dt
d
e
e pole e e
pole
ω φ ω ω
φ
λ
sin cos − · ·
transformer voltage speed voltage
RMS Value of Induced Voltage
RMS value of sinusoidally varying speed
voltage term is:
In high power ac machines may have
distributed or shortpitch windings. Use
distribution and pitch factors (k
d
and k
p
respectively) to account for these designs.
The rms value of the induced voltage
under these conditions becomes:
where k
w
=k
d
k
p
is the winding factor.
pole rms
fN E φ 44 . 4 ·
pole w rms
N fk E φ 44 . 4 ·
Distribution Factor
Phase windings may have series/parallel
coils under a different polepair. Within
each polepair region, the coils of a
distributed winding are spread out over
several pairs of slots.
Distribution Factor (cont’d)
The voltages induced in component coils
for a single phase winding occupying
adjacent slots will be separated by the
slot angle separating them α
s
e
(electrical
angle subtended by arc between two
adjacent slots.)
Distribution Factor (cont’d)
The distribution factor can be defined as the
ratio of the resultant voltage with coils
distributed to resultant voltage if coils were in
one location, i.e.
k
d
= Resultant voltage of coils under one polepair E
pole

Arithmetic sum of coil voltages Σ
i
E
ci

If a phase winding has q coils/phase/pole, 
E
pole
 = 2R
E
sin(qα
s
e
/2) and E
ci
=2R
E
sin(α
s
e
/2),
and
) 2 / sin(
) 2 / sin(
e
s
e
s
d
q
q
k
α
α
·
Pitch Factor
Shortpitching is when coils with
less than one polepitch are used.
Pitch Factor (cont’d)
Shortpitching is used in machines with
fractionalslot windings (nonintegral
slots/pole or slots/pole/phase) in a double
layer winding arrangement. Allows for a
finite set of stampings with a fixed number
of slots to be used for different speed
machines.
Also, shortpitching can be used to
suppress certain harmonics in the phase
emfs. Although shortpitching also offers
shorter end connections, the resultant
fundamental phase emf is reduced.
Pitch Factor (cont’d)
The pitch factor k
p
is defined by:
k
p
= Resultant voltage in shortpitch coil
Arithmetic sum of voltages induced in full coil
With sinusoidal voltages, each coil voltage
is the phasor sum of its two coilside
voltages. Thus, for coil a, E
ca
= E
a
+E
a
=>
2
cos

~
 2
~
e
a
ca
p
E
E
k
θ
· ·
Spatial MMF Distribution of a Winding
A current i flowing through a single coil
of n
c
turns creates a quasisquare wave
mmf of amplitude F
1
given by F
1
= n
c
i/2.
Spatial MMF Distribution of a
Winding (cont’d)
The fundamental component of this quasi
square wave mmf distribution is given by:
The fundamental component of the airgap
flux density in a uniform airgap machine is:
where g is the airgap.
e
c
a
i
n
F θ
π
cos
2
4
1
·
e
c a
i
n
g g
F
B θ
µ
π
µ cos
2
4
0 1
0 1
· ·
Effect of Distributing Phase Coils
Consider a threephase distributed
winding with 4 coils each per phase in a
2layer arrangement in a 2pole stator.
Effect of Distributing Phase Coils (cont’d)
If each coil has n
c
turns, the sum of the
fundamental mmf components produced
by coils a1
and a2 is given by:
where θ
e
is the angle measured from the
aphase winding and α
s
is the angle
between the center lines of adjacent slots.
Similarly for coils a3 and a4,
,
`
.

+ · +
− −
2
cos
4
2 2 1 1
s
e c a a a a
i n F F
α
θ
π
,
`
.

− · +
− −
2
cos
4
4 4 3 3
s
e c a a a a
i n F F
α
θ
π
Effect of Distributing Phase Coils (cont’d)
Therefore distribution factor is:
,
`
.

−
,
`
.

+ +
,
`
.

− +
,
`
.

+ ·
2
cos
2
cos 2
2
cos
2
cos
2
1
2 2
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e d
k
α
θ
α
θ
α
θ
α
θ
2
cos
s
α
·
Effect of ShortPitching
Consider a layout of windings that are short
pitched by one slot angle. Let’s consider this
to be made of four fictitious fullpitch coils:
(a1,a3), (a4,a2), (a2,a1) and (a3,a4).
Effect of ShortPitching (cont’d)
The fundamental mmf component from
these 4 fictitious fullpitch coils is given by:
1 , 2 4 , 3 2 , 4 3 , 1 a a a a a a a a a
F F F F F
− − − −
+ + + ·
( ) ( )
]
]
]
+ + − + ·
s e s e e c
i n α θ α θ θ
π
cos
2
1
cos
2
1
cos
4
2
cos cos
4
) cos 1 ( cos
4
2
s
e c s e c
i n i n
α
θ
π
α θ
π
· + ·
Effect of ShortPitching (cont’d)
Comparing this expression to:
and allowing for the distribution of the four
fullpitch coils by a k
d
of cos(α
s
/2), the
factor due to the shortpitching by one slot
angle is given by:
e p d c a
k ik n F θ
π
cos 2
4
·
2
cos
s
p
k
α
·
Effect of ShortPitching (cont’d)
In general, the expression for the
fundamental mmf component of a
distributed winding with winding factor
k
w
and a total of n
pole
turns over a two
pole region is given by:
e w
pole
a
ik
n
F θ
π
cos
2
4
1
·
Effect of ShortPitching (cont’d)
Assuming total phase turns N
ph
in the P
pole machine are divided equally among
P/2 polepair regions, number of turns per
polepair = N
ph
/P. In terms of Nph,
fundamental mmf is:
The effective number of fullpitch concentric
coils per polepair to achieve this same
fundamental mmf is:
e
w ph
a
i
P
k N
F θ
π
cos
4
1
,
`
.

·
P
k N
N
w ph
eff
2
·
Winding Inductances
Here we derive expressions for self and
mutual winding inductances for the
elementary machine shown below.
Winding Inductances (cont’d)
Selfinductance of the stator winding,L
ss
,
with N
effs
turns per polepair linking φ
pole
(ignoring leakage inductances) is given by:
Similarly, the selfinductance of the rotor
winding, L
rr
, with N
effr
turns per polepair is
given by:
lR N
g i
N P
L
effs
pole effs
ss
2
0
4
) 2 / (
µ
π
φ
· ·
lR N
g
L
effr rr
2
0
4 µ
π
·
Winding Inductances (cont’d)
An expression for the mutual inductance
between the stator and rotor windings can
be obtained by considering the flux linking
the windings, λ
rs
which is given by:
∴
]
]
]
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
∫
+
−
2 /
2 /
0
2
cos
2
4
2
π α
π α
θ θ
µ
π
λ
P
Rd i
N
g
l N
P
e e s
effs
effr rs
α
µ
π
cos
4
0
s effs effr
lRi N N
g
·
α
µ
π
λ
cos
4
0
lR N N
g i
L
effs effr
s
rs
rs
· ·
Rotating Fields
The fundamental component of space mmf
for a singlephase winding carrying a
sinusoidal current i=I
a
cosωt is given by:
where is the peak value
of the fundamental mmf and θ
a
is the
electrical angle measured in the counter
clockwise direction from the winding axis.
a m a
t F F θ ω cos cos
1 1
·
a
ph
w m
I
P
N
k F
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
π
4
1
Rotating Fields (cont’d)
This equation may be rewritten as:
Two interpretations:
1) pulsating standing wave
2) two counterrevolving mmf waves of
half the amplitude of the resultant;
forward component rotates counter
clockwise, reverse component rotates
clockwise.
) cos(
2
1
) cos(
2
1
1 1 1
t F t F F
a m a m a
ω θ ω θ + + − ·
Rotating Fields (cont’d)
Rotating Fields (cont’d)
In a threephase machine the axes of the
windings are spaced 2π/3 apart. Assuming
balanced operation (phase currents are of
same magnitude) the currents are given by:
)
3
2
cos(
)
3
2
cos(
cos
π
ω
π
ω
ω
+ ·
− ·
·
t I i
t I i
t I i
m c
m b
m a
Rotating Fields (cont’d)
The fundamental airgap mmfs of the three
phases are given (in terms of θ
a
) by:
) cos(
2
1
) cos(
2
1
1 1 1
t F t F F
a m a m a
ω θ ω θ + + − ·
)
3
4
cos(
2
1
) cos(
2
1
1 1 1
π
ω θ ω θ − + + − · t F t F F
a m a m b
)
3
4
cos(
2
1
) cos(
2
1
1 1 1
π
ω θ ω θ + + + − · t F t F F
a m a m c
Rotating Fields (cont’d)
The sum of these three winding mmfs is:
Therefore the resulting airgap mmfs is a
constant amplitude sinusoidal wave
rotating wave whose peak coincides
with the magnetic axis of the aphase
winding at t=0 and rotates with a speed
ω in a direction corresponding to the
sequence of peaking of the phase
currents.
) cos(
2
3
1 1 1 1
t F F F F
a m c b a
ω θ − · + +
Torque in a Uniform Airgap Machine
From basic energy conversion principles,
the torque developed in a machine is given
by:
The coenergy is the complement of the
field energy:
W
fld
’ = λi  W
fld
t cons i
m
fld
W
T
tan
'

·
∂
∂
·
θ
Torque in a Uniform Airgap Machine
(cont’d)
Example of threephase machine
(see text for other approaches/results)
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