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1.1

Place Value

Chapter 1 Introduction to Algebra: Integers

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Sec 1.1 - 2

1.1 Place Value Objectives

1.
2. 3.

Identify whole numbers.


Identify the place value of a digit through hundred-trillions. Write a whole number in words or digits.

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Sec 1.1 - 3

Objective 1: Identify whole numbers.

Our number system is a place value system.

Each location in which a number is placed gives it a different value.

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Sec 1.1 - 4

Objective 1: Identify whole numbers.

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Sec 1.1 - 5

Objective 1: Identify whole numbers.

Whole Numbers:

created from the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, , 9

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Sec 1.1 - 6

Objective 2: Identify the place value of a digit through hundred-trillions.


Example Identify the place value of each 8 in 6,598,274,806.

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Sec 1.1 - 7

Objective 3: Write a whole number in words or digits.


Example Write 6,058,120 in words.

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Sec 1.1 - 8

Objective 3: Write a whole number in words or digits.


Example Write the number using digits. Seventy-seven billion, thirty thousand, five hundred

77,000,030,500
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Sec 1.1 - 9

1.2

Introduction to Signed Numbers

Chapter 1 Introduction to Algebra: Integers

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Sec 1.2 - 10

1.2 Introduction to Signed Numbers Objectives

1.
2. 3. 4.

Write positive and negative numbers used in everyday situations.


Graph signed numbers on a number line. Use the < and > symbols to compare integers. Find the absolute value of integers.

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Sec 1.2 - 11

Objective 1: Write positive and negative numbers used in everyday situations.


Numbers greater than zero are called positive numbers. Numbers less than zero are called negative numbers.

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Sec 1.2 - 12

Objective 1: Write positive and negative numbers used in everyday situations.

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Sec 1.2 - 13

Objective 1: Write positive and negative numbers used in everyday situations.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sec 1.2 - 14

Objective 1: Write positive and negative numbers used in everyday situations.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sec 1.2 - 15

Objective 1: Write positive and negative numbers used in everyday situations.


Example Write a loss of $500 as a number with its appropriate sign.

$500
Raised negative sign

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Sec 1.2 - 16

Objective 2: Graph signed numbers on a number line.

A number line is like a thermometer turned sideways.

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Sec 1.2 - 17

Objective 2: Graph signed numbers on a number line. Example Graph each number on the number line.
(a) 5 (b) 3
(a)

(c) 1

(d) 0

(e) 1

(e) (d) (c) (b)

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Sec 1.2 - 18

Objective 3: Use the < and > symbols to compare integers.


Integers are the numbers , 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3 ,4, 5, > means greater than < means less than

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Sec 1.2 - 19

Objective 3: Use the < and > symbols to compare integers.

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Sec 1.2 - 20

Objective 3: Use the < and > symbols to compare integers.

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Sec 1.2 - 21

Objective 3: Use the < and > symbols to compare integers. Example Write < or > between each pair of numbers to make a true statement.
(a) 0 ____ 2 (b) 1 ____4 (c) 4 ____2 0<2 1 > 4
4

< 2

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Sec 1.2 - 22

Objective 4: Find the absolute value of integers.

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Sec 1.2 - 23

Objective 4: Find the absolute value of integers. Example Find each absolute value.
(a) |4|
4 spaces, so |4| = 4

(b) |4|

4 spaces, so |4| = 4

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Sec 1.2 - 24

1.3

Adding Integers

Chapter 1 Introduction to Algebra: Integers

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Sec 1.3 - 25

1.3 Adding Integers Objectives

1.
2.

Add integers.
Identify properties of addition.

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Sec 1.3 - 26

Objective 1: Add integers.


Numbers that you add together are called addends, and the result is called a sum.

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Sec 1.3 - 27

Objective 1: Add integers.


Example Use a number line to find 5 + 4 (use a football analogy).

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Sec 1.3 - 28

Objective 1: Add integers.

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Sec 1.3 - 29

Objective 1: Add integers.


Example Add the integers 8 + 7.
Step 1 Add the absolute values.
|8| = 8 and |7| = 7 Add 8 + 7 to get 15.

Step 2 Use the common sign as the sign of the sum.


8

+ 7= 15
Sum is negative
Sec 1.3 - 30

Both negative

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Objective 1: Add integers.

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Sec 1.3 - 31

Objective 1: Add integers.


Example Add the integers 3 + 8.
Step 1 |3| = 3 and |8| = 8 Subtract 8 3 to get 5. Step 2
8

has the larger absolute value and is negative, so the sum is also

negative. 3 + 8 = 5
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Sec 1.3 - 32

Objective 1: Add integers.


Example A football team has to gain at least 10
yards during four plays in order to keep the ball.

Suppose on four plays a team lost 6 yards, gained 8


yards, lost 2 yards, and gained 7 yards. Did the team gain enough to keep the ball?

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Sec 1.3 - 33

Objective 1: Add integers.


Example (continued)

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Sec 1.3 - 34

Objective 2: Identify properties of addition.

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Sec 1.3 - 35

Objective 2: Identify properties of addition.

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Sec 1.3 - 36

Objective 2: Identify properties of addition.

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Sec 1.3 - 37

Objective 2: Identify properties of addition. Example Add 6 + 9 + 9 using the associative property.

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Sec 1.3 - 38

1.4 Subtracting Integers


Chapter 1 Introduction to Algebra: Integers

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Sec 1.4 - 39

1.4 Subtracting Integers Objectives

1.
2. 3.

Find the opposite of a signed number.


Subtract integers. Combine adding and subtracting of integers.

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Sec 1.4 - 40

Objective 1: Find the opposite of a signed number.


Opposite integers are the same distance from 0 on the number line but are on opposite sides of 0. When you add opposites, the sum is always 0. The opposites are also called additive inverses.

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Sec 1.4 - 41

Objective 1: Find the opposite of a signed number.


Example Find the opposite of each number and show that the sum of the numbers is 0. (a) 6 The opposite of 6 is 6. 6 + 6 = 0

(b) 8 The opposite of 8 is 8. 8 + 8 = 0


(c) 0 The opposite of 0 is 0. 0 + 0 = 0

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Sec 1.4 - 42

Objective 2: Subtract integers.

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Sec 1.4 - 43

Objective 2: Subtract integers.


Example Subtract the integers.

4 10

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Sec 1.4 - 44

Objective 2: Subtract integers.


Example Subtract the integers.
9

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Sec 1.4 - 45

Objective 3: Combine adding and subtracting of integers.


Example Simplify by completing all the calculations.
5

10 12 +1

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Sec 1.4 - 46

1.5 Problem Solving: Rounding and Estimating


Chapter 1 Introduction to Algebra: Integers

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Sec 1.5 - 47

1.5 Problem Solving: Rounding and Estimating Objectives

1.
2. 3.

Locate the place to which a number is to be rounded.


Round integers. Use front end rounding to estimate answers in addition and subtraction.

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Sec 1.5 - 48

Objective 1: Locate the place to which a number is to be rounded.


Rounding a number means finding a number that is close to the original number, but easier to work with.

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Sec 1.5 - 49

Objective 1: Locate the place to which a number is to be rounded. Example Draw a line under the place to which the number is to be rounded.
Round 23 to the nearest ten.

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Sec 1.5 - 50

Objective 1: Locate the place to which a number is to be rounded. Example Draw a line under the place to which the number is to be rounded.
Round 54,702 to the nearest thousand.

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Sec 1.5 - 51

Objective 2: Round integers.

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Sec 1.5 - 52

Objective 2: Round integers.


Example Round 349 to the nearest hundred.
Step 1 Underline the place to which the number is being rounded.

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Sec 1.5 - 53

Objective 2: Round integers.


Example Round 349 to the nearest hundred.
Step 2 Because the next digit is 4 or less, do not change the digit in the underlined place.

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Sec 1.5 - 54

Objective 2: Round integers.


Example Round 349 to the nearest hundred.
Step 3 Change all digits to the right of the underlined place to zeros.

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Sec 1.5 - 55

Objective 2: Round integers.


Example Round 36,833 to the nearest thousand. Step 1 Underline the place to which the number is being rounded.

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Sec 1.5 - 56

Objective 2: Round integers.


Example Round 36,833 to the nearest thousand. Step 2 Because the next digit is 5 or more, add 1 to the underlined digit.

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Sec 1.5 - 57

Objective 2: Round integers.


Example Round 36,833 to the nearest thousand. Step 3 Change all digits to the right of the underlined place to zeros.

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Sec 1.5 - 58

Objective 2: Round integers.


Example Round 13,961 to the nearest hundred. Step 1

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Sec 1.5 - 59

Objective 2: Round integers.


Example Round 13,961 to the nearest hundred. Step 2

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Sec 1.5 - 60

Objective 2: Round integers.


Example Round 13,961 to the nearest hundred. Step 3

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Sec 1.5 - 61

Objective 3: Use front end rounding to estimate answers in addition and subtraction.

If you purchase a sofa for $988 and a chair for $209, you may estimate the total cost.

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Sec 1.5 - 62

Objective 3: Use front end rounding to estimate answers in addition and subtraction.

In front end rounding, each number is rounded to the highest possible place, so all the digits become 0 except the first digit.

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Sec 1.5 - 63

Objective 3: Use front end rounding to estimate answers in addition and subtraction.

Example Meishas paycheck showed gross pay of $823. It also listed deductions of $291. Estimate her net pay. Front end rounding:

Net pay estimate: $800 $300 = $500.


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Sec 1.5 - 64

Objective 3: Use front end rounding to estimate answers in addition and subtraction.

Example Meishas paycheck showed gross pay of $823. It also listed deductions of $291. Find her exact net pay. Exact pay: $823 $291 = $532

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Sec 1.5 - 65

1.6

Multiplying Integers

Chapter 1 Introduction to Algebra: Integers

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Sec 1.6 - 66

1.6 Multiplying Integers Objectives

1.

Use a raised dot or parentheses to express multiplication.


Multiply integers. Identify properties of multiplication.

2. 3.

4.

Estimate answers to application problems involving multiplication.

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Sec 1.6 - 67

Objective 1: Use a raised dot or parentheses to express multiplication.


Numbers being multiplied are called factors and the answer is called the product.

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Sec 1.6 - 68

Objective 1: Use a raised dot or parentheses to express multiplication. Example Rewrite the multiplication in three different ways.
10 7

The factors are 10 and 7 and the product is 70.


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Sec 1.6 - 69

Objective 1: Use a raised dot or parentheses to express multiplication.

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Sec 1.6 - 70

Objective 2: Multiply integers.

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Sec 1.6 - 71

Objective 2: Multiply integers.


Example Multiply the integers.
2

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Sec 1.6 - 72

Objective 2: Multiply integers.


Example Multiply the integers.
10 (6

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Sec 1.6 - 73

Objective 2: Multiply integers.


Example Multiply the integers.
3

(4 5)
Multiply numbers in parentheses first. Then multiply the resulting pair of numbers.

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Sec 1.6 - 74

Objective 2: Multiply integers.


Example Multiply the integers.
2

2 2
Multiply the first pair of numbers. Then multiply the resulting pair of numbers.

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Sec 1.6 - 75

Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication.

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Sec 1.6 - 76

Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication.

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Sec 1.6 - 77

Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication.

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Sec 1.6 - 78

Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication. Example Illustrate the commutative property for the product below.
7

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Sec 1.6 - 79

Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication.

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Sec 1.6 - 80

Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication. Example Illustrate the associative property for the product below.
5 10 2

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Sec 1.6 - 81

Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication.

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Sec 1.6 - 82

Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication. Example Illustrate the distributive property for the product below.
2(5

+ 1)

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Sec 1.6 - 83

Objective 4: Estimate answers to application problems involving multiplication.


Example Last year a video store had to
replace 392 defective videos at a cost of $19 each. Estimate the amount of money the store lost on the videos. Front end rounding: 392 rounds to 400 and $19 rounds to $20.

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Sec 1.6 - 84

1.7

Dividing Integers

Chapter 1 Introduction to Algebra: Integers

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Sec 1.7 - 85

1.7 Dividing Integers Objectives

1.
2. 3. 4.

Divide integers.
Identify properties of division. Combine multiplying and dividing of integers. Estimate answers to application problems involving division.

5.

Interpret remainders in division application problems.

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Sec 1.7 - 86

Objective 1: Divide integers.


The answer to a division problem is called the quotient.

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Sec 1.7 - 87

Objective 1: Divide integers.

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Sec 1.7 - 88

Objective 1: Divide integers.


Example Divide the integers. (a)

20 5

Different signs, quotient is negative.

20 4 5

24 (b) 4

Same sign, quotient is positive.

24 6 4

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Sec 1.7 - 89

Objective 2: Identify properties of division.

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Sec 1.7 - 90

Objective 3: Combine multiplying and dividing of integers. Example Simplify. 6(10) (3 2)


Do operations inside parentheses first. Start at the left and perform operations from left to right.

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Sec 1.7 - 91

Objective 3: Combine multiplying and dividing of integers. Example Simplify.


24

2(4) 6
No operations inside parentheses. Start at the left and perform operations from left to right.

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Sec 1.7 - 92

Objective 4: Estimate answers to application problems involving division.


Example During a 24-hour lab experiment, the
temperature of a solution dropped 96 degrees. Estimate the average drop in temperature each hour. Front end rounding: 96 degrees rounds to 100

and 24 hours rounds to 20.

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Sec 1.7 - 93

Objective 5: Interpret remainders in division application problems.


Example The math department a a college has
$360 in its budget to buy calculators. If the calculators cost $25 each, how many can be purchased? How much money will be left over?

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Sec 1.7 - 94

Objective 5: Interpret remainders in division application problems.


Example Luke needs to rent tents for 135
Scouts going on a camping trip. Each tent sleeps 6 people. How many tents should he rent?

Luke will need to rent 23 tents.


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Sec 1.7 - 95

1.8 Exponents and Order of Operations


Chapter 1 Introduction to Algebra: Integers

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Sec 1.8 - 96

1.8 Exponents and Order of Operations Objectives

1.
2. 3. 4.

Use exponents to write repeated factors.


Simplify expressions containing exponents. Use the order of operations. Simplify expressions with fraction bars.

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Sec 1.8 - 97

Objective 1: Use exponents to write repeated factors.


An exponent can be used to represent repeated multiplication. The base is the number being repeatedly multiplied.

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Sec 1.8 - 98

Objective 2: Simplifying expressions containing exponents.


Example Simplify each expression.

(a) (5)2
(b) (5)3

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Sec 1.8 - 99

Objective 2: Simplifying expressions containing exponents.


Example Simplify the expression.

23(3)2

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Sec 1.8 - 100

Objective 3: Use the order of operations.

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Sec 1.8 - 101

Objective 3: Use the order of operations. Example Simplify.

9 + 3(20 4) 8 9 + 3(20 4) 8 Work inside parentheses first. 9+


9+ 9+ 15
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3(16) 8
48 8 6

Work left to right performing multiplication and division.


Add last.

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Objective 3: Use the order of operations. Example Simplify.

3 + 2(6 8) (15 3) 3 + 2(6 8) (15 3) Work inside parentheses first. 3 + 2(2)


3 + 4 3 +
17
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(5)
5

20

Work left to right performing multiplications. Add last.

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Objective 3: Use the order of operations. Example Simplify.

(4)3 (4 6)2(3) (4)3 (4 6)2(3) Work inside parentheses first. (4)3 (2)2(3)
64 64

Simplify exponents. Multiply. Subtract last.


52

4(3)
12

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Sec 1.8 - 104

Objective 3: Use the order of operations.

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Sec 1.8 - 105

Objective 4: Simplify expressions with fraction bars.

Example Simplify.
Simplify the numerator.
8

8 5(4 6) 2 4 4 8

Simplify the denominator.

+ 5(4 6) 8 + 5(2) 8 + (10) 18

4 42 8 4 16 8 4 2 2

Simplify the fraction.


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Sec 1.8 - 106