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# Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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1.1

Place Value

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2. 3.

## Identify whole numbers.

Identify the place value of a digit through hundred-trillions. Write a whole number in words or digits.

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Whole Numbers:

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## Objective 2: Identify the place value of a digit through hundred-trillions.

Example Identify the place value of each 8 in 6,598,274,806.

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## Objective 3: Write a whole number in words or digits.

Example Write 6,058,120 in words.

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## Objective 3: Write a whole number in words or digits.

Example Write the number using digits. Seventy-seven billion, thirty thousand, five hundred

77,000,030,500

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1.2

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2. 3. 4.

## Write positive and negative numbers used in everyday situations.

Graph signed numbers on a number line. Use the < and > symbols to compare integers. Find the absolute value of integers.

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## Objective 1: Write positive and negative numbers used in everyday situations.

Numbers greater than zero are called positive numbers. Numbers less than zero are called negative numbers.

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## Objective 1: Write positive and negative numbers used in everyday situations.

Example Write a loss of \$500 as a number with its appropriate sign.

\$500
Raised negative sign

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## A number line is like a thermometer turned sideways.

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Objective 2: Graph signed numbers on a number line. Example Graph each number on the number line.
(a) 5 (b) 3
(a)

(c) 1

(d) 0

(e) 1

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## Objective 3: Use the < and > symbols to compare integers.

Integers are the numbers , 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3 ,4, 5, > means greater than < means less than

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## Objective 3: Use the < and > symbols to compare integers.

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Objective 3: Use the < and > symbols to compare integers. Example Write < or > between each pair of numbers to make a true statement.
(a) 0 ____ 2 (b) 1 ____4 (c) 4 ____2 0<2 1 > 4
4

< 2

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## Objective 4: Find the absolute value of integers.

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Objective 4: Find the absolute value of integers. Example Find each absolute value.
(a) |4|
4 spaces, so |4| = 4

(b) |4|

4 spaces, so |4| = 4

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1.3

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## 1.3 Adding Integers Objectives

1.
2.

Identify properties of addition.

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## Objective 1: Add integers.

Numbers that you add together are called addends, and the result is called a sum.

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## Objective 1: Add integers.

Example Use a number line to find 5 + 4 (use a football analogy).

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## Objective 1: Add integers.

Example Add the integers 8 + 7.
Step 1 Add the absolute values.
|8| = 8 and |7| = 7 Add 8 + 7 to get 15.

8

+ 7= 15
Sum is negative
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Both negative

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## Objective 1: Add integers.

Example Add the integers 3 + 8.
Step 1 |3| = 3 and |8| = 8 Subtract 8 3 to get 5. Step 2
8

has the larger absolute value and is negative, so the sum is also

negative. 3 + 8 = 5

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## Objective 1: Add integers.

Example A football team has to gain at least 10
yards during four plays in order to keep the ball.

## Suppose on four plays a team lost 6 yards, gained 8

yards, lost 2 yards, and gained 7 yards. Did the team gain enough to keep the ball?

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## Objective 1: Add integers.

Example (continued)

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## Objective 2: Identify properties of addition.

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Objective 2: Identify properties of addition. Example Add 6 + 9 + 9 using the associative property.

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## 1.4 Subtracting Integers

Chapter 1 Introduction to Algebra: Integers

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1.
2. 3.

## Find the opposite of a signed number.

Subtract integers. Combine adding and subtracting of integers.

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## Objective 1: Find the opposite of a signed number.

Opposite integers are the same distance from 0 on the number line but are on opposite sides of 0. When you add opposites, the sum is always 0. The opposites are also called additive inverses.

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## Objective 1: Find the opposite of a signed number.

Example Find the opposite of each number and show that the sum of the numbers is 0. (a) 6 The opposite of 6 is 6. 6 + 6 = 0

## (b) 8 The opposite of 8 is 8. 8 + 8 = 0

(c) 0 The opposite of 0 is 0. 0 + 0 = 0

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## Objective 2: Subtract integers.

Example Subtract the integers.

4 10

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## Objective 2: Subtract integers.

Example Subtract the integers.
9

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## Objective 3: Combine adding and subtracting of integers.

Example Simplify by completing all the calculations.
5

10 12 +1

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## 1.5 Problem Solving: Rounding and Estimating

Chapter 1 Introduction to Algebra: Integers

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1.
2. 3.

## Locate the place to which a number is to be rounded.

Round integers. Use front end rounding to estimate answers in addition and subtraction.

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## Objective 1: Locate the place to which a number is to be rounded.

Rounding a number means finding a number that is close to the original number, but easier to work with.

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Objective 1: Locate the place to which a number is to be rounded. Example Draw a line under the place to which the number is to be rounded.
Round 23 to the nearest ten.

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Objective 1: Locate the place to which a number is to be rounded. Example Draw a line under the place to which the number is to be rounded.
Round 54,702 to the nearest thousand.

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## Objective 2: Round integers.

Example Round 349 to the nearest hundred.
Step 1 Underline the place to which the number is being rounded.

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## Objective 2: Round integers.

Example Round 349 to the nearest hundred.
Step 2 Because the next digit is 4 or less, do not change the digit in the underlined place.

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## Objective 2: Round integers.

Example Round 349 to the nearest hundred.
Step 3 Change all digits to the right of the underlined place to zeros.

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## Objective 2: Round integers.

Example Round 36,833 to the nearest thousand. Step 1 Underline the place to which the number is being rounded.

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## Objective 2: Round integers.

Example Round 36,833 to the nearest thousand. Step 2 Because the next digit is 5 or more, add 1 to the underlined digit.

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## Objective 2: Round integers.

Example Round 36,833 to the nearest thousand. Step 3 Change all digits to the right of the underlined place to zeros.

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## Objective 2: Round integers.

Example Round 13,961 to the nearest hundred. Step 1

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## Objective 2: Round integers.

Example Round 13,961 to the nearest hundred. Step 2

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## Objective 2: Round integers.

Example Round 13,961 to the nearest hundred. Step 3

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Objective 3: Use front end rounding to estimate answers in addition and subtraction.

If you purchase a sofa for \$988 and a chair for \$209, you may estimate the total cost.

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Objective 3: Use front end rounding to estimate answers in addition and subtraction.

In front end rounding, each number is rounded to the highest possible place, so all the digits become 0 except the first digit.

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Objective 3: Use front end rounding to estimate answers in addition and subtraction.

Example Meishas paycheck showed gross pay of \$823. It also listed deductions of \$291. Estimate her net pay. Front end rounding:

## Net pay estimate: \$800 \$300 = \$500.

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Objective 3: Use front end rounding to estimate answers in addition and subtraction.

Example Meishas paycheck showed gross pay of \$823. It also listed deductions of \$291. Find her exact net pay. Exact pay: \$823 \$291 = \$532

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1.6

Multiplying Integers

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## Use a raised dot or parentheses to express multiplication.

Multiply integers. Identify properties of multiplication.

2. 3.

4.

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## Objective 1: Use a raised dot or parentheses to express multiplication.

Numbers being multiplied are called factors and the answer is called the product.

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Objective 1: Use a raised dot or parentheses to express multiplication. Example Rewrite the multiplication in three different ways.
10 7

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## Objective 2: Multiply integers.

Example Multiply the integers.
2

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## Objective 2: Multiply integers.

Example Multiply the integers.
10 (6

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## Objective 2: Multiply integers.

Example Multiply the integers.
3

(4 5)
Multiply numbers in parentheses first. Then multiply the resulting pair of numbers.

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## Objective 2: Multiply integers.

Example Multiply the integers.
2

2 2
Multiply the first pair of numbers. Then multiply the resulting pair of numbers.

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## Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication.

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Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication. Example Illustrate the commutative property for the product below.
7

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## Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication.

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Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication. Example Illustrate the associative property for the product below.
5 10 2

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## Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication.

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Objective 3: Identify properties of multiplication. Example Illustrate the distributive property for the product below.
2(5

+ 1)

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## Objective 4: Estimate answers to application problems involving multiplication.

Example Last year a video store had to
replace 392 defective videos at a cost of \$19 each. Estimate the amount of money the store lost on the videos. Front end rounding: 392 rounds to 400 and \$19 rounds to \$20.

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1.7

Dividing Integers

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## 1.7 Dividing Integers Objectives

1.
2. 3. 4.

Divide integers.
Identify properties of division. Combine multiplying and dividing of integers. Estimate answers to application problems involving division.

5.

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## Objective 1: Divide integers.

The answer to a division problem is called the quotient.

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## Objective 1: Divide integers.

Example Divide the integers. (a)

20 5

20 4 5

24 (b) 4

24 6 4

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## Objective 3: Combine multiplying and dividing of integers. Example Simplify. 6(10) (3 2)

Do operations inside parentheses first. Start at the left and perform operations from left to right.

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## Objective 3: Combine multiplying and dividing of integers. Example Simplify.

24

2(4) 6
No operations inside parentheses. Start at the left and perform operations from left to right.

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## Objective 4: Estimate answers to application problems involving division.

Example During a 24-hour lab experiment, the
temperature of a solution dropped 96 degrees. Estimate the average drop in temperature each hour. Front end rounding: 96 degrees rounds to 100

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## Objective 5: Interpret remainders in division application problems.

Example The math department a a college has
\$360 in its budget to buy calculators. If the calculators cost \$25 each, how many can be purchased? How much money will be left over?

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## Objective 5: Interpret remainders in division application problems.

Example Luke needs to rent tents for 135
Scouts going on a camping trip. Each tent sleeps 6 people. How many tents should he rent?

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## 1.8 Exponents and Order of Operations

Chapter 1 Introduction to Algebra: Integers

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1.
2. 3. 4.

## Use exponents to write repeated factors.

Simplify expressions containing exponents. Use the order of operations. Simplify expressions with fraction bars.

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## Objective 1: Use exponents to write repeated factors.

An exponent can be used to represent repeated multiplication. The base is the number being repeatedly multiplied.

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## Objective 2: Simplifying expressions containing exponents.

Example Simplify each expression.

(a) (5)2
(b) (5)3

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## Objective 2: Simplifying expressions containing exponents.

Example Simplify the expression.

23(3)2

9+ 9+ 15

3(16) 8
48 8 6

3 + 4 3 +
17

(5)
5

20

## Objective 3: Use the order of operations. Example Simplify.

(4)3 (4 6)2(3) (4)3 (4 6)2(3) Work inside parentheses first. (4)3 (2)2(3)
64 64

52

4(3)
12

## Objective 4: Simplify expressions with fraction bars.

Example Simplify.
Simplify the numerator.
8

8 5(4 6) 2 4 4 8

## + 5(4 6) 8 + 5(2) 8 + (10) 18

4 42 8 4 16 8 4 2 2