ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE

ACTIVE? PASSIVE?
The teacher scolds Kenny. ACTIVE

Kenny

scolds

the teacher.

?

Kenny ________

the teacher. PASSIVE

b) The report prepares Alex. ACTIVE c) Kenny is scolded by the teacher. c) The report is prepared by Alex. ACTIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE . b) Kenny scolds the teacher.ACTIVE or PASSIVE? Set 1 : ACTIVE a) The teacher scolds Kenny. PASSIVE Set 2 : a) Alex prepares the report.

SUBJECT (doer) OBJECT (receiver) Kenny is scolded by the teacher.Let’s dissect these sentences… The teacher scolds Kenny. SUBJECT (RECEIVER) OBJECT (DOER) . SUBJECT (doer) OBJECT (receiver) Kenny scolds the teacher.

. .focus on the RECEIVER of action.The noun that follows by is called an agent  .focus on the DOER (or agent) of action.The subject of the active verb follows by in a passive sentence.When to use the active or passive?  Active? .subject receives action/is acted upon . .subject performs action/acts Passive? .

seem. Not possible to use intransitive verbs (such as happen.Look at these sentences Active : An accident happened on the highway Passive: None Active : Every year the Turks to shop at Langkawi. go.stay. sleep. occur. Passive: None  Only transitive verbs (verbs that can be followed by an object) are used in the passives.  . come.rain. live.walk)in the passive. exist. cry. agree.

 .  NOT Early was arrived Peter.  Peter arrived early.  NOT The corner is sat when Jack reads. I went to the store yesterday Jack sits in the corner when he reads.

a) Japan makes the Honda cars.Identify the focus of each sentence below. b) The Honda cars are made in Japan. e) Thailand grows rice. . d) Rice is grown in Thailand.

Sometimes. doer can be hidden. b) The houses are developed for the poor. In passive voice. doer of action is placed at start of sentence. Examples: a) Animal skin is used to make leather goods. . c) It is believed that if you cut your fingernails at night. doer of action unimportant • In active voice. you will see ghosts.

CHANGING ACTIVE TO PASSIVE HOW? Look at TENSES Changes in verb forms ACTIVE VERB to PASSIVE VERB .

Forming Tenses of Passive Verbs The passive voice always consists of two parts: a form of the verb "to be" + past participle: Tense Simple Present Present Continuous Present prefect Active Voice plays/drives is playing/ driving has played/has driven Passive Voice is played/ driven is being played/ driven has been played/driven Simple past Past continuous played/ drove was playing/ driving was played/ was driven was being played/ driven Past Perfect Future had played/driven will play/ drive had been played/driven will be played/ driven .

Tom eats the pears. The pears _______ by Tom. .) Tom eats the pear.SIMPLE PRESENT present tense verb is/are + past participle (pp. The pear ______ by Tom.

A)  Tom ate the pear.SIMPLE PAST past tense verb was/were + pp. B)  Tom ate the pears.  The pears ______ by Tom .  The pear _____ by Tom.

. B)  Tom is eating the pears.  The pears ________ by Tom. A)  Tom is eating the pear.  The pear _______ by Tom.PRESENT CONTINUOUS is/are +…ing is/are + being + pp.

 The pears ________ by Tom. .PAST CONTINUOUS was/were +…ing was/were + being + pp. B)  Tom was eating the pears.  The pear ________ by Tom. A)  Tom was eating the pear.

B) Tom has eaten the pears. . has/have + been + pp. A) Tom has eaten the pear. The pears have been eaten by Tom.PRESENT PERFECT has/have +pp. The pear has been eaten by Tom.

B)  Tom had eaten the pears.  The pear ________ by Tom. A)  Tom had eaten the pear.PAST PERFECT had +pp had + been + pp.  The pears _______ by Tom. .

Tom will eat the pear. The pears ___________ by Tom. The pear __________ by Tom. going to + verb     going to + be + pp. Tom is going to eat the pear. . Tom is going to eat the pears. The pear will be eaten by Tom.SIMPLE FUTURE will + verb   will + be+ pp.

FUTURE PERFECT will have + pp will have + been + pp.  The pear will have been eaten by Tom.  . Tom will have eaten the pear.

MODAL VERBS           will would can could shall should may might must ought to .

. A)  Tom should do the work.  The work ________ by Tom. B)  Tom can do the work.MODAL VERBS modal verb (modal) + be + pp.  The work _________ by Tom.

.  The mistake must have been made by Tom. A)  Tom will have done the work. B)  Tom must have made the mistake.MODAL PERFECT (modal) + have (modal) + have +been + pp.  The work will have been done by Tom.

A)  Tom is going to sing the song.to? To +verb to +be + pp. . B)  The law ought to punish the criminals.  The song __________ by Tom.  The criminals ought to be punished (by the law).

Changing from Passive Voice to Active PASSIVE VOICE AGENT/Doer CHANGED TO ACTIVE VOICE ? The leaders ? .

SUMMARY …ing (present participle)  have / has / had (perfect)  modal / to  + being + been + be .

To summarize  Active voice • It is used for most academic writing. sincere. Feels more trustworthy • • . Better impact on receiver. (concise) It is more direct. It is shorter. • It clearly tells what the action is & who is performing the action.

. Less trustworthy. Wordier.Passive voice • • • • • • To emphasize an action / the recipient of the action To de-emphasize negative news To conceal the doer of an action (anonymous) To add variety To avoid responsibility To sound less direct.

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