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Chapter Four:

Baseband Demodulation/Detection
Baseband Demodulation/Detection
Baseband signaling
The received waveforms are already in a pulse-like form
Arriving baseband pulses are not in the form of ideal pulse
shapes due to Intersymbol interference (ISI)
The task of detector
Retrieve the bit stream from the received waveform, as
error free as possible
Demodulation: a recovery of a waveform to an undistorted
baseband pulse
Detection: the decision-making process of selecting the
digital meaning of that waveform
Baseband Demodulation/Detection
Receiving
filter
Equalizing
Filter
Threshold
comparison
Sample at
t=T
r(t)
z(t)
z(T)
Symbol
Demodulation and sample Detection
channel Ideal 0 , 2 , 1 ), ( ) ( ) (
, , 2 , 1 ), ( ) ( ) ( ) (
T t i t n t s t r
M i t n t h t s t r
i
c i
s s = + =
= + - =
0
0
2 , 1 ), ( ) ( ) (
n a z
i T n T a T z
i
i
+ =
= + =
What is a equalizing filter?
Background: Performance Analysis
Signal power to average noise power ratio
Analog: SNR (S/N)
Digital: E
b
/N
0
A normalized version of SNR
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
b
b b b
R
W
N
S
W N
R S
W N
ST
N
E
/
/
/
0
E
b
: bit energy, as signal power times the bit time
N
0
: noise power spectral density, as noise power N divided by bandwidth W
s - Watt
s - Watt
Hz per Watt
Joule
: Unit =
A nature figure of merit. Why?
Background: Performance Analysis
(Bit) error probability
For a binary decision-making, there are two ways errors
can occur
Case 1: when s1 is sent the channel noise results in the receiver
output the probability being s2 is greater
Case 2: when s2 is sent the channel noise results in the receiver
output the probability being s1 is greater
The probability of error is the sum of the probabilities of all
the ways that error can occur
Decision-making?



Background: Orthogonal Signals
Signals are orthogonal
0 ) ( ) ( : orthogonal not are signals Two
0 ) ( ) ( : orthogonal are signals Two
0
2 1
0
2 1
=
=
}
}
dt t s t s
dt t s t s
T
T
1/2
1
-1
-3
s1
1/2
1
2
s2
1/2
1
1
f1
1/2
1
1
f2
-1
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( 2 ) ( ) (
2 1 2
1 2 1
t f t f t s
t f t f t s
+ =
=
Example:
Determine whether or not these two signals are
orthogonal over the interval
) 5 . 1 5 . 1 (
2 2
T t T < <
) 2 cos( ) (
1 1 1
| t + = t f t s
) 2 cos( ) (
2 2 2
| t + = t f t s
2 1
2 f f =
0
2 1
= =| |
2 1
f f t =
0
2 1
= =| |
Baseband Demodulation/Detection
Receiving
filter
Equalizing
Filter
Threshold
comparison
Sample at
t=T
r(t)
z(t)
z(T)
Symbol
Demodulation and sample Detection
channel Ideal 0 , 2 , 1 ), ( ) ( ) (
, , 2 , 1 ), ( ) ( ) ( ) (
T t i t n t s t r
M i t n t h t s t r
i
c i
s s = + =
= + - =
0
0
2 , 1 ), ( ) ( ) (
n a z
i T n T a T z
i
i
+ =
= + =
Desired signal component
Zero mean Gaussian random variable
Background: Noise
Primary causes for error performance
degradation
The effect of filtering
Electrical noise and interference
Thermal noise modeled as AWGN

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
0
0
0
0
2
1
exp
2
1
) ( : noise random Gaussian pdf
o
t o
n
n p
Background: Noise
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
0
2
0
2 2
2
0
1
0
1 1
2
1
exp
2
1
) | ( : of likelihood
2
1
exp
2
1
) | ( : of likelihood
: pdfs l Conditiona
o
t o
o
t o
a z
s z p s
a z
s z p s
Decision Theory
The system model
The signal source at the Tx consists of a set {s
i
}, i=1,2M
of waveforms (or hypotheses)
The received signal r(t)=s
i
(t)+n(t) where n(t) AWGN
The waveform is reduced to a single number z(T), a
Gaussian RV z(T)=a
i
(T)+n
0
(T), where T is a symbol
duration
Receiver decision
P(s
1
|z) P(s
2
|z)
H1
H2
>
<
Hypothesis H1, H2
Aposteriori probability P(s|z)
Review: Random Variables
P(s
1
|z) P(s
2
|z)
H1
H2
>
<
P(z|s
1
) P(s
1
) P(z|s
2
)P(s
2
)
H1
H2
>
<
H1
P(z|s
1
) P(s
2
)
H2
>
<
P(z|s
2
) P(s
1
)
) ( ) | ( ) ( ) | ( z P z s P s P s z P
i i i
=
The left hand ratio the likelihood ratio
The entire equation the likelihood ratio test
The maximum aposteriori (MAP)
Minimum Error criterion
Maximum Likelihood Detector
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
0
0
0
0
2
1
exp
2
1
) ( : noise random Gaussian pdf
o
t o
n
n p
( )
(

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

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.
|

\
|

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|

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|

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|

=
(
(

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.
|

\
|

(
(

|
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.
|

\
|

=
2
0
2
2
2
1
2
0
2 1
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
2
0
2
2
0
1
2
0
2
1
2
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
1
0
2
1
2
exp
2
2
exp
2
exp
2
exp
2
2
exp
2
exp
2
exp
2
1
exp
2
1
2
1
exp
2
1
) | (
) | (
o o
o o o
o o o
o t o
o t o
a a a a z
za a z
za a z
a z
a z
s z p
s z p
H1
P(z|s
1
) P(s
2
)
H2
>
<
P(z|s
2
) P(s
1
)
equally likely
( )
0
2
2
0
2
2
2
1
2
0
2 1
o o
a a a a z

H1
H2
>
<
2
2 1
a a
z
+
H1
H2
>
<
A detector that minimize the error probability for
The case where the signal classes are equally likely
Maximum Likelihood Detector
Error Probability
) ( ) | ( ) , (
) | ( ) | ( ) | ( : 2 case
) | ( ) | ( ) | ( : 1 case
2
1
2
1
2 1 1 2
1 1 2 1
0
0
i
i
i
i
i B
s P s e P s e P P
dz s z p s H P s e P
dz s z p s H P s e P

}
}
= =


= =
= =
= =

}
} }
=
+ =

+ =

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(

=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
= = + =
u
a a u
a a a a
B
B
a a
Q du u
dz
a z
dz s z p P
s H P s H P s H P s H P P
0 2 1
2 1 0 2 1 0
2 / ) (
0
2 1 2
2 / ) (
2
0
2
0
2 / ) (
2
2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
2 2
1
exp
2
1
2
1
exp
2
1
) | (
) | ( ) | ( ) | (
2
1
) | (
2
1
equal are ies probabilit priori a the where case For the


o t
o t o
0 2
/ ) ( o a z =
Complementary error function or co-error function
Q-function
Complementary function or co-error function

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
~ >
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
}

2
exp
2
1
) ( 3
2
2
1
) (
2 2 ) (
2
exp
2
1
) (
2
2
x
x
x Q x if
x
erf c x Q
x Q x erf c
du
u
x Q
x
t
t
Example
Assume that in a binary digital communication system,
the signal component out of the receiver is a
i
(T)=+1 or
-1 V with equal probability. If the Gaussian noise at the
output has unit variance, find the probability of a bit
error.
1587 . 0 ) 1 (
2
) 1 ( 1
2
0
2 1
= =
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

= Q Q
a a
Q P
B
o
Matched Filter
A linear filter to provide the maximum signal-to-noise power
ratio

s s
= =
|
.
|

\
|
elsewhere 0
0 ) (
) (
2
0
2
T t t T ks
t h
a
N
S
i
T
o
( ) | |
( )
( ) T t d s r
d t T s r
k d t T s r
d t h r t h t r t z
T
t
t
t
= =
+ =
= =
= - =
}
}
}
}
0
0
0
0
) (
) (
1 ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
t t t
t t t
t t t
t t t
Correlation
Convolution
The impulse of filter is a delayed version of the mirror image of the signal waveform
Convolution vs. Correlation
Matched filter convolution
Correlator correlation
) ( t T h
Matched to s
1
(t)- s
2
(t)
) (T z ) (t r

Correlator
) (T z ) (t r
}
-
T
0
) (
s
1
(t)- s
2
(t)
Matched filter output
Correlator output
Matched Filters Performance
In general: threshold:
0
=(a
1
+a
2
)/2 P
B
=Q[(a
1
-a
2
)/2o
0
]
Matched filter: maximize the output SNR

( )
2 /
0
2
0
2
2 1
max
2
0
2
N
E a a a
N
S
d i
T
=

=
|
.
|

\
|
o o
The signal component
Average noise power
Analysis in the frequency domain
Two-sided power spectral density of the noise
| |
}
=
T
d
dt t s t s E
0
2
2 1
) ( ) (
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0 0 0
2 1
2 2 / 2
1
2 N
E
Q
N
E
Q
a a
Q P
d d
B
o
Matched Filters Performance
| |
} } } }
+ = =
T T T T
d
dt t s t s dt t s dt t s dt t s t s E
0
2 1
0
2
2
0
2
1
0
2
2 1
) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
Energy associated with a bit, E
b
0 ) ( ) (
0
2 1
=
}
T
dt t s t s Orthogonal
b
T
E dt t s t s =
}
0
2 1
) ( ) (
Perfectly correlated
b
T
E dt t s t s =
}
0
2 1
) ( ) (
anticorrelated
}
=
T
b
dt t s t s
E
0
2 1
) ( ) (
1

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0 0
) 1 (
2 N
E
Q
N
E
Q P
b d
B

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
N
E
Q P
b
B
0 =
B
P
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
2
N
E
Q P
b
B
Examples: page 130, 3.2
Consider a binary comm. sys. That receives equally likely signals
pulse AWGN. Assume that the receiving filter is a matched filter,
and that the noise power density N
0
is equal to 10
-12
watt/Hz.
Compute the bit error probability.
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3
2
1
-1
-2
mv
mv
us
us
Examples: Binary Signaling
Bipolar signals
0 0 ) (
1 0 ) (
1
1
bit T t A t s
bit T t A t s
s s =
s s =
Correlator detector:
A
-A

) (
1
T z
) (t r
}
-
T
0
) (
s
1
(t)=A
0
2
1
) (
H
H
T z ) ( t s
i

}
-
T
0
) (

s
2
(t)=-A
) (
2
T z
_
+
T A E T A E
N
E
Q
N
E
Q P
d b
d b
B
2 2
0 0
4 ;
2
2
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
T 3T 5T
Examples: Binary Signaling
Unipolar signals
0 0 0 ) (
1 0 ) (
1
1
bit T t t s
bit T t A t s
s s =
s s =

) (T z
) (t r
}
-
T
0
) (
s
1
(t)- s
2
(t)=A
0
2
1
) (
H
H
T z
) ( t s
i
Correlator detector:
| |
;
) ( ) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
0
2
2 1
2
0 1
0 0
T A dt t s t s E T A E E E
N
E
Q P
N
E
Q P
T
d bit bit b
d
B
b
B
= = = + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
}
A
0
Physical Meanings
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5
10
-10
10
-8
10
-6
10
-4
10
-2
10
0
SNR
B
E
R


Unipolar
Bipolar
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Intersymbol Interference (ISI)
Due to the effects of system filtering, the received
pulses can overlap one another; The tail of a pulse
can smear into adjacent symbol intervals
Interfering with the detection process and degrading
the performance


H
t
(t) = Impulse response of the transmitter
H
c
(t) = Impulse response of the channel
H
r
(t) = Impulse response of the receiver
Transmitter
H
T
(f)
Receiver
H
R
(f)
Channel
H
C
(f)
+
n(t)
s(t)
y(t)
r(t)
t = kT
x(t)
Intersymbol Interference (ISI)
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( f H f H f H f H
r c t
=
Zero ISI Nyquist
Ideal Nyquist filter: rectangular [-1/2T, 1/2T]
Ideal Nyquist pulse: sinc-shaped pulse





Nyquist bandwidth constraint: A system with
bandwidth W=1/(2T)=R
s
/2 Hz can support a
maximum transmission rate 2W= R
s
symbols/s
without ISI

Example: page 164, problem 3.8
What is the theoretical minimum system bandwidth
needed for a 10-Mbits/s signal using 16-level PAM
without ISI?
Answer:
16-ary M=16 and k=4 bits/symbol
MHz R MinBW
s symbols M
symbol bits
s bits M
R
s
s
25 . 1 2 /
/ 5 . 2
/ 4
/ 10
= =
= =
The Raised Cosine Filter
Zero ISI at the sampling times
Equalizing filter to compensate for the distortion
caused by both the transmitter and the receiver
( )
( )
| |
2
0
0
0 0
0
0
0 2
0
) ( 4 1
) ( 2 cos
2 sin 2 ) (
0
2
2
4
cos
2 1
) (
t W W
t W W
t W c W t h
W f
W f W W
W W
W W f
W W f
f H


=

>
< <
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
<
=
t
t
Excess bandwidth, additional beyond the Nyquist minimum
0
0
W
W W
r

=
Roll-off factor
The Raised Cosine Filter
s
R r W ) 1 (
2
1
+ =
Examples
Find the minimum required bandwidth for the baseband
transmission of a four level PAM pulse sequence having a data
rate of R=2400 bits/s if the system transfer characteristic consists
of a raised-cosine spectrum with 100% excess bandwidth (r=1).
Hz R r W
s symbols
k
R
R
s
b
s
1200 ) 1 (
2
1
: banswidth Minimum
/ 1200
2
2400
: rate Symbol
= + =
= = =
Performance Degradation
Due to a loss in SNR
Decreasing received signal power
Increasing noise power
Increasing interference power
Intersymbol Interference (ISI)
Min BW = R
s
/2
Raised Cosine filter: W=1/2(1+r) R
s
Using Nyquist filter to reduce ISI
The channel is precisely known and its characteristics do not
change with time
Performance Degradation
ISI Channel Characterization
Most channels can be characterized as band-limited
linear filters


Channels amplitude response
Channels phase response
ISI: amplitude and/or phase distortion
Ideal channel: constant |H
c
(f)| & linear u
c
(f)
) (
) ( ) (
f j
c c
c
e f H f H
u
=
ISI Eye Pattern
To display results from measuring a systems
response to based band signals in a prescribed way
Oscilloscopes vertical plate: connect the
receivers response to a random pulse
sequence

Oscilloscopes horizontal time base: set
equal to the symbol (pulse) duration

D
A
: a measure of distortion caused by ISI
J
T
: a measure of time jitter
M
N
: a measure of noise margin
S
T
: sensitivity to timing error
ISI Eye Pattern
ISI causes the eye to close
ISI distorts the position of the zero crossing, thereby
causing the system to be more sensitive to
synchronization error
Moreover, noise causes a general closing of the eye
Equalization
Any signal processing or filtering technique that is
designed to eliminate or reduce ISI
Two categories
Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE)
Making measurements of h
c
(t) and providing a means for adjusting
the receiver to the transmission environment.
Enable the detector to make good estimates
Equalization with filters
Most popular approach
Using filters to compensate the distorted pulses
Transversal vs. decision feedback equalizers

Equalization Transversal Equalizer


A linear equalizer
A delay line with T-seconds taps (symbol duration)
Adjustable tap coefficient: based on channel characteristics
( ) N N n N N k c n k x k y
N
N n
n
,..., 2 ,... 2 , ) ( = = =

=
Equalization Transversal Equalizer
Zero-forcing solution
Select weights so that the equalizer output is forced to zero
at N sample points on either side of the desired pulse

)
`

=
=
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(



others
k
k y
c
c
c
N x
N x N x N x N x
N x
N y
y
N y
N
N
0
0 1
) (
) (
) ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) (
) (
) 2 (
) 0 (
) 2 (
0

Equalization Transversal Equalizer


Example: A zero-forcing three-tap equalizer.
Given a received distorted set of pulse samples with voltage values 0.0, 0.2,
0.9, -0.3, 0.1. Weight cn to reduce the ISI. Using weights, calculate the ISI
values. Calculate the ISI at the sample times at k=2, 3.
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

(
(
(

(
(
(

=
(
(
(

(
(
(

(
(
(


=
(
(
(


0345 . 0
0071 . 0
0
1
0
0428 . 0
0
3448 . 0
9631 . 0
2140 . 0
1 . 0 0 0
3 . 0 1 . 0 0
9 . 0 3 . 0 1 . 0
2 . 0 9 . 0 3 . 0
0 2 . 0 9 . 0
0 0 2 . 0
0 0 0
3448 . 0
9631 . 0
2140 . 0
) 2 ( 0 0
) 1 ( ) 2 ( 0
) 0 ( ) 1 ( ) 2 (
) 1 ( ) 0 ( ) 1 (
) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) 0 (
0 ) 2 ( ) 1 (
0 0 ) 2 (
:
3448 . 0
9631 . 0
2140 . 0
9 . 0 3 . 0 1 . 0
2 . 0 9 . 0 3 . 0
0 2 . 0 9 . 0
0
1
0
) 0 ( ) 1 ( ) 2 (
) 1 ( ) 0 ( ) 1 (
) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) 0 (
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x
x
k y
k y
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
x x x
x x x
x x x
Equalization Transversal Equalizer
Minimum MSE Solution
Minimize the mean square error (MSE) of all the ISI terms
pulse the noise power
MSE: expected value of the squared difference between the
desired data symbol and the estimated data symbol

xy xx
T
xx
T
xy
xx xy
T T
R R
x x R
y x R
c R R xc x y x
1
c
or ation vect autocorrel :
n vector correlatio - cross : where

=
=
=
= =
Equalization Transversal Equalizer
Example: Consider that the tap weights of an equalizing
transversal filter are to be determined by transmitting a single
impulse as a training signal. Let the equalizer circuit be made
up of seven taps. Given a received distorted set of pulses
samples with values 0.0108, -0.0558, 0.1617, 1.0000, -0.1749,
0.0227, 0.0110, use a minimum MSE solution to find the value
of the weights that will minimize the ISI.
Matlab code available on WebCT
Equalization Decision Feedback Equalizer
A nonlinear equalizer
Using previous detector decisions to eliminate the ISI
Equalization -- Types
Preset equalization
The weights remain fixed during transmission of data
Done once or seldom at the start of transmission
Channel frequency responses are known and time invariant
Initial training period
Adaptive equalization
Perform tap-weighted adjustment periodically or
continually
A slowly time-varying channel response
Review: baseband demodulation/detection
Matched filter
Receiver filter to provide the max. SNR, thus to provide the
min. BER
Raised cosine filter
A low-pass Nyquist filter
At the receiver: to eliminate ISI
The channel characteristics are known
Equalizers
At the receiver: to mitigate the effect of ISI