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Pharmacological Aspect of

Tobacco
• Tobacco has many ingredients
– There are two Natural Alkaloids which are important
– 1 Nicotine
– 2 Lobeline
Nicotine is obtained from leaves of Tobacco Nicotiana
tobacum. It was first isolated by Pesselt and
Reiman in 1828 AD.
Lobeline was isolated From lobelia inflata ( Indian
Tobacco) by wieland in 1915.
Lobeline has many of the same action as Nicotine but
less potent.
Pharmacokinetics.
• Rapidly absorbed from Respiratory tract, Buccal
mucosa and Skin.
• Average cigarette contain 8 to 9 milligram of
Nicotine and delivers 1 milligram systemically to
smokers.
• 80 to 90 percent of Nicotine is altered in body by
liver, Kidney and Lungs.
• Significant portion is metabolised by the Lungs.
• Half Life is two Hours.
• Eliminated by Kidney.
• Excretion Increased in Acidic urine.
Pharmacological Actions
• Nicotine is of considerable Medical Significance
Because of its Toxicity and Dependence
• It is a Colorless, Volatile base, which turns
Brown & acquires the odor of Tobacco on
exposure air.
• It stimulates CNS, produces tremors and
convulsions. Stimulation of CNS is followed by
depression and death due to central paralysis.
• Stimulates sympathetic ganglia, adrenal
medulla, so the heart rate and the blood
pressure is increased due to the discharge of
catacholamines.
Pharmacological Actions
• In GIT the stimulation is parasympathetic
combined with sympathetic discharge,
produces nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
• Salivary and bronchial secretions are
increased due to irritant smoke.
• Most influential dependence producing drug
• High failure rate amongst smoker who try to quit smoking
• 80% smokers express a desire to quit
• 35% try to stop each year
• 5% are successful in unaided attempts to quit
• Cigarette addiction is influenced by multiple variables
• Nicotine produces reinforcement
• It produces central nervous system effects in less than
seven seconds
• Nicotine has both stimulant and depressant effects
• Smoker feels alert and some muscle relaxation
• Blood levels could disrupt the sleep and
the person can wake up during the
midnight
• Depressed mode is associated with
nicotine dependence but reason is not
known
Treatment of the withdrawal
• Nicotine replacement
• Clonidine
• Fluoxetine
Withdrawal Symptoms
• Irritability
• Impatience
• Hostility
• Anxiety
• Dysphoric and depressed mood
• Difficult in concentration
• Restlessness
• Decreased heart rate
• Increased appetite or weight gain