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# 1

CAMS
in the School of Computing, Engineering and Physical Sciences
Introduction to thermodynamics
by Dr J. Whitty
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Lessons structure
The lessons will in general be subdivided
in to eight number of parts, viz.:
1) Statement of learning objectives
2) Points of orders
3) Introductory material (Phases of matter)
4) Concept introduction (laws of
thermodynamics)
5) Development of related principles (heat
transfer)
6) Concrete principle examples via
reinforcement examination type exercises
7) Summary and feedback
8) Formative assessment, via homework task

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Learning Objectives
Describe the four basic states of matter
State and use the basic thermodynamic
laws
Discuss three types of radiant particles
State appropriate formulae to describe
heat transfer
Evaluate the heat lost through simple
systems

After the session the students should be able to:
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Terminology: Matter Phases
All matter is divided into four different
types, these being:
Solid
Liquid (Fluid)
Gas (Fluid)
Plasma (Class exercise: what is this?)

Three of which are categorized and
fluids as shown
Good ol
encyclopedia.com
NB: Dont use wikipedia its only a wiki!
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Axioms of Natural Philosophy
These are quite simply the 4 axioms (self evident
truths) of all modern Physics, they are known as the
four Laws of Thermodynamics and relate to the
quantities of
Zeroth: Temperature
First: Energy
Second: Disorder (Entropy)
Third: Balance of them all
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Laws of Thermodynamics
Zeroth: Heat will flow from a hot body to a cold
body until the bodies are of equal temperature
(thermal equilibrium).
First: Energy cannot be destroyed or created
(static equilibrium).
Second: The disorder (entropy) of any system
increases or in the limit is exactly zero (order
equilibrium).
Third: At the limit of zero entropy the
temperature of a system in static and thermal
(thermodynamic) equilibrium is ABSOLUTE
zero.

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Heat Transfer
By the zeroth law it is reasonably obvious
that heat must travel through a medium.
The transfer (flow) of this heat takes place
through three mechanisms, thus:
1. Conduction
2. Convection
The first of these is usually concerned with
solids, the second fluids (esp. liquids) and
the third is present in most matter inc.
plasma. Each of these mechanisms occur
at the atomic and molecular levels!
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Heat transfer: Conduction
Conduction is the most
significant means of
heat transfer in a solid.
On a microscopic scale,
conduction occurs as
hot, rapidly moving or
vibrating atoms and
molecules interact with
neighbouring atoms
and molecules,
transferring some heat
to neighbouring atoms.
In insulators the heat-
flux is carried almost
entirely by phonon
vibrations.
x
T
kA Q
A
A
=
Fouriers
Law
*
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Typical conductivity values
Substance Thermal
Conductivity
k [J/(s-m-C)]
Substance
Thermal
Conductivity
k [J/(s-m-C)]
Styrofoam 0.010 Glass 0.80
Air 0.026 Concrete 1.1
Wool 0.040 Iron 79
Wood 0.15 Aluminium 240
Body fat 0.20 Silver 420
Water 0.60 Diamond 2450
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Heat transfer: Convection
This is usually the
dominant form of heat
transfer in fluids. This is a
term used to characterize
the combined effects of
conduction and fluid flow.
Heat transfer occurs by the
movement of hot or cold
portions of the fluid
together with heat transfer
by conduction. For
example, when water is
heated on a stove, hot
water from the bottom of
the pan rises, heating the
water at the top of the pan.
( )
L H
T T hA Q =
Newtons
Law of
cooling
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Heat Transfer:
Transfer of heat by
Thermal energy is radiated at
wavelengths determined by the
temperature of the surface-
short wavelengths for the sun
and long wavelengths for sun-
warmed materials such as
brick. Bright, shiny materials
reflect radiation while dull, black
materials absorb it.
includes three
types:
( )
4 4
C H
T T A Q = o
Stefen- Boltzmans
Law:
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Fouriers Conduction Law
This an empirical law that states: that the
rate of heat flow, through a homogenous
solid is directly proportional to the area of
the section at right angles to the direction
of heat flow, and to the temperature
difference along the path of heat flows. or:

x
T
kA Q
A
A
=
Fouriers
Law
*
T
x
k
q A
|
.
|

\
|
A
=
i.e.
NB: It is only conduction
calculations we consider in this
introductory course! It is still
acceptable to ask descriptive
questions regarding the others in
assessments!
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Here, q is the heat-flux (heat-per-unit-area-
per-unit-time) the term in parenthesis is
sometimes called the thermal conductance
due to the analogies shared with the theory of
electricity
Moreover the equation may be written:
Application of Fouriers Law*
k x
T
q
/ A
A
=
T
x
k
q A
|
.
|

\
|
A
=
k
x
R
TH
A
=
Where the denominator
is called the thermal
resistance thus:
TH
R
T
q
A
=
and
TH
qR T = A or
Thermal
Ohms law!
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Example #1
A concrete wall of 0.25m thick is re-
enforced at its centre line with a sheet
(k=85W/mK) of steel 50mm thick. If
the inside of the wall is at room
temperature and the outside drops to
a temperature of 25 degrees below
freezing.
a) Determine what difference (if any) the
reinforcement makes with respect to the
heat flow through the wall 
b) What advantage of the re-enforcement 
[8 marks]
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Example #1: Solution
Draw the problem:
0.25m
0.05m
Change to
electrical
analogy
k=85
k=1.1
2 TH
R
1 TH
R
3 TH
R
85
05 . 0
1 . 1
25 . 0
293 =
H
T
248 =
H
T
1 . 1
25 . 0
2273 . 0 10 5882 . 0 2273 . 0
3
+ + =
A
=

k
x
R
TH
Find the total thermal resistance:
Find the total thermal resistance: 4551 . 0 =
TH
R
2
W/m 88 . 98
4551 . 0
45
=

= q
from
which
4546 . 0 2273 . 0 2 = =
A
=

k
x
R
TH
Calculation without steel:
2
W/m 98 . 98
4546 . 0
45
=

= q
from
which
% 01 . 0
88 . 98
) 88 . 98 98 . 98 (
=

Evaluate the
percentage
difference:
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Class Problems
1. A rectangular brick-wall (100mm thick) is
surrounded with 50mm thick Styrofoam
cladding, given that the inside of the wall is
at room temperature, and the lowest outside
recorded temperature is -30
o
C. Evaluate the
greatest reduction in the heat loss from the
wall.
2. A brick wall (k~0.9 W/mK) is re-enforced
with a sheet of steel 1/5
th
of the thickness of
the wall. Evaluate, the percentage change
in the heat lost if the inside of the wall is at a
temperature of 170
o
C and the outside of the
wall is at room temperature.
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Class problem; solution #2:
2 TH
R
1. This time we are only told the ratio of
thicknesses being 1/5 or
Change to
electrical
analogy
taking t as a
parameter
1 TH
R
3 TH
R
85
t
9 . 0
5t
9 . 0
5t
K 150 = AT
t
t t
k
x
R
TH
236
2625
9
50
85 9
50
= + + =
A
=

## Find the total thermal resistance:

3 2
49 . 13
kW/m 49 . 13 kW/m
2625
236 150
= ~

=
t
t
t
q
from
which
t t t t t t 5 ; 5
brick steel steel brick
= = =
5t
t
k=85
k=0.9
3 2
5 . 13
kW/m 5 . 13 kW/m
100
150 9
= ~

=
t
t
q
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Consequences of the first law:
Flow Processes
If we consider the
first law based on
some fluid passing
through a control
volume above a
datum (at sea-
level) for
consentience.
Application of the
first law, with the
following
assumption:
1. The mass flow is
constant and equal to
the outlet mass flow
2. The cross-section
properties of the inlet
and outlet are constant
Conservation of Mass
Mass cannot be destroyed or created
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Session Summary
Have we met our learning objectives, in
particular are you will be able to:
Describe the four basic states of matter
State and use the basic thermodynamic
laws
Discuss three types of radiant particles
State appropriate formulae to describe heat
transfer
Evaluate the heat lost through simple
systems