VIRUSES

Where did viruses come from?
• Probable origin • - started as bits of cellular DNA or RNA and then became independent • - or that these viruses came along very early in evolution, and some of their DNA or RNA stuck around in cells' genomes.

DISCOVERY OF VIRUSES
Dmitri Iwanowsk (1864-1920, Russian botanist) - discovered the very first virus at St. Petersburg Academy of Science on the 12th February 1892 - studied mosiac tobacco disease, and found that the agent causing the disease was small enough for pass though ceramic filter that are small enough to trap all bacteria. This is generally accepted as the beginning of

Virology.

Six years later, 1898, Martinus Beijernick (1851-1931) confirmed Iwanowski's results on tobacco mosaic virus. He developed with the term "contagium vivum fluidum" which means ―soluble living germ‖ as first the idea of the virus.

• The same year, the German scientists Friedrich Loeffler (1852-1915) and Paul Frosch, observed that a similar agent was responsible for foot-and-mouth disease. There was strong resistance that suggested these were not associated with human diseases.

. It was not until 1901 that Walter Reed (1893-1902) discovered yellow fever was caused by a virus. Yellow fever was thought to be as a mosquito-borne infection. Yellow fever has killed over tens of millions of deaths in past centuries. the introduction of aggressive mosquito control helped to suppress the problem.Yellow fever was a devastating plague that was the first virus to be identified by humans. Once mosquitoes were identified as the virus carrier.

Frederick Twort Felix D'Hérelle In 1915. Many scientists started to use their findings to investigate virus structure. Felix D'Hérelle were first to describe bacteriophages. and replication. Frederick Twort and in 1917. or viruses that infect bacteria. . genetics.

the first vaccine against viruses was created by Edward Jenner against smallpox. penicillin was the first antibiotic to be discovered by Alexander Fleming.Alexander Fleming Edward Jenner In 1928. However. Viruses are hard to cure because they live inside the body’s own cell. making if hard for the immune system to attack. antibiotics cannot cure viruses and there were no drugs developed at that time that could fight them. In 1798. It was not until the 1970’s that there were drugs available to the general public. .

. New technology advances and the introduction of the electron microscope helped us to vaguely see what a virus looks like. Detailed identification and characterization of viruses began as better techniques at studying viruses and more powerful microscopes were developed. the first virus was seen by the human eye.• In 1930.

Viruses were thought as to be the smallest infectious agent.WHAT IS A VIRUS? • Virus . . but recently that position has been taken over by two smaller pathogens known as prions and viroids.Latin word meaning ―poisonous fluid‖.

• A virus is a submicroscopic infectious particle composed of a protein coat and a nucleic acid core .

• All viruses have at least two parts. surrounds an inner core of either DNA or RNA. but not both . An outer capsid. composed of protein subunits.

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• They have no cellular structure. .Viruses are often considered non-living for several reasons: • They do not grow by increasing in size. • They do not respond to external stimuli. • They cannot carry out independent metabolism.

.Types Of Viruses • Viruses are classified by the type of nucleic acid they contain. and the shape of their protein capsule.

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Icosahedral Virus 60 rotational symmetries/ 120 transformations .

A H1N1 Virus .

for one. • N1 = neuraminidase Is the flu an active virus or hidden virus? Active. Then once new viruses are made.• A = Type A influenza virus • HI = hemagglutinin. they will burst out and infect more cells. because it will inject it's genetic material. .

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T-4 Bacteriophage .

Retrovirus • Retroviruses use RNA instead of DNA as their nucleic acid core. which will detranscribe the RNA sequence into a DNA strand . • They also contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

and thus are not considered alive • Viruses are intracellular parasites that can be maintained only inside living cells . like cells. carry genetic information encoded in their nucleic acid. and can undergo mutations and reproduce • However. they cannot carry out metabolism.• Viruses.

• Viruses must carry out their reproduction by parasitizing a host cell • They cannot multiply outside a living cell. they can only replicate inside of a specific host .

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The Lytic Cycle • ATTACHMENT = Viruses gain entry and are specific to a particular host cell because portions of the capsid (or spikes of the envelope) adhere to the host cell’s plasma membrane .

where the viral genome codes for production of protein units in the capsid .The Lytic Cycle • PENETRATION Viral nucleic acid then enters the cell.

The Lytic Cycle • REPLICATION – Viral nucleic acid takes over the cell’s metabolic machinery and starts to replicate .

The Lytic Cycle • ASSEMBLY = Viral components are assembled into new viruses .

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• Antibiotics are not effective against viruses . and encephalitis. measles. and only recently by the administration of antiviral drugs • Virally caused human diseases include the flu. common cold. chicken pox. small pox.Viruses and Diseases • Viral plant diseases can be controlled solely by burning those plants that show symptoms of disease • Viral diseases in humans are controlled by preventing transmission. herpes. administering vaccines.

Influenza -Hepatitis A -Hepatitis B -NANB Hepatitis -Viral Gastroenteritis -Viral Fevers -Cytomegalovirus Disease -AIDS -Rabies -Polio -Herpes Simplex -Chicken pox ( Varicella) -Measles (Rubeola) -German Measles ( Rubella) -Mumps (Epidemic Parotitis) -Small Pox (Variola) .Diseases Caused by Viruses .

• A vaccine stimulates the antibody production and formation of memory cells without causing of the disease. • Vaccines are made from killed pathogens or weakened strains that cause antibody production but not the disease .Vaccination • Vaccination is a term derived from the Latin vacca (cow. after the cowpox material used by British physician Edward Jenner (17491823) in the first vaccination in 1796).

. • This is a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail.HIV – AIDS • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). leading to lifethreatening opportunistic infections.

• HIV primarily infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells .

we carry among our genes many "fossilized" retroviruses—left over from the infection of distant ancestors—which can help us trace our evolution as a species. which is thought to have first emerged in humans in the 1930s. These simple viruses is akin to elements found in normal cells that have the ability to copy and insert themselves throughout the genome — a process that reverses the normal flow of information in cells. .• HIV. which is where the term "retro" comes from—and their central machinery for replication may be a bridge from the original lifeforms on this planet to what we know as life today. is a kind of virus known as a retrovirus. In fact.

unusable for the future. making it hard for our immune system to fight back. . Viruses can also mutate. Antiviral medicines work only when the virus is trying to reproduce in the body. causing treatments that might work today. but viral infection cannot.TREATMENT • Treating viral infections are tricky because viruses live inside the body’s own cells. • Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics.

Proper diet. and rest are the best way to boost maximum performance of the immune system. hydration. .• Most human viral infections can be successfully fought by the body's own immune system.

Water – drink lots of water. . Rest – a body that is well rested will do a better job of fighting infections.General instructions for treating viral infections are as follows: 1. See a doctor – it is recommended to see a doctor if a infection does not improve or new symptoms occur. at least 8 cups/glasses a day. 2. 3.

.PREVENTION • Basic Steps for Preventing Viral Infection 1. 2. 3. Balanced diet – eating a balanced diet will provide our body with the proper nutrition to fight infection. Vaccination – get all required vaccinations to prevent viral infections. Rest – a body that is well rested will do a better job of fighting infections.

Exercise – exercise makes the body stronger. 5.4. Stress – stressed people are more prone to having infections. Wash hands – washing hands and keeping a good hygiene will help decrease chances of being infected. . increases the energy level. 6. All three things help fight infections. and reduces stress.

.7. Don’t smoke – smoking increases chances of lung infection. Isolate sick people – contagious infections can be spread from person to person. Safe sex – safe sex is the best way to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. 8. 9.

According to research.VIRUSES CAN CURE DISEASES New discoveries on how viruses can help people. (Cell Genesys in Foster City. San Francisco) 1. ( by Peter Working.use HIV as a carrier to insert good genes into people who have diseases such as hemophilia and Alzheimer’s disease. Curing Diseases With HIV . Senior VP of Research and Development ) . changing the DNA of patients using gene therapy could cure diseases.

―trick‖ it into replicating more viruses until the host cell bursts. They destroy harmful cells and leave normal body cells largely unaffected. "onco" means cancer. Eliminating Cancer with Oncolytic Virus Therapy ( Oncolytic. infect. and replicate in cancer cells.2. they seek to penetrate a host cell. . lytic meaning "killing―) Oncolytic viruses are genetically engineered viruses that work like any other virus. Oncolytic viruses are viruses that only seek.

3. ) . 9 out of 10 mice implanted with human tumor cells and injected with the reovirus survived for 90 days. destroying 20 out of the 24 cell cultures. The virus is called Respiratory Enteric Orphan (reovirus) which is commonly found in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of people.Naturally-occuring virus can actually destroy human brain cancer cells (leaving normal cells untouched). The mice treated with live reovirus not only lived longer. Brain Tumor Destroying Virus . (Even more encouraging. Lab tests show that this virus works very effectively. but were also proved to be healthier.

modern day technology and medical advances are changing and advancing each day. hopefully we’ll find a way to cure them all. However. with the new advances. “Prevention is better than cure. There are still many viruses where a cure is yet to be discovered.Today. Thanks to these new advances we have a better understanding of viruses and new techniques to fight viruses.” .

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