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GRAMMAR

INDAH WINDRA,M.Pd

THE PARTS OF SPEECH
• The names of words according to their function in the sentence • Another term used for the parts of speech is “Word Categories” or parts of syntactic categories NOUN, PRONOUN, ADJECTIVE, ADVERB,CONJUNCTION, PREPOSITION, INTERJECTION

THE NOUN
• A noun is word used to name a person,place, thing , or idea. • Nouns may be classified in three ways; PROPER OR COMMON ABSTRACT OR CONCRETE COLLECTIVE

PROPER NOUN VS COMMON NOUN
• A PROPER NOUN NAMES A PARTICULAR PERSON, PLACE, OR THING. IT MUST BE CAPITALIZED • A common noun is a noun that does NOT NAME A PARTICULAR PERSON, PLACE, OR THING. IT MAY NOT BE CAPITALIZED

ABSTRACT VS CONCRETE
• AN ABSTRACT NOUN NAMES A QUALITY, A CHARACTERISTICS, AN IDEA • Eq. Happiness, honesty,enjoyment, courage,intelligence,Jealously,luck,sadness, violence • A CONCRETE NOUN NAMES AN OBJECT THAT CAN BE PERCEIVED BY THE SENSES

COLLECTIVE NOUN
• A COLLECTIVE NOUN NAMES A GROUP. EXAMPLE:CROWD ,TEAM, CLASS,GROUP,CLUB FLOCK OF BIRDS CONGRESS PUBLIC SCHOOL OF FISH ORGANIZATION ARMY PACK OF WOLVES GOVERNMENT CLUB HERD OF CATTLE *MAJORITY FAMILY SWAM OF BEES *COMMITEE JURY COLONY OF ANTS PACK OF DOGS PRIDE OF LION POPULATION MINORITY
NOTE: WORDS REFERING TO A NUMBER OF PEOPLE OR ANIMALS ARE USUALLY SINGULAR

COUNTABLE NOUN
• It can be counted • Its form can be plural as well as singular • It cannot stand alone in other words, if a noun is singular, it must be accompanied/preceded by a determiner(such as : a, an, the) or If a noun is plural, it must be added by an inflection (s/-es) at the end Some Determiners for countable noun: some,any, this,that, these, those, none,one,two, three, many, a lot of, a (large.great)number of, (a) few. Fewer...than, more..than

AN UNCOUNTABLE NOUN
• It cannot be counted • It does not have a plural form, in other words, an uncountable noun is always singular) Ex. Water (not *waters) • It is never preceded by a determiner ‘a (one) or an’ or inflection-s • Ex; blood (not *a blood ) or money (not *one money) • It can be modified by the,some , any, this, that,none,much (-,?), a lot, a large amount of , (a) little, less..than, more..than

Uncountable noun
• Bread, cheese, coffee, food, fruit, meat, paper,rice,salt,sugar,tea, hair, experience, information, knowledge

AN UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS IS ALWAYS SINGULAR
• • • • • • • • • • • Furniture,luggage,machinery, pottery, clothing,equipment Progress,evidence,knowledge,significance,information Music Traffic Transportation Money,poverty,postage, Homework,housework Jewerly,silver Air, scenery Happiness, honesty, enjoyment, courage, intelligence, Jealously, luck,sadness, violence.

PRONOUN
SUBJECT
PRONOUNS

OBJECT PRONOUNS ME YOU THEM US HER HIM IT

POSSESIVE ADJECTIVES MY YOUR THEIR OUR HER HIS ITS

POSSESIVE PRONOUNS MINE YOURS THEIRS OURS HERS HIS ITS

REFLEXIVE RELATIVE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS PRONOUNS PRONOUNS MYSELF YOURSELF THEMSELVES OURSELVES HERSELF HIMSELF ITSELF WHICH WHOSE THAT WHO WHOM WHOSE THAT EVERYBODY EVERYONE
SOMEBODY SOMEONE

I YOU THEY WE SHE HE IT

ANYBODY NOBODY, NO ONE

Note: Who,whom, whose , that can be used for all pronouns, except : it
which,whose,that can be solely used by pronoun “it”

NOUNS ENDING IN-S BUT ARE ALWAYS SINGULAR
• ACADEMIC SUBJECT; Mathematics, politics,physics,economics, civics, statistics, linguistics etc • QUATITIES/AMOUNT: time, money, measurement • GROUP OF ANIMALS ( see. Collective noun) • DISEASES: Measles, Mumps, rickets, herpes, • TITLE OF BOOK,FILM, MAGAZINE • ABSTRACT: Politics,ethnics,news

A NUMBER OF/ THE NUMBER OF
A NUMBER OF + PLURAL NOUN + PLURAL VERB

Ex: A number of UIGM lectures are studying English now
THE NUMBER OF + PLURAL NOUN + SINGULAR NOUN

Ex : The number of days in a week is seven

DETERMINER USED FOR NOUN

NOUNS THAT ARE ALWAYS PLURAL
• These following nouns are always considered plural.They cannot be singular.In order to speak of them as ingular, must say : “a pair of........” or the pair of........ -GARMENTS: shorts, pants, jeans, tongs, trousers, glasses,pliers,tweezers,clothes,pajamas, breeches TOOL AND INSTRUMENTS: Scissors, Binoculars, Pliers, Shears, Scales, Spectacles Outskirts(daerah pinggiran kota), surroundings,premises(gedung), Stairs, grounds(area) Greens (vegetables), goods Police, arms(weapon), damages, pains(trouble) Savings, earnings,riches

DETERMINER
• A small group of word and they act to limit or determine to some extent the possible range of things which the noun can refer to. E.g. The noun girl can refer to any girl in the entire universe; if we add this as in this girl in sentence , we are limiting the meaning to one specific girl. It can be this, that, the, a, an ,etc.