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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF LOW COST ABOVE AND BELOW KNEE PROSTHESIS

GUIDED BY DR.K.CHOCKALINGAM

PRESENTED BY J.GOKULAKRISHNAN(08G20) N.MUTHU MANICKAM(08G56)

INTRODUCTION
 The development of different human organ is
need in medical field particularly in prosthesis.  Artificial limb is a type of prosthesis that replaces the missing extremity such as legs or arms.  The type of artificial limb depend upon the type of amputation.  India has very large population of above and below limb amputees.

Trauma LEVEL OF AMPUTATION Others Cold injury Railway accident Road traffic accidents Splinter injury Gun shot wound Mine blast injury 921 1481 1216 3389 901 1526 6421 upper limb 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 lower limb Number of patients both SURVEY OF PATIENTS AFFECTED BY TRAUMA FOR THE PAST 12 YEARS .

.TERMINOLOGIES USED PROSTHESIS: It is an artificial extension of replacing a missing body part A Prosthetist is a person who treats amputated persons. AMPUTATION: Amputation is the removal of body parts due to trauma or surgery The person who undergo Amputation are called Amputees. ARTIFICIAL LIMBS: An Artificial limb is a type of prosthesis that replaces a missing part such as arms or legs.

EXOSKELETON TYPE:  It is a type of prosthetic limb in which the limb is seen as a whole assembly along with the leg  It doesn’t contain any connections between limb and leg ENDOSKELETON TYPE:  It is a type of prosthesis in which the leg is fitted to the limb by means of a pipe  There is no direct contact between limb and leg  It is a costly one Exoskeleton type Endoskeleton type .

 Shape  Muscle strength or muscle tone  Sensory impairment  Full range of motion of parts above the knee  Proper mating with the socket . the stump should have the following properties.STUMP: For accurate fitness of stump with prosthetic limb.

it should suit for shrinkage of muscles around stump Use of a special type of Knee joint instead of Knee lock in above knee prosthesis Reducing the time of prosthetic manufacturing by using a design a special die arrangement which suits for all type of below knee prosthesis .OBJECTIVE OF OUR PROJECT: Designing the limb in such a way that.

PROCESS FLOW .

ORANIZATIONS VISITED Artificial Limb Research Center (ALRC). Mercury Orthotics . .  Dr. PRABAKARAN . Orthotist to get information regarding problems in current scenario. RAJAMANI and Dr.Madurai.Dindigul.

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION SURVEY SHEET .

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND CORRECTIONS PROBLEMS REASON EXISTING METHODOLOGY POOR SOCKET FIT MANUAL MEASUREMENT TRIAL AND ERROR PROPOSED METHODOLOGY USING 3D LASER SCANNER EXPECTED OUTCOME COMFORT FIT METHOD SHRINKAGE OF MUSCLES AGEING NOT CONSIDERED USE CUSHIONING MATERIALS AROUND OF REDUCING PUMPING ACTION LEFT- OVER STUMP IMPROPER LOAD DISTRIBUTI ON POOR DESIGN SOCKET NOT CONSIDERED DESIGN MODIFICATION BY CONSIDERING THE EFFECT OF FORCES EVEN DISTRIBUTI ON OF LOAD .

SHORTAGE OF LIMBS IN CHILDREN GROWTH NOT CONSIDERED USE FASTENERS OF USE OF PROSTHETIC LIMBS FOR LONG TIME WITHOUT CHANGING SHRINKAGE OF LIMBS IN ADULT WEAKNESS OF NOT CONSIDERED COMBINED AND SKELETAL PROSTHETIC LIMBS MOTION OF PROSTHETIC LIMBS IN KNEE LOCK DIFFERENT SYSTEM LOCK HYBRID PROSTHESIS EXO ENDOINCREASING LIFETIME OF PROSTHETIC LIMBS INCREASE IN COMFORTNESS DURING WALKING LIMB MUSCLES ABOVE KNEE PROSTHESIS .

PROPOSED DESIGN FOR RESIDUAL LIMB MODELLED USING SOLIDWORKS CROSS SECTION OF EXISTING ARTIFICIAL LIMB CROSS SECTION OF PROPOSED DESIGN .

If there exists any problem in endoskeleton the entire limb has to be modified Fitting of endoskeleton depend upon exoskeleton shape .FEASIBILITY OF PROPOSED DESIGN  Theoretically the design is correct according to prosthetist  But practically the design have some problems PRACTICAL PROBLEMS    Increase in weight upto 400grams which is practically not advisable for patients.

PROPOSAL FOR ABOVE KNEE PROSTHESIS PROBLEMS IN ABOVE KNEE PROSTHESIS  Using button type lock system to bend and straighten the knee while using it .  It is practically difficult for patients to use while walking and doing their regular work . SOLUTION FOR PROBLEM  Use of HYBRID PROSTHESIS provides the solution for the above problem.  Providing KNEE JOINT in exoskeletal type limb  It is cheaper and cost effective .

REDUCING THE TIME OF MANUFACTURING OF PROSTHETIC LIMBS: Normally it takes more than a day to design the residual limb using POP mold method In order to reduce the time of manufacturing we need to go for an alternate method The alternate can be made by the use of special dies. The die must be designed in such a way that. the extruded part from the die should be in the same form as that of the residual limb. This reduces the time of making the limb in relative to POP method because once the die is prepared it can be used for various shapes of the prosthetic limb .

Rs 2500  Above knee prosthesis with hybrid joint – Rs 4500 The cost of the prosthetic models made by conventional techniques are as follows.COST ANALYSIS Roughly the cost estimated for our design on consultation with prosthetist are as follows.  Below knee prosthesis .  Below knee prosthesis – Rs 1750  Above knee prosthesis with knee joint – Rs 6000 .

GAIT ANALYSIS AND IT’S PHASES:  Gait analysis is the systematic study of animal locomotion. using the eye and the brain of observers. body mechanics. and the activity of the muscles . more specific as a study of human motion. augmented by instrumentation for measuring body movements.

Stance Phase      Initial Contact Loading Response Mid Stance Terminal Stance Preswing Swing Phase  Initial Swing  Mid Swing  Terminal Swing .

FUTURE WORKS  FABRICATING THE PROPOSED DESIGN  MAKING GAIT ANALYSIS .

com/patienteducation/prosthetic-problems.footeducation. National Sample Survey Organisation Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation Government of India.REFERENCES  “The Jaipur Below Knee Prosthesis Fabrication Manual”.  www.com/below-knee-prosthesis  www.  “Disabled Persons in India”.thelondonprosthetics.asp .

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