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SUFFIX

SUFFIX
In grammar, a suffix (also postfix, ending) is an affix which is placed at the end of a word.  Suffixes can carry grammatical information (inflectional suffixes), or lexical information (derivational suffixes).

INFLECTIONAL SUFFIXATION
          

Some inflectional suffixes in present day English: -s third person singular present -ed past tense -ing progressive/continuous -en past participle -s plural -en plural (irregular) -er comparative -est superlative -n't negative ’s Genitive case

DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXATION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

NOUN NOUN SUFFIXES NOUN/ADJECTIVE NOUN/ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES VERB NOUN SUFFIXES ADJECTIVE NOUN SUFFIXES VERB SUFFIXES NOUN ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES OTHER ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES ADVERB SUFFIXES

1. NOUN SUFFIXES SUFFIX ADDED TO
FORM - ster, - eer

NOUN
TO MEANING EXAMPLES ‘person engaged Gangster, in an occupation gamester or activity’ Engineer, racketeer teenager Londoner Glover Booklet, leaflet Cigarette Leatherette Usherette Waitress,

Nouns to personal nouns

- er

Nouns to personal Varied and inanimate nouns meanings: Having X Inhabitant of X Maker of X Countable nouns to countable nouns Nouns to nouns ‘small, unimportant’ ‘small, compact’ ‘imitation(materi al)’ ‘Female’ ‘Female’

- let - ette

- ess

Animate nouns to

SUFFIX -y - hood - ship - dom - ocracy - ery, -ry

1. NOUN NOUN SUFFIXES ADDED TO TO FORM MEANING
Nouns to nouns Nouns to abstract nouns Nouns to abstract nouns Nouns to abstract nouns Nouns to abstract nouns Chiefly nouns to: Abstract nouns Concrete nouns Mass nouns Countable nouns to mass nouns Countable nouns to ‘status’ ‘status, condition’ ‘domain, realm, condition’ ‘system of government’ ‘Behavior’ ‘place of activity’ ‘collectivity’ The substance which noun is composed ‘the amount which

EXAMPLES Daddy, Johnny Boyhood, brotherhood Friendship Membership Kingdom Officialdom Democracy Meritocracy Slavery Refinery Machinery Matting, Tubing Mouthful,

-Ing

- ful

2. NOUN/ADJECTIVE NOUN/ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES
SUFFIX - (i) an ADDED TO FORM TO MEANING ‘belonging to’ ‘pertaining to’ EXAMPLES Indonesian Parisian Republican Chiefly proper nouns to: Personal and adjectives

- ese

Chiefly proper nouns to: Personal nouns and adjectives
Noun/adjectives to personal noun/adjectives Noun/adjectives to abstract nouns

‘Nationality’

Chinese Portuguese Japanese
Racialist Loyalist Idealism Absenteeism

- ist

‘member of a party, occupation’ ‘doctrine’ ‘point of view’ ‘political or artistic movement’

- ism

3. VERB NOUN SUFFIXES
SUFFIX - er ADDED TO TO FORM MEANING Aggential suffix EXAMPLES Worker, writer, driver, silencer, windowcleaner Inhabitant, contestant, informant. Trainee, employee Exploration Foundation Arrangement, amazement Refusal, revival, dismissal, upheaval Mainly verbs to mainly personal nouns Verbs to personal noun

- ant

Aggential suffix

- ee - ation

Verbs to personal nouns Verbs to abstract nouns

Passive suffix ‘state’ ‘action’ ‘institution’

- ment - al

Verbs to abstract nouns Dynamic verbs to chiefly countable abstract nouns

‘state’ ‘action’ ‘action’

3. VERB NOUN SUFFIXES
SUFFIX - ing ADDED TO Verbs to: Abstract nouns Concrete nouns TO FORM MEANING ‘activity’ ‘state’ ‘resultant from the activity of the verb’ ‘extent’ ‘amount’ EXAMPLES Bathing, driving Painting, building, opening Coverage, leverage, wastage

- age

Verbs to mass abstract nouns

4. ADJECTIVE NOUN SUFFIXES
SUFFIX - ness - ity ADDED TO FORM TO MEANING ‘state’ ‘quality’ ‘state’ ‘quality’ EXAMPLES Meanness, happiness Sanity, diversity, elasticity Adjectives to abstract nouns Adjectives to abstract nouns

5. VERB SUFFIXES
SUFFIX - ify - ize - en ADDED TO FORM TO MEANING ‘causative’ ‘causative’ EXAMPLES Beautify, diversify, codify Decimalize, symbolize Ripen, widen, deafen, sadden, quicken Nouns, adjectives to verbs Nouns, adjectives to verbs Adjectives to: verbs

‘Make more ’ ‘Become’

6. NOUN ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES
SUFFIX
- ful

ADDED TO FORM
Abstract nouns to adjectives

TO

MEANING
‘full of…’ ‘having…’ ‘giving’

EXAMPLES
Useful, pitiful, successful, helpful

- less
- ly - like -y - ish

Nouns to adjectives
Concrete nouns to adjectives Concrete nouns to adjectives Concrete mass nouns to adjectives Proper and countable nouns to: adjectives

‘without’ ‘not giving’
‘Having the qualities of’ ‘Having the qualities of’ ‘like’ ‘full of’ ‘covered with’

Speechless, restless, careless
Beastly, manly, cowardly, worldly Childlike, cowlike, statesmanlike Meaty, sandy, creamy, hairy

‘Belonging to’ ‘having the character of’

Swedish, Turkish Foolish, selfish, modish

8. OTHER ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES
SUFFIX - able - ish - ed ADDED TO FORM TO MEANING ‘Passive’ ‘Somewhat’ ‘having…’ EXAMPLES Acceptable, readable Reddish, tallish, poorish Walled, pointed, giant-sized, blue eyed. Transitive verbs to adjectives adjectives to adjectives Nouns or noun phrases to adjectives

9. ADVERB SUFFIXES
SUFFIX -Ly ADDED TO FORM TO MEANING ‘In a…manner’ EXAMPLES Happily, strangely, oddly Onward, backwards, eastwards Adjectives to adverbs of manner, viewpoint Prepositional adverbs and nouns to adverbs of manner and direction Nouns to Adverbs of manner Viewpoint adverbs

- ward (s)

Manner and direction of movement

-wise

‘In a manner of…’ ‘as far as….is concerned’

Crabwise, clockwise. Weather-wise, education-wise