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An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 9e James M.

Rubenstein

Chapter 13

Urban Patterns
Geog 1050 Victoria Alapo, Instructor

Urban Settlements
• Urbanization Worldwide
– Increasing urban percentage & populations – Megacities: cities of 10 million or more people (World Bank) – City-States: a city that is also a country. E.g. Singapore, Vatican City, and many old kingdoms of the world.

population on 2% of U.Urban Settlements • Urbanization in U. land area! .S. – United States: Define Megalopolis (see next slide). The Boston–Washington corridor contains about one-quarter (25%) of U.S.S.

land area! This area is called Megalopolis.S.S. population – on 2% of U. Cities: Megalopolis The Boston–Washington corridor contains about one-quarter of U.Most Concentrated Area for U. .S.

.Large Cities Cities with 2 million or more people. Many qualifying cities are NOT shown.

5 of them are in Africa.Note that of the 50 largest cities in the world. .

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e. downtown. . Unique characteristics.Urban Structure • 4 models of urban structure (Mostly North American) – Concentric zone model – Sector model – Multiple nuclei model – Peripheral model – Define & describe CBD: Central Business District i.

a city grows in a series of rings surrounding the CBD. .Concentric Zone Model In the concentric zone model.

Sector Model In the sector model. a city grows in a series of wedges or corridors extending out from the CBD. .

Multiple Nuclei Model The multiple nuclei model views a city as a collection of individual centers. . around which different people and activities cluster.

around which are suburban areas and edge cities. .Peripheral Model of Urban Areas The central city is surrounded by a ring road. and service complexes. office parks. shopping malls. industrial areas.

S. are more likely to live near the center of the city.Differences Between U. . in contrast to most U. Scotland. cities. and European Cities Top professionals in Glasgow.S. where the wealthy mostly live in suburbs.

is likely to be in planned new towns (in a compact manner).K. I also noticed this while flying over Canada. occurs in discontinuous developments.K. growth in the U. and U.S. See photo and caption on pg 455. New housing in the U. On the other hand. .S.Suburban Development in the U.

while the poor live on the outskirts of the city (or “suburbs”).. The Latin American model is in direct contrast to the U.S. and the wealthy live in the suburbs.Latin American City Model In many Latin American cities. the wealthy live in the inner city and in a sector extending along a commercial spine. where the poor tend to live close to downtown. .

many of which STILL do exist as the modern cities of today. etc (Nigeria). Kano. Timbuktu (Mali). and so on. This photo shows the ruins of the Great Zimbabwe. Some pre-colonial cities that still exist today include Ibadan. which existed prior to the colonial period. .There were many Pre-Colonial Cities in Africa. Kumasi (Ghana).

. Nigeria. most large cities in Africa tend to have “two downtowns” – the Traditional and Modern. • This phenomenon was first recognized by Professor Mabogunje (1968). at the University of Ibadan. • So. This is mainly as a result of the presence of a traditional city center and colonial/modern (Western) city center in existence within the same city.The “Dual City” Phenomenon • Most African cities tend to be “dual cities”.

. Morocco This pre-colonial old city in North Africa has narrow winding streets and dense population. The French laid out a new district to the west with a geometric street pattern (thus showing a “dual city” pattern).Fès (Fez).

The following few slides contain photographs of some of today‟s African cities (unfortunately usually not seen in popular media). This photo shows a section of Nairobi. . Kenya.

The City of Abidjan. Cote d‟ Ivoire (Ivory Coast) .

Kenya . Namibia Bottom: Nairobi.Top: Windhoek.

Egypt (Africa) .Modern Cairo.

Nigeria .Lagos Island (Eko).

Vietnam In Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon).Asian: Ho Chi Minh City. the French demolished the previous city and replaced it with a colonial design with boulevards and public squares. .

Gentrification is when wealthy & middle class people move back into downtown. but not all. homeless. please see pg 228 of text. see pg 449. Any examples in Omaha? . – Urban renewal programs and public housing have solved some problems. – Culture of poverty – Underclass.Inner Cities • Inner-city problems: – Deterioration of property due to “white flight”. For definition of white flight.

and ends up drawing more immigrants from the countryside who are looking for work.g. . Paris (France). London (England). Lagos (Nigeria). – Cities usually become „primate‟ (large) because too much attention is given to that particular city at the expense of others. This then leads to problems shown on next slide. etc. Bangkok (Thailand). especially in developing countries. Therefore it grows at the expense of other towns.Problems of Urbanization • Problems in foreign countries – Primate Cities: a large city 2ce as large as the next largest city. usually with a large proportion of the national city population. Mexico City. e.

unemployment.The problems of urbanization include urban primacy. inadequate services. Problems in this city (Lagos) are similar to those you will find in South America or Asia. sanitation. housing. etc. . See video. traffic.

. this figure of Brussels (Belgium) illustrates the integration of heavy rail and light rail in public transport. which might reduce the need for driving individual cars. New York City is trying to work in that direction too.Public Transport in Brussels In your textbook.

e.Problems of Suburbs (and Some Solutions) • Local government fragmentation – Numerous small independent local governments e. are consolidating into one large Metropolitan area. urban planning. No-one wants to plan in a coordinated fashion (unless they‟re annexed).g.g. many cities in the U. Lexington & Louisville. in Kentucky both have “metro areas” consisting of numerous former small towns that are no longer independent. – Solutions: – To ease this burden on planning.S. . – Smart Growth: legislation to limit suburban sprawl and to preserve farmland.S. Elkhorn (before annexation). are a problem for U.