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Power Flow Analysis

In computer application in power system analysis

Purpose of Load Flow Calculations

Network planning tasks
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Determination of equipment loading Identification of weak points Impact of load increase Investigation of peak / low load and generation conditions Voltage control, reactive power compensation Security of supply (n-1 criterion) and reliability Loss reduction Investigation of network configurations during maintenance Stability calculations Motor start
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Network operation
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Initial state for
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Results of load flow calculation

Load currents
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magnitude and angle Equipment loading, overloading

Node voltages

magnitude and angle

Powers
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Active and reactive power balance Active and reactive power of generators Losses
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Modeling for Load Flow

Modeling mathematically as voltage or power source Slack bus - voltage (magnitude and angle) fixed, real and reactive power variable PU-/PV-bus - voltage (magnitude) and real power fixed, reactive power variable (normal operation mode of generator) PQ-bus - real and reactive power fixed, voltage (magnitude and angle) variable
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Importance of Slack Generator

Task of slack generator (swing bus)
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Fixing of voltage angle Balance of power difference between loads and infeed

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Fundamentals of load flow calculation
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infeeds and loads, buses, branches description of network topology, i.e. solving load flow calculation
Node

Load Infeed ~

Branch

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Description of infeeds

Slack feed:

voltage fixed δ fixed P, Q variable 1 slack needed in each network to balance powers

PU-feed: voltage fixed real power fixed Q, δ variable PQ-feed: real power fixed reactive power fixed U, δ variable
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Description of loads

PQ-load:

real and reactive power fixed description by P,Q P, cos phi S, cos phi I, cos phi...

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Description of branches

Impedance or

ZAB=RAB+ jXAB

Admittance

Y AB

1 1 = = Z AB RAB + jX AB

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− Y 12 − Y 13 0 − Y 15  Y 12 + Y 13 + Y 15   − Y 21 Y 21 + Y 23 − Y 23 0 0    Y = − Y 31 − Y 32 Y 31 + Y 32 + Y 34 − Y 34 0   0 0 − Y 43 Y 43 + Y 45 − Y 12    − Y 51 0 0 − Y 54 Y 51 + Y 54   
Y ii − Sum of all admittance s connected to node i Y ik − Negative admittance between node i and node k
5 4 Infeed ~ U1 1 2 I2 I12 Y12 Branch Load 3

Description of network topology

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Properties of admittance matrix

large matrix elements are complex numbers sparse (for large networks only few elements nonzero) diagonal elements positive non-diagonal elements zero or negative
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Load flow problem [I] = [ Y ] ⋅ [U]
[ Y ] − admittance matrix [U] − matrix of node voltages [I] − matrix of node currents
(signed sum of all currents at node)

non-linear problem for non-impedance loads (typical)

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Load flow problem
power at nodes

Pi + jQi = 3U i ⋅ I
power at nodes, expressed as matrix equation

* i

p + jq = 3 ⋅ diag ( u ) ⋅ i = 3 ⋅ diag ( u ) ⋅ Y ⋅ u
* *

*

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Solving technique
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Guauss-Seidel method Newton-Raphson method Fast Decoupled method

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Gauss-Seidel technique
1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 f(x) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Root  0.4 0.5 x 0.6 0.7 f1(x)=x       f2(x)=exp(­x) 0.8 0.9 1

Similar to the fixed-point iteration method
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Convergence of Fixed-point iteration
y
y1 = x y 2 = g( x)
• •

y
y1 = x

y 2 = g(x )

x2

x1

x0

x y

x1 x 2

x0

x

y

y 2 = g( x ) y1 = x

y 2 = g( x )

y1 = x

x 0 x1 x 2

x

x1

x0

x 16

Newton-Raphson method
f(x)

f(x i )  0 f '(x i )  x i  x i 1
df(xS2) dxS2

f(x i ) x i 1  x i  f '(x i )
x

xL1

xS1

xS3

xS2

xL2

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Limits of load flow calculation

Iteration boundary  high accuracy (ε small) vs. high calculation time Load model  assumption of constant power for PQ-loads only valid near rated voltage  for low voltages load assumption too high -> voltage collapse Possible reasons for non-convergence  load too high (PQ-load instead of Z-load)  reactive power problem -> voltage collapse  long lines  slack bus badly positioned Steady state solution might not be reachable because of stability problems
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Principle procedure of load flow calculation by iteration
Start Start values for node voltages Start values for deviations
Ui = U r

δi = 0

∆U i = ∆δ i = 0

Adjustment of node voltages

U i = U i + ∆U i

δ i = δ i + ∆δ i
Calculation of ΔUi and Δδi

p + jq = 3 ⋅ diag( u ) ⋅ i = 3 ⋅ diag( u ) ⋅ Y ⋅ u
* *

Calculation of node power

*

Comparison with allowed divergence
Pi − Pnom < ε Qi − Qnom < ε

no

yes End

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Gauss-Seidel method

Calculation continues with the new values of voltage for new iteration The process is repeated until the difference in voltage between the consecutive iterations is small enough Converges slowly
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Gauss-Seidel acceleration factor

Correction in voltage is multiplied by the constant ω

Selection of the multiplier depends on the network to be analyzed; 1.6 being a common value

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Newton-Raphson method
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f(x) = 0 Initial guess x0 Find ∆x1 such that f(x0 + ∆x1) = 0 Taylor series: f (x0) + f ’(x0)∆x1 = 0

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Newton-Raphson method

The process is repeated with the value x1 = x0 + ∆x1

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Newton-Raphson method

Power equations for load nodes

Alternative representation of power equations

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Newton-Raphson method

Initially guess for voltage magnitude and angle Corresponding Pi and Qi to guessed voltage are calculated Compare with initial data of P and Q to get mismatch ∆ Pi and ∆ Qi Repeat until mismatches are small enough

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Newton-Raphson method
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Selection of initial values Ui0 and δi0 Calculation of mismatches (actual-calculated) Form linearization of node equations

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Newton-Raphson method

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Determine inverse Jacobian matrix and solve the corrections for angles and voltages Substitute new values to voltages and angles and calculate the new partial derivative matrix Calculate the new power mismatches If the mismatches > given tolerance, repeat the process until the tolerance is small enough
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The elements of Jacobian matrix

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Newton-Raphson method – branch flow

Power flow in branch is calculated by Iij = Yij(Vi – Vj)

And

Sij = ViI*ij

Loss in branch is calculated by SL = Sij - Sji
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Decoupled load flow (DLF)

In a power transmission network, JB and JC can be assumed zero Therefore, construction of the Jacobian and finding its inverse become easier

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Fast decoupled load flow

The Jacobian matrix replaced by real constant matrix has to be constructed and inverted only once These accelerated (approximate) methods nevertheless give accurate results, because the calculated powers are always compared with the real ones
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Possibilities to reach The following tips that may help to achieve convergence. It convergencechanges to the network may have to should remembered that

 

be reversed again and plausibility of results must be checked.
change PQ-loads to Z-loads (impedance load conversion) change PU-generator to PQ-generator, relax operating limits of generators set starting points change method of calculation (current iteration, NewtonRaphson) disconnect long lines divide network in independent sub-networks try different positions of slack depending on network structure insert reactive power (capacitive or inductive) increase number of iterations and change accuracy requirements set tap changer to variable setting
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