2.3K views

Uploaded by kojs

save

- Power System Load Flow Analysis Using Microsoft Excel
- LOAD FLOW
- Applications of Nonlinear Control
- Symmetrical Components of Electrical Network
- Powerflow Gauss Seidel Examples 2
- Gauss Seidal Method
- LOAD FLOW STUDY
- Load-Flow Analysis in Power Systems
- Power Flow Analysis by Ramaswamy Natarajan
- PF Simulation Using Matlab
- Load Flow Analysis
- Lecture Notes1 - LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS 1
- Intro Tops At
- Reactive Power Control
- Power System LFS
- Power Flow Analysis Software Using Matlab
- Ybus formation for load flow studies
- Matlab Programs
- Ieee 14 Bus System Data
- AC Load Flow Analysis
- MaciejPikulskiReport Final
- Computer Methos in Power System Analysis
- PSAT
- MATLAB Program for Solution Power Flow Gauss-Seidel Method _ EE1404 – Power System Simulation Laboratory
- Jk Lecture Notes on Electric Power Systems
- Computational Methods in Power System Analysis
- exp 1 DI Y-Bus
- 4989
- manual PSAT.pdf
- Bus Admittance Impedance. Matrix Algorithm. Matlab
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi Delta
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- Yes Please
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
- John Adams
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in America
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man
- How To Win Friends and Influence People
- Angela's Ashes: A Memoir
- Steve Jobs
- Bad Feminist: Essays
- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A Novel
- The Incarnations: A Novel
- The Light Between Oceans: A Novel
- Leaving Berlin: A Novel
- The Silver Linings Playbook: A Novel
- The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A Novel
- A Man Called Ove: A Novel
- The Master
- Bel Canto
- We Are Not Ourselves: A Novel
- The First Bad Man: A Novel
- The Rosie Project: A Novel
- The Blazing World: A Novel
- Brooklyn: A Novel
- The Flamethrowers: A Novel
- Life of Pi
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A Novel
- The Bonfire of the Vanities: A Novel
- Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A Novel
- The Perks of Being a Wallflower
- A Prayer for Owen Meany: A Novel
- The Cider House Rules
- Wolf Hall: A Novel
- The Art of Racing in the Rain: A Novel
- The Wallcreeper
- Interpreter of Maladies
- The Kitchen House: A Novel
- Beautiful Ruins: A Novel
- Good in Bed

You are on page 1of 32

In computer application in power system analysis

**Purpose of Load Flow Calculations
**

**Network planning tasks
**

Determination of equipment loading Identification of weak points Impact of load increase Investigation of peak / low load and generation conditions Voltage control, reactive power compensation Security of supply (n-1 criterion) and reliability Loss reduction Investigation of network configurations during maintenance Stability calculations Motor start

2

Network operation

**Initial state for
**

**Results of load flow calculation
**

Load currents

magnitude and angle Equipment loading, overloading

Node voltages

magnitude and angle

Powers

**Active and reactive power balance Active and reactive power of generators Losses
**

3

**Modeling for Load Flow
**

Modeling mathematically as voltage or power source Slack bus - voltage (magnitude and angle) fixed, real and reactive power variable PU-/PV-bus - voltage (magnitude) and real power fixed, reactive power variable (normal operation mode of generator) PQ-bus - real and reactive power fixed, voltage (magnitude and angle) variable

4

**Importance of Slack Generator
**

**Task of slack generator (swing bus)
**

Fixing of voltage angle Balance of power difference between loads and infeed

5

**Fundamentals of load flow calculation
**

•

**infeeds and loads, buses, branches description of network topology, i.e. solving load flow calculation
**

Node

Load Infeed ~

Branch

6

Description of infeeds

Slack feed:

voltage fixed δ fixed P, Q variable 1 slack needed in each network to balance powers

PU-feed: voltage fixed real power fixed Q, δ variable PQ-feed: real power fixed reactive power fixed U, δ variable

7

Description of loads

PQ-load:

real and reactive power fixed description by P,Q P, cos phi S, cos phi I, cos phi...

8

Description of branches

Impedance or

ZAB=RAB+ jXAB

Admittance

Y AB

1 1 = = Z AB RAB + jX AB

9

− Y 12 − Y 13 0 − Y 15 Y 12 + Y 13 + Y 15 − Y 21 Y 21 + Y 23 − Y 23 0 0 Y = − Y 31 − Y 32 Y 31 + Y 32 + Y 34 − Y 34 0 0 0 − Y 43 Y 43 + Y 45 − Y 12 − Y 51 0 0 − Y 54 Y 51 + Y 54

Y ii − Sum of all admittance s connected to node i Y ik − Negative admittance between node i and node k

5 4 Infeed ~ U1 1 2 I2 I12 Y12 Branch Load 3

Description of network topology

10

**Properties of admittance matrix
**

large matrix elements are complex numbers sparse (for large networks only few elements nonzero) diagonal elements positive non-diagonal elements zero or negative

11

**Load flow problem [I] = [ Y ] ⋅ [U]
**

[ Y ] − admittance matrix [U] − matrix of node voltages [I] − matrix of node currents

(signed sum of all currents at node)

non-linear problem for non-impedance loads (typical)

12

**Load flow problem
**

power at nodes

Pi + jQi = 3U i ⋅ I

power at nodes, expressed as matrix equation

* i

p + jq = 3 ⋅ diag ( u ) ⋅ i = 3 ⋅ diag ( u ) ⋅ Y ⋅ u

* *

*

13

Solving technique

Guauss-Seidel method Newton-Raphson method Fast Decoupled method

14

**Gauss-Seidel technique
**

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 f(x) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Root 0.4 0.5 x 0.6 0.7 f1(x)=x f2(x)=exp(x) 0.8 0.9 1

**Similar to the fixed-point iteration method
**

15

**Convergence of Fixed-point iteration
**

y

y1 = x y 2 = g( x)

• •

y

y1 = x

y 2 = g(x )

x2

x1

x0

x y

x1 x 2

x0

x

y

y 2 = g( x ) y1 = x

•

y 2 = g( x )

y1 = x

•

x 0 x1 x 2

x

x1

x0

x 16

**Newton-Raphson method
**

f(x)

f(x i ) 0 f '(x i ) x i x i 1

df(xS2) dxS2

f(x i ) x i 1 x i f '(x i )

x

xL1

xS1

xS3

xS2

xL2

17

**Limits of load flow calculation
**

Iteration boundary high accuracy (ε small) vs. high calculation time Load model assumption of constant power for PQ-loads only valid near rated voltage for low voltages load assumption too high -> voltage collapse Possible reasons for non-convergence load too high (PQ-load instead of Z-load) reactive power problem -> voltage collapse long lines slack bus badly positioned Steady state solution might not be reachable because of stability problems

18

**Principle procedure of load flow calculation by iteration
**

Start Start values for node voltages Start values for deviations

Ui = U r

δi = 0

∆U i = ∆δ i = 0

Adjustment of node voltages

U i = U i + ∆U i

δ i = δ i + ∆δ i

Calculation of ΔUi and Δδi

p + jq = 3 ⋅ diag( u ) ⋅ i = 3 ⋅ diag( u ) ⋅ Y ⋅ u

* *

Calculation of node power

*

**Comparison with allowed divergence
**

Pi − Pnom < ε Qi − Qnom < ε

no

yes End

19

Gauss-Seidel method

Calculation continues with the new values of voltage for new iteration The process is repeated until the difference in voltage between the consecutive iterations is small enough Converges slowly

20

**Gauss-Seidel acceleration factor
**

Correction in voltage is multiplied by the constant ω

Selection of the multiplier depends on the network to be analyzed; 1.6 being a common value

21

**Newton-Raphson method
**

f(x) = 0 Initial guess x0 Find ∆x1 such that f(x0 + ∆x1) = 0 Taylor series: f (x0) + f ’(x0)∆x1 = 0

22

**Newton-Raphson method
**

The process is repeated with the value x1 = x0 + ∆x1

23

**Newton-Raphson method
**

Power equations for load nodes

Alternative representation of power equations

24

**Newton-Raphson method
**

Initially guess for voltage magnitude and angle Corresponding Pi and Qi to guessed voltage are calculated Compare with initial data of P and Q to get mismatch ∆ Pi and ∆ Qi Repeat until mismatches are small enough

25

**Newton-Raphson method
**

Selection of initial values Ui0 and δi0 Calculation of mismatches (actual-calculated) Form linearization of node equations

26

**Newton-Raphson method
**

Determine inverse Jacobian matrix and solve the corrections for angles and voltages Substitute new values to voltages and angles and calculate the new partial derivative matrix Calculate the new power mismatches If the mismatches > given tolerance, repeat the process until the tolerance is small enough

27

The elements of Jacobian matrix

28

**Newton-Raphson method – branch flow
**

Power flow in branch is calculated by Iij = Yij(Vi – Vj)

And

Sij = ViI*ij

**Loss in branch is calculated by SL = Sij - Sji
**

29

Decoupled load flow (DLF)

In a power transmission network, JB and JC can be assumed zero Therefore, construction of the Jacobian and finding its inverse become easier

30

Fast decoupled load flow

The Jacobian matrix replaced by real constant matrix has to be constructed and inverted only once These accelerated (approximate) methods nevertheless give accurate results, because the calculated powers are always compared with the real ones

31

Possibilities to reach The following tips that may help to achieve convergence. It convergencechanges to the network may have to should remembered that

**be reversed again and plausibility of results must be checked.
**

change PQ-loads to Z-loads (impedance load conversion) change PU-generator to PQ-generator, relax operating limits of generators set starting points change method of calculation (current iteration, NewtonRaphson) disconnect long lines divide network in independent sub-networks try different positions of slack depending on network structure insert reactive power (capacitive or inductive) increase number of iterations and change accuracy requirements set tap changer to variable setting

32

- Power System Load Flow Analysis Using Microsoft ExcelUploaded byjandaz
- LOAD FLOWUploaded byRaja Shekher
- Applications of Nonlinear ControlUploaded bymalakidis
- Symmetrical Components of Electrical NetworkUploaded bysbhatta73
- Powerflow Gauss Seidel Examples 2Uploaded byLuis Miguel Carranza Matamoros
- Gauss Seidal MethodUploaded bykararc
- LOAD FLOW STUDYUploaded byvarun2184
- Load-Flow Analysis in Power SystemsUploaded byabdul-mateen
- Power Flow Analysis by Ramaswamy NatarajanUploaded bybvraju212
- PF Simulation Using MatlabUploaded byFakhruddin Arrazi
- Load Flow AnalysisUploaded byRavi Shankar
- Lecture Notes1 - LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS 1Uploaded byTauffik Kamalullail
- Intro Tops AtUploaded byHossein Ferdowsi
- Reactive Power ControlUploaded byKhurram Hashmi
- Power System LFSUploaded bytoxicbang
- Power Flow Analysis Software Using MatlabUploaded byMostafa Amer
- Ybus formation for load flow studiesUploaded bygaurav
- Matlab ProgramsUploaded byanon_383642352
- Ieee 14 Bus System DataUploaded bySinondang
- AC Load Flow AnalysisUploaded bySorin Chirila
- MaciejPikulskiReport FinalUploaded bylayathariq
- Computer Methos in Power System AnalysisUploaded byWilliam Avalos
- PSATUploaded byCésar Enrique Arroyo Marin
- MATLAB Program for Solution Power Flow Gauss-Seidel Method _ EE1404 – Power System Simulation LaboratoryUploaded byAmlan Chakravorty
- Jk Lecture Notes on Electric Power SystemsUploaded bytabibujuha84
- Computational Methods in Power System AnalysisUploaded byrsrtnj
- exp 1 DI Y-BusUploaded bySriram Narayan
- 4989Uploaded byKamariah Sahalihudin
- manual PSAT.pdfUploaded byDaniela Torres
- Bus Admittance Impedance. Matrix Algorithm. MatlabUploaded byKhurram Hashmi