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METALLURGY II

(RM-1421)

MINGGU X&XI
Introduction Classifications of Cast Iron Chemical Composition of Cast Iron Cooling Rate of Cast Iron
Dosen: Wahyu Wijanarko Mechanical Engineering ITS- Surabaya

Phase Diagram of Cast Iron Schematic of Types of Cast Iron Alloying Elements
Jadwal kuliah : Tiap hari Selasa pukul 19.40 21.20 Ruang c-119

METALLURGY II
Introduction

Wahyu Wijanarko

Family of ferrous alloys Cast into desired shape 2-4% C & 1-3% Si Properties affected by:
chemical composition solidification process solidification rate heat treatments

Wide range of strengths and hardness In most cases are easy to machine Good hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance effect of alloying elements Low cost and versatile engineering properties
|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 2

METALLURGY II
Classifications of Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

White cast iron Malleable cast iron Gray cast iron Nodular/Ductile cast iron High alloys cast iron

1. Klasifikasi tergantung dari bentuk grafit (C yang berkumpul), atau karbida yang terbentuk, dan struktur mikro dominan. 2. Tergantung juga oleh : Komposisi kimia, Laju pendinginan, dan Perlakuan panas.

|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 3

METALLURGY II
Chemical Composition of Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap pembentukan jenis besi tuang : %C % Si

Temperatur (Cooling
rate)

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METALLURGY II
Phase Diagram of Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

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METALLURGY II
Phase Diagram of Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Bila terjadi pendinginan besi tuang melalui garis Eutectic dari A atau dari B apakah grafit akan terbentuk? + eutectic liquid pada A Pendinginan cepat + Fe3C (White cast iron) Pendinginan lambat + Graphite (Gray cast iron) + graphite (gray cast iron) pada titik B + Fe3C pearlitic gray cast iron + graphite ferritic gray cast iron

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METALLURGY II
Schematic of Types of Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

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METALLURGY II
Schematic of Types of Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

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METALLURGY II
Schematic of Types of Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Irregular shape nodule /rosette

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METALLURGY II
White Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Chemical composition:
Carbon Silicon Manganese Sulfur Phosphorus 1.8-3.6 0.5-1.9 0.25-0.80 0.06-0.20 0.06-0.18 % % % % %

Solidification rate fast enough Carbon combined with iron cementite (hard, brittle) Microstructure pearlite in a white interdendritic network of cementite Shows a white crystalline fractured surface|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS|
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METALLURGY II
White Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

High compressive strength and excellent wear resistance but extremely brittle and difficult to machine Used where:
resistance to wear is most important The service does not require ductility

White cast iron Malleable cast iron (malleabilization) Mechanical properties:


Hardness brinell Tensile strength Compressive strength Modulus of elasticity 375 600 20.000 70.000 200.000 250.000 24 28 milion BHN psi psi psi

|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 11

METALLURGY II
White Cast Iron
Pada x3 :
Fasa Komposisi Jumlah relatif liquid 4.3% C (titik E) 22%

Wahyu Wijanarko

primer 2% C (titik C) 78%

reaksi eutectic liquid + Fe3C (ledeburite)


Fasa Komposisi Jumlah relatif Fe3C 6.67% C (titik D) 11% + primer 2% C (titik C) 89%

Pada x4 :
Fasa Komposisi Jumlah relatif Fe3C 6.67% C (titik K) 29% + primer 0.8% C (titik J) 71%

reaksi eutectoid Pada x1 : -fasa liquid -komposisi kimia 2.5%C -jumlah relatif 100% Pada x2 : -mulai terbentuk primer + Fe3C (pearlite)
Fasa Komposisi Jumlah relatif Fe3C 6.67% C 37% 0.025% C 63% |Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 12

METALLURGY II
White Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 13

METALLURGY II
Malleable Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Chemical composition:
Carbon Silicon Manganese Sulfur Phosphorus 2.00-2.60 1.10-1.60 0.20-1.00 0.04-0.18 0.18 % max % % % %

White cast iron Malleable cast iron (malleabilization) Carbon in the form of irregularly shaped nodules of graphite Cementite irregularly shaped nodules graphite Malleabilization:
First stages of the anneal Second stages of the anneal
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METALLURGY II
Malleable Cast Iron First stages

Wahyu Wijanarko

Reheated to 1650 and 1750oF Austenite of the metastable system can dissolve more carbon than can austenite of the stable system Driving force for the carbon to precipitate out of the austenite as free graphite (temper carbon) Structure at completion of first stages graphitization consist of temper carbon nodules distributed throughout the matrix of saturated austenite Cooled as rapidly as practical to about 1400o F |Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS|
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METALLURGY II
Malleable Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Second stages
Slowly cooled at a rate of 5 to 15oF/h The carbon dissolved in the austenite is converted to graphite on the existing temper carbon particles, and the remaining austenite transforms into ferrite The structure consist of temper carbon nodules in a ferrite matrix (ferritic malleable iron) Temper carbon nodules does not break up the continuity of the tough ferritic matrix. This result in a higher strength and ductility than exhibited by gray cast iron
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METALLURGY II
Malleable Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

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METALLURGY II
Malleable Cast Iron Second stages

Wahyu Wijanarko

Fast enough cooled to retained combined carbon throughout the matrix If the air quenched produces a fast enough cooling rate through the eutectoid range, the matrix will be completely pearlitic The strength and hardness of the castings will be increased over those of ferritic malleable iron
Type Tensile Yield Elongation Strength Strength % in 2 in 1000 Psi 1000 Psi 50-60 32-39 45-100 20-10 BHN

Ferritic

110-145
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Pearlitic 65-120

|Jurusan ITS| 16-2 Teknik Mesin 163-269

METALLURGY II
Malleable Cast Iron Second stages

Wahyu Wijanarko

If the cooling rate through the critical range is not quite fast enough to retain all the combined carbon, the areas surrounding the temper carbon nodules will be completely graphitized, while those at greater distance from the nodules will be pearlitic. Because of its general appearance, this is referred to as a bulls-eye structure

|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 19

METALLURGY II
Malleable Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Pearlitic malleable irons tempered at relatively high temperatures spheroidize the pearlite Improve machinability and toughness, and lower the hardness

|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 20

METALLURGY II
Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Chemical composition:
Carbon Silicon Manganese Sulfur Phosphorus 2.5-4.0 1.0-3.0 0.25-1.00 0.02-0.25 0.05-1.0 % % % % %

Carbon in the iron separates or graphitizes during solidification to form separate graphite flakes The most fluid of the ferrous alloys Have excellent machinability Fracture surface appearance has a gray color
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METALLURGY II
Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

The graphitization process is aided by high carbon content, high temperature, and the proper amount of graphitizing elements, notably silicon With proper control of the above factors, the alloy will follow the stable iron-graphite equilibrium diagram These alloys solidify by first forming primary austenite Forming austenite and graphite at the eutectic temperature of 2075oF
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METALLURGY II
Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

The graphite appears as many irregular, generally elongated and curved plates. The flake are three dimensional particles
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METALLURGY II
Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

The strength the matrix This matrix the condition of the eutectoid cementite The eutectoid cementite also graphitizes, then the matrix will be entirely ferritic Graphitization of the eutectoid cementite is prevented, the matrix will be entirely pearlitic The matrix: (pearlite)(pearlite&ferrite)(ferrite) Graphite-ferrite softest and weakest Combined carbon increased strength and hardness increased Graphite-pearlite strongest and |Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| hardest
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METALLURGY II
Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

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METALLURGY II
Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

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METALLURGY II
Alloying Elements in Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Silicon
Increased fluidity Graphitizer carbon is precipitated as primary graphite in the form of flakes during solidification

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METALLURGY II
Alloying Elements in Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Sulfur
Restrict graphitization Sulfur combined carbon hard, brittle white iron Reduce fluidity Responsible for the presence of blowholes in casting Combined with iron FeS

Manganese
Weakly retard primary graphitization Strong carbide stabilizer on eutectoid graphitization Promote pearlite formation Combined with sulfur MnS Manganese content two or three times the sulfur content
|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 28

METALLURGY II
Alloying Elements in Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Phosphorus
Combined with iron Fe3P (iron phosphide called steadite) Steadite is hard and brittle Increased steadite increased its hardness, brittleness, wear resistance and decreased machinability Increased fluidity

|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 29

METALLURGY II
Heat Treatment of Gray Cast Iron Stress relieving
The most frequently heat treatment Gray iron in the as-cast residual stresses different of cooling rates Residual stresses reduce strength, distortion, and cracking The temperature below eutectoid temperature Holding time 1 h & temperature of 1100oF stress relief over 85 percent

Wahyu Wijanarko

|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 30

METALLURGY II
Heat Treatment of Gray Cast Iron Annealing

Wahyu Wijanarko

Heating high enough to soften and improve machinability Annealing temperature 1300 1400oF (recommended) Held at temperature long enough to allow the graphitizing process to go to completion

Normalizing
Treated to a temperature above the transformation range Held at this temperature for a period of about 1 h/in. of maximum section thickness Cooled in still air to room temperature Normalizing temperature 1625 - 1700oF Used to enhance mechanical properties, such as hardness and tensile strength To restore as-cast properties that have been modified by another heat treatment process
|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 31

METALLURGY II
Heat Treatment of Gray Cast Iron Hardening

Wahyu Wijanarko

Furnace-hardened from a temperature of 1575-1600oF Quenched from a suitable elevated temperature Quenching medium: air, salt bath, oil or water Oil through-hardening Water too drastic and may cause cracking and distortion unless the castings are massive and uniform in cross section Water often used for quenching with flame and induction hardening As-quenched brittle Tempered from 300-1200oF to increase toughness and relieve stresses Tempered improves strength and toughness but decreases hardness Quenched and tempered not ordinarily used to increased strength strength can be increased at less cost by reducing silicon and total carbon content or by adding alloying elements Quenched and tempered increase the resistance to wear and abrasion by increasing the hardness A structure consisting of graphite embedded in a hard martensitic matrix
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METALLURGY II
Graphite Flake of Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Graphite flakes interrupt the continuity of the pearlitic matrix the strength and ductility Graphite flakes less damaging generally preferred Hypoeutectic iron slow cooling graphitization & crystals of primary austenite restricts the eutectic mixture or graphite to the grain boundary graphite flakes few in number and coarse Carbon content the amount of eutectic & graphite formed weaken more than a smaller flake size can strengthen it Silicon content (strong graphitizing) the amount of eutectic formed reducing flake size the matrix will ferritic weak casting Reducing the size and improving the distribution of the graphite flake addition of a small amount of material (inoculant) Inoculating agents metallic calcium, aluminum, titanium, zirconium, silicon carbide, calcium silicide, or combinations of these
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METALLURGY II
Graphite Flake of Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

The procedure for preparation and measurement of flake size is given in ASTM Designation A247-67, 1971 Book of ASTM Standards, Part 31 The measurement is made of the lengths of the largest graphite flakes in a unetched section at 100X

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METALLURGY II
Graphite Flake of Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

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METALLURGY II
Graphite Flake of Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Graphite flakes are arranged in the microstructure prepared by the AFS and the ASTM

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METALLURGY II
Graphite Flake of Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Type D and E
From the graphitization of a normal eutectic structure Appear in irons of very high purity or in commercial irons that have been cooled rather rapidly during solidification Although the graphitic flake size is small, the interdendritic pattern and high graphite content weaken the material Type D and E undesirable in gray irons When cooling rate is slower show complete divorcement of the eutectic type D and E flake patterns do not occur

Type A
The most desirable flake pattern This results from a completely divorced eutectic structure The size of the individual graphite flakes is determined by the size of the austenite crystals around which they form
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METALLURGY II
Graphite Flake of Gray Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Type B
Common only in the intermediate region of a chilled cast iron (mottled) Consist of a mixture of gray and white cast iron The cooling rate is maximum that would permit graphitization

Type C
The few large, straight graphite flakes present in type C always indicate that the iron is hypereutectic in carbon content Silicon and several other alloying elements reduce the carbon content of the eutectic, and if they are present in sufficient amounts the eutectic composition may be reduced to below 3.5 percent carbon

|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 38

METALLURGY II

Wahyu Wijanarko

Mechanical Properties & Application of Gray Cast Iron

The gray cast iron are classed in seven classes (Nos. 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60) which give the minimum tensile strength of test bars in thousand of pounds per square inch.
Class 20 minimum tensile strength of 20000 psi

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METALLURGY II
Tensile strength
Tensile strength is important for part that are subjected to static load in indirect tension or bending. Such parts include pressure vessels, housing, valves, fittings and levers Iron above 40000 psi in tensile strength are usually considered high-strength irons and are more expensive to produce and more difficult to machine

Wahyu Wijanarko

Mechanical Properties & Application of Gray Cast Iron

Gray irons do not exhibit a well-defined yield point as do most mild steels The stress-strain curve does not show a straight line portion; thus a definite modulus of elasticity cannot be determined Usual method are to determined the relative modulus at 25 percent of the expected tensile strength, or the tangent modulus by drawing a tangent at some given stress value The percent elongation is small for all cast iron, rarely exceeding 3 to 4 percent, and the reduction of area is too slight to be appreciable
|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 40

METALLURGY II
Compressive strength

Wahyu Wijanarko

Mechanical Properties & Application of Gray Cast Iron


Compressive strength is important when the gray iron is used for machinery foundations or supports Like all brittle material, the compressive strength of gray iron is much greater than its tensile strength and is largely a function of the shearing strength Failure in compression usually occurs along an oblique plane unless the specimen is long enough to allow failure by buckling

Torsional shear strength


Many grades of gray iron have higher torsional shear strength than some grades of steel This characteristic, along with low notch sensitivity, makes gray iron a suitable material for types of shafting

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METALLURGY II
Compressive strength

Wahyu Wijanarko

Mechanical Properties & Application of Gray Cast Iron


Compressive strength is important when the gray iron is used for machinery foundations or supports Like all brittle material, the compressive strength of gray iron is much greater than its tensile strength and is largely a function of the shearing strength Failure in compression usually occurs along an oblique plane unless the specimen is long enough to allow failure by buckling

Torsional shear strength


Many grades of gray iron have higher torsional shear strength than some grades of steel This characteristic, along with low notch sensitivity, makes gray iron a suitable material for types of shafting

|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 42

METALLURGY II
Hardness

Wahyu Wijanarko

Mechanical Properties & Application of Gray Cast Iron


The hardness is an average result of the soft graphite in the iron and metallic matrix Variation in graphite size and distribution will cause wide variations in hardness (particularly Rockwell hardness) The brinel tester, covering a larger area, tend to give a more accurate hardness value than Rockwell test Compressive strength steadily increases with increasing hardness The microstructure is the primary factor in determining the hardness of gray iron

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METALLURGY II

Wahyu Wijanarko

Mechanical Properties & Application of Gray Cast Iron

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METALLURGY II
Chilled Cast Iron
Chilled-iron casting are made by casting the molten metal against a metal chiller, resulting in a surface of white cast iron Case hard, abrasion-resistant white iron Core softer gray iron This case-core structure is obtained by careful control of the overall alloy composition and adjustment of the cooling rate Normal cooling rate at the surface is just fast enough to produce white iron while the slower cooling rate below the surface will produce mottled or gray iron If only selected area to be white iron, it is common practice to use a composition which would normally solidify as gray iron and employ metal liners (chills) to accelerate the cooling rate of the selected areas The depth of the white-iron layer is controlled by using thin plates whenever a thin white-iron layer is desired and heavier metal plates where the deeper chill is necessary

Wahyu Wijanarko

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METALLURGY II
Chilled Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Carbon
decreases the depth of chill and increases the hardness of the chilled zone

Silicon (graphitizer)
decreases the depth of chill

Manganese
decreased the depth of chill until the sulfur has been neutralized by formation of manganese sulfide Above this amount, manganese increases chill depth and hardness

Phosphorus
decreases the depth of chill

Nickel
reduces the chill depth, and its influence is about one-fourth that of silicon Gradual increase in hardness until the nickel content reaches about 5 percent Refines the carbide structure of the chill and the gray-iron structure below the chill
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METALLURGY II
Chilled Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Chromium
Because of the formation of chromium carbides, chromium is used in amount of 1 to 4 percent in chilled irons to increase hardness and improve abrasion resistance Stabilizes carbide and suppresses the formation of graphite in heavy section When added in amount of 12 to 35 percent, chromium will impart resistance to corrosion and oxidation at elevated temperature

Cooper
In additions of less than 4 percent, decreases the depth of chill In excess of this amount the chill depth and hardness increase Reduces ration oh the mottled portion to the white-iron portion

Molybdenum
About one-third as effective as chromium in increasing the chill depth Improves the resistance of the chilled face to spalling, pitting, chipping and heat checking
|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 47

METALLURGY II
Chilled Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

A constant chill depth may be obtained by using a combination of alloying elements that have opposite effect Since nickel reduces chill depth, it common practice to add chromium, which increases chill depth, to neutralize the nickel and result in a constant chill depth Chilled-iron casting is used for railway-car wheels, crushing rolls, stamp shoes and dies, sprockets, plowshares and many other heavyduty machinery parts

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METALLURGY II
Nodular Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Chemical composition:
Carbon Silicon Manganese Sulfur Phosphorus 3.0-4.0 1.8-2.8 0.1-1.00 0.03% max 0.1% max % % %

Known as ductile iron, spheroidal graphite iron and spherulitic iron Graphite is present as tiny balls or spheroids The compact spheroids interrupt the continuity of the matrix much less than graphite flakes higher strength and toughness compared with gray iron |Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS|
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METALLURGY II
Nodular Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

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METALLURGY II
Nodular Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Nodular cast iron differs from malleable iron in that is usually obtained as a result of solidification and does not require heat treatment Nodular spheroids carbon Malleable irregular temper carbon Spheroidal graphite particles form during solidification because of the presence of a small amount of certain alloying elements, usually magnesium or cerium Since these elements have a strong affinity for sulfur, the base iron alloy sulfur content must be below 0.015 percent desulfurized
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METALLURGY II
Nodular Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

The amount of ferrite in the as-cast matrix depends on composition and rate of cooling Nodular irons with a matrix having a maximum of 10 percent pearlite are known as ferritic irons This structure gives maximum ductility, toughness and machinability

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METALLURGY II
Nodular Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

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METALLURGY II
Nodular Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Pearlite can be produced as cast or by normalizing Normalizing is carried out by air cooling from temperature of 1600 to 1650oF Peralitic ductile irons are stronger but less ductile than ferrite irons A martensitic matrix may be obtained by quenching in oil or water from 1600 to 1700oF. The quenched structures are usually tempered, after hardening, to the desired strength and hardness levels Austenitic ductile irons are highly alloyed types which retain austenitic structure down to at least -75oF. These irons are of interest because of their relatively high corrosion resistance and good creep properties at elevated temperatures
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METALLURGY II
Nodular Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 55

METALLURGY II
Nodular Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Application
Agricultural: tractor and implement parts Automotive and diesel: crankshafts, pistons and cylinder heads; electrical fittings, switch boxes, motor frames, and circuit breaker parts Mining: hoist drums, drive pulley, flywheels and elevator buckets Steel mill: work rolls, furnace doors, table rolls and bearings Tool and die: wrenches, levers, handles, clamp frames, chuck bodies and miscellaneous dies for shaping steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, and titanium

|Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS| X&XI - 56

METALLURGY II
Alloy Cast Iron

Wahyu Wijanarko

Added elements in sufficient amount to produce modification in the physical or mechanical properties
Resistance to corrosion, heat and wear To improve mechanical properties

One of the important reasons for alloying is accelerate or retard graphitization Elements obtained from raw material, such as silicon, manganese, sulfur, and phosphorus, are not considered alloy additions The most common alloying elements are chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium
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METALLURGY II

Wahyu Wijanarko

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METALLURGY II
(RM-1421)

MINGGU XII

CORROSION
Dosen: Wahyu Wijanarko Mechanical Engineering ITS- Surabaya

Jadwal kuliah : Tiap hari Selasa pukul 19.40 21.20 Ruang c-119