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Survey on Technology Use Studies

An Insight into the Rural Life
Our Observations and possible corrective measures

Guided by : Prof. S.C.Mahapatra Prof. P K Bhowmick

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Asmit Bhowmick 07CH1034 Abhijeet Sureka Abhishek Singh Kaushal Kr Jha Suruchi P R Komal 07CH1036 07CH3019 07CH1021 07CH1008 07CH3014

Plan of Action
The first step towards a healthy interaction between us and the rural people is to establish an informal and friendly relationship, so that they can confide their problems to us.

The second step is to make an estimation of the social and economic conditions of the people based on the information given by them. The third step is to identify the technology which will enhance their lives and help them in a smooth adoption of the technology.

VILLAGE SURVEYED

NAME : KHARPAL DISTRICT : MIDNAPORE PANCHAYAT PRADHAN : MINO SOREN

Persons Surveyed
Chobra Soren Sona Soren Chunaram Soren Sira Hembram Krista Hembram Pramjit Hembram Dukha Tudu Bishu Mandi Tukai Mandi Sidam Mandi Champa Mandi

Family Surveys II
Name Live stoc k
Nil Nil 2 cows Nil 2 cow Nil 2cow,3goats 3 hens 2 goats Nil Nil 1 cow,1 calf

Occupatio n
Daily wage earner Daily wage earner Daily wage earner Wife daily wage earner Daily wage earner Daily wage earner Paddy Field Daily wage earner Daily wage earner Daily wage earner Daily wage earner

Transport facilities
Nil Nil Nil Nil 1 bicycle Nil 1 bicycle Nil 1 bicycle Nil Nil`

Chobra Soren Sona Soren Chunaram Soren Sira Hembram Krista Hembram Pramjit Hembram Dukha Tudu Bishu Mandi Tukai Mandi Sidam Mandi Champa Mandi

Family surveys

LIVESTOCK DISTRIBUTION

Sex Ratio
Sex Ratio-1000:1255 26 Men:33 Women

Various technology subjects
Agriculture Education Energy Health Livestock Transport Water

EDUCATIONAL STATUS
The literacy rate is insignificant in the allotted part of the village as compared to national average figure. Among the literates some are qualified up to primary school and very few up to middle school. Educational facilities in the village include a primary school. There is no middle school or high school.

The literacy in children is better in comparison to the adults in the families. No girl has education above primary school. At the same time drop out problem is quite high among middle school boys.

ECONOMIC STATUS Most of the people in the village are daily wage earners.Most people work in others’ fields.Some of them have planted their crops in fields provided by Ashram leiving a nominal charge of land.

The cattle they own is used in self consumption providing no extra source of income. They own their houses by inheritance. The average annual income of a family is about Rs. 22000/(This amounts to about Rs 1800/month which fortunately well above Indian poverty line (Rs 356.35 -- source

STATUS OF WOMEN
The women are mostly confined to the household work. Their life is mostly restricted to the homes. Some women also work as laborers in the field. The men to women ratio is also not bad. There are about 44% men and 56% women.

LIVING CONDITIONS
THERE IS NO ELECTRICITY IN MOST OF THE HOMES WE SURVEYED. PEOPLE USE KEROSINE GIVEN FRON GOVT. RATION SHOPS FOR LIGHTING THEIR HOMES AND OTHER PURPOSES. MOST PEOPLE USE THE TRADITIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES LIKE DRIED COW DUNG ,WOODS AND TRADITIONAL CHULAHS FOR COOKING. VERY FEW PEOPLE HAVE KEROSINE STOVES.

Healthcare facilities and conditions
There is no primary healthcare centre in a village or even in any of the nearby villages with the nearby doctor’s chamber being as far as Gopali. The nearest hospital is in Prem Bazaar near IIT campus. For serious diseases they refer the vilagers to the sub-divisional hospital, Chandmari. The villagers complain of not getting even the basic medicines for free. They are made to buy all the medicines from outside shops and the hospital doesn’t provide them with anything. Villagers suffer from different waterborne diseases. If a proper sanitation facility is put in place and villagers

NO SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN THE VILLAGE. EVEN THE HANDICRAFT INDUSTRIES HAVEN’T BLOOMED IN THE VILLAGE. MOST RESIDENTS OF KHARPAL ARE LABOURERS. PEOPLE ARE NOT SKILLED TOOLWORKERS. ONLY ONE CO-OPERATIVE SHOP WAS FOUND IN THE VILLAGE. GOVT. SCHEMES FOR 100 DAYS WORK FOR EVERY FAMILY IS ILL IMPLEMENTED IN THE VILLAGE.

Building and Construction

MODES OF TRANSPORT
Major population has no means of transport. They use walking even for long distances. Few of them have cycle as a means of transport. None of them have motorized vehicles.

WATER RESOURCES
The main source of water are handpumps. All the families are dependent on it. There is a well in the village but the areas surrounding the well weren’t clean. There are no facilities for rain water conservation. Rain water is primarily used for irrigation. Water borne diseases are very common.

LIVESTOCK The people keep animals in their houses. These are used for milk and meat. The animals include cows, goats and poultry. While cows are used for milk rearing and goats are used for meat. They rely on poultry as their reserve source of money but

WASTE DISPOSAL
None of the people have proper waste disposal places while most of them just dump their garbage in the nearby places. The disposed waste can be viewed as a potential source to generate bio-fuels which can be used for household cooking or the waste can be recycled.

TECHNOLOGIES IN USE
THE VILLAGE IS TECHNOLOGICALLY VERY BACKWARD. THEY HAVE BEEN USING THE TRADITIONAL CHULHAS FOR LONG. EVEN NO STEPS FOR SOIL CONSERVATION HAVE BEEN TAKEN ON THEIR PART. THERE EXISTS A GRAVE PROBLEM OF SOIL LEACHING DURING RAINS. NO TOOL WORK IS PRACTICED.

ATTITUDE TOWARDS CHANGE AND RISK
Most of the people were willing to accept the changes but were afraid of the risks. They still use traditional technology. New technology is not used in the allotted part of the village as it is expensive for them. People are also not aware of new schemes introduced by the Government due to poor connectivity and media .

Technology and changes

Technology and changes

SUGGESTIONS
We can suggest them to have proper drainage facilities so that rain water does not accumulate on the kachha roads. The low lying areas should be filled with soil to avoid growth of mosquitoes and flies in them. We can ask them to create manures by themselves using a vermi compost so that they could use it for agricultural purposes. They can use the animal waste in making bio gas and use it as a fuel in kitchen for cooking purposes.

We can suggest them to purify water before using it for drinking purposes by treating it with alum (which is available in the market at low cost). We can teach them about modern farming methods and irrigation techniques. We can teach the women about healthy cooking methods. Proper disposal of waste should be done so that communicable diseases are not spread. We need to provide them with Appropriate Technology which is both cheap and easily available.

A TRADITIONAL CHULHA
Many disadvantages : • Smoke is very harmful to the womenfolk who use it everyday • Precious wood lost in burning (Low calorific Value) •Efficiency is extremely low for these traditional chulhas • Deforestation and wasteful usage of Farm residue

Our suggestion from The national programme on improved chulha (NPIC – started in 1986-87)
Improved Chulhas are playing a role to reduce the consumption of fuel wood and also to improve the health and hygienic conditions and reduce the drudgery of the human and to make an overall improvement in the quality of life. Objectives of improved chulhas are •fuel wood saving. •Removal/reduction of smoke from the kitchen. •Reduces cooking and collection of fuel wood time. •Cook more than one food at a time. •Up gradation of environment. •Available for various types of fuel, for cooking different types of food at a time. •Reduces health problems. •Provides employment to rural poor.

ALL OF US WOULD LIKE TO EXTEND OUR WARM THANKS TO VILLAGERS FOR BEING SO KIND TO US AND COOPERATING WITH US.

OUR VERY OWN RESPECTED MAHAPATRA SIR AND