BEng (Hons) Petroleum Engineering

Course: Introduction To Petroleum Engineering Instructor Dr. Tarek Darwich

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Course Outlines:
• • • • • • • • • • What is Petroleum Engineering? The Life Cycle of Oil and Gas projects, Origin, formation and accumulation of Petroleum, Oil & Gas Exploration, Appraisal of Oil & Gas Discoveries, Development of Oil & Gas Discoveries, Producing Oil & Gas Fields, Transportation of Oil & Gas, The Petroleum Industry & the Environment, Petroleum Economics.
Year 2012 - 2013

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Weekly News

Year 2012 - 2013

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Weekly News Year 2012 .2013 .

2013 .Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drilling – Well Profiles Year 2012 .

2013 .Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Typical Drilling Time – Depth Curve Year 2012 .

2013 .Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Main Components of Drilling Rigs - Power System Hoisting System Rotary System Circulating System Well Control and Monitoring System Year 2012 .

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drilling Rig Power System • Most power is consumed by: – Hoisting System – Circulation System • • • • Total power requirements 500 to 3000 HP Diesel engines compose the majority of power sources on rotary rigs.2013 . The minimum power requirement is around 10 HP every 100 ft depth Year 2012 . Natural gas or gasoline engines are getting more popular.

casing string and other subsurface equipment into or out of the hole.Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drilling Rig Hoisting System • Hoisting system is used to lower or raise the drill string. – Provides vertical height to raise sections of pipe.2013 . – Provides support to the crown block Year 2012 . The principal components are: – Derrick and Substructure – Block and tackle system – Draw works • • The Derrick – A structure of steal beams or tubes that can be completely dismantled and reassembled.

2013 . • Draw works provide the hoisting and the braking power required to raise or lower the heavy string of pipes.Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drilling Rig Hoisting System • The main components of the Block and Tackle System are: – The Crown Block – The Travelling Block – The Drilling Line • The main function is to provide a mechanical advantage which permits easier handling of large loads. Year 2012 .

drilled by pipe and bit • This system following: – – – – – – – Swivel Kelly Rotary Drive Rotary table Drill Pipe Drill Collar Bit mainly includes the • The swivel supports the weight of the drill string and permits rotation.Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drilling Rig Rotary System • Wells are rotation.2013 . Year 2012 .

Rotary table supports the weight of the drill string and permits rotation. Rotary drive provides the power to rotate the rotary table. The kelly transmits the motion of the rotary table to the drill pipes.Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drilling Rig Rotary System • The kelly is either square or hexagonal to be gripped easily. It is connected to the drill pipes. • • Year 2012 .2013 .

2013 .Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Rotary Drilling – Bottom Hole Behaviour Year 2012 .

The bit selected for a application will depend formation being drilled. chipping. gouging or grinding the rock at the bottom of the hole. Drilling fluid is circulated through passage ways in the bit to remove the drilled cuttings. • • • There are many variations in the design of drill bits.2013 . particular on the • Year 2012 .Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drilling Bit • The drilling bit is the cutting tool which is made up on the end of the drillstring. The bit drills through the rock by scraping.

2013 .Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drilling Bit • The drilling bit performance is function of several operating parameters such as: – – – – The weight on bit (WOB) Rotations per minutes (RPM) Mud Properties Hydraulic Efficiency • Three main types of drilling bits: – Drag bits – Roller Cone Bits – Diamond Bits • Drag bits were the first used in rotary drilling but no longer in common use. Year 2012 .

The teeth can be made of: – Steel machined in the cone – Tungsten carbide inserts cold-pressed into holes drilled in the cone.Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drilling Bit – Roller Cone Bits • A roller cone bit is made up of 3 main parts: – The cones – The bearings – The body of the bit • Each cone has concentric rows of teeth that interfit with the rows of teeth in the adjacent cones.2013 . • Year 2012 .

The teeth can be made of: – Steel machined in the cone – Tungsten carbide inserts cold-pressed into holes drilled in the cone.2013 .Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drilling Bit – Roller Cone Bits • A roller cone bit is made up of 3 main parts: – The cones – The bearings – The body of the bit • Each cone has concentric rows of teeth that interfit with the rows of teeth in the adjacent cones. • Year 2012 .

• Bits for soft formations are designed with long. • Year 2012 . • The bits for medium and medium-hard formations have more closely spaced teeth. These bits are more expensive. at high rotational speeds and where bed thickness makes insert bits not economic. in a soft formation. widely spaced teeth to help penetrate in the formation and tear off larger cuttings.Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drilling Bit – Roller Cone Bits • Bits with steel teeth are used when: – – – – spudding in a well.2013 . The tungsten-carbide insert bits are used to drill very hard abrasive formations.

000 bar (tungsten carbide 50. • Diamond is the hardest known mineral.2013 .000 bar and steel 15. Its compressive strength is approximately 80. Year 2012 .Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drilling Bit – Diamond Bits • There are 3 types of diamond bits depending on the nature of the cutting element – With natural diamond – With PDC (polycrystaline diamond compact cutters) – With TSP (with thermally stable polycrystaline diamond compact cutters).000 bar).

2013 . Year 2012 .Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drilling Bit – Coring Bits • A coring bit does not drill out the centre of the hole but allows this central portion (the core) to pass through the round opening of the bit and into the core barrel.

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drilling Bit – Coring Bits Year 2012 .2013 .

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drilling Bit – Coring Barrel Year 2012 .2013 .

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drilling Bit – Cores Year 2012 .2013 .

hours. Cr is the cost of operating the rig $/hr. hours. Cb is the cost of the bit. tb is the rotating time with bit on bottom.Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Bit Selection • The goal of bit selection is to obtain the lowest cost per foot.2013 . $. and DD is the total depth as a given total time. tt is the round trip time. including connection time. ft. which is not rotating time or trip time. $/ft. Year 2012 . The cost per foot can be calculated by using the equation: Where C is the overall cost per foot. to is the other time. hours.

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drill String • The drill string is a assemblage of hollow pipes of circular section. extending from the surface to the bottom of the hole. while transmitting its rotation and its vertical load to it. • – – • Starting from the top.2013 . . downhole motors. the drill string consists of: – – – – – A kelly Drill pipes Drill Collars Number of accessory components (e. It permits the circulation of the drilling fluids to the bottom of the hole It guides and controls the trajectory of the hole. reamers.) The bit Year 2012 . It has three functions: – It takes the drilling bit to the bottom of the hole. jars.g. stabilisers.

Year 2012 .2013 .Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drill Pipes • The drill pipes are hollow steel pipes of various types with two tool joints welded at their ends.

2013 .6 lb/ft) 5.5” (13.Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drill Pipes Classification • Drill pipes are standardised according to API standards. – linear weight and – their steel grade. The most common drill pipes are the following: – – – 3. – outside diameter.5” (16. followed by a number which indicates the minimum yield strength.0” (19.5 lb/ft) • • The grade of the steel is indicated by a letter .3 lb/ft) 4. indicating the type of material. • They are classified on the basis of their: – length. Year 2012 .

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Tool Joints of Drill pipes • It is the enlarged and threaded ends of drillpipes. The tool joints can be threaded a number of times and they should be protected.2013 . • • • • Year 2012 . The tool joints are usually made of steel that has been treated to a higher strength than the steel of the tube body. The tool joints provide high-strength. These components are separate from the pipe body and welded into the pipe at the manufacturer’s facilities. high-pressure threaded connections that are sufficiently robust to survive the rigors of drilling and numerous cycles of tightening and loosening at threads.

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Drill Collars • The drill collar is defined as a heavy. the top part of the drill string is in tension while the lower part is in compression. collars are made up in 1000-foot lengths and weigh 50 to 100 pounds. The most common diameters of drill collars are: 9. 8-in and 6. Thin-walled drill pipes cannot withstand compression.5-in. the lower part of the drill string is assembled of heavy pipes. Therefore.2013 . Today because of the increased bit pressure and rapid rotation. tubular connector between drill pipe and a bit. • In drilling operations. • • • Year 2012 . the lengths of the two sections depends on the weight applied on the bit. Drill collars were once a few feet long and weighed 400 or 500 pounds.5-in. They may bend and break under axial compression.

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drill Collars & Drill Pipes Drill Pipes Drill Collars Year 2012 .2013 .

but with a smaller inside diameter.2013 . This allows drill pipes and drill collars to be connected without any abrupt diameter changes. To avoid the danger of breaks. In practice. they are drill pipes with thick walls. The heavy-wall drill pipes are normally made with the same outside diameter as the drill pipes. • • • Year 2012 . This coincides with the location of threading which is a weak point. a short stretch of heavy weight drill pipes is inserted. having a linear weight two or three times greater.Introduction to Petroleum Engineering The Heavy Weight Drill Pipes • Connection of pipes of very different diameters lead to concentration of tensions and to a fatigue in the areas where cross section varies.

jars and shock-absorbers. to make the string more rigid in the presence of the instability due to combined compressive. buckling and bending stresses. Stabilisers are placed along the bottom hole assembly (BHA). The most common accessory items of equipment are stabilisers. reamers.Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drill String – Accessory Equipment • The drill string is very often fitted with accessory items which serve to resolve technical problems due to the wide variety of drilling conditions.2013 . • • • Year 2012 . in between the drill collars. Stabilizers are fundamental for controlling the borehole trajectory both in vertical and in directional wells.

and in particular the positioning of the stabilizers.Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drill String – Accessory Equipment • Stabilizers consist of a body to which rib blades are applied. expanding the outside diameter of the tool to the nominal diameter of the bit. By changing the composition of the BHA.2013 . which is useful in controlling the directional drilling operations. the mechanical behaviour of the drill string can be varied. • Year 2012 .

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drill String – Accessory Equipment • Reamers are special stabilisers with roller cutters instead of blades. which could make: – the application of the weight on the bit uncertain or – cause problems with running-in the casing. taking it to the nominal diameter of the bit.2013 . Reamers are used chiefly in drilling through streaks of hard and abrasive • • • • Year 2012 . Eliminating the small variations in diameter means an elimination of any possible stepped profile that might be in the hole. there are usually 3 to 6 steel cutters or tungsten carbide inserts. Mounted on the rollers. Reamers serve the purpose of reaming wall of the hole.

These devices are necessary when the vibrations are strong enough to be visible at the surface. There are two primary types. Energy is stored in the drillstring and suddenly released by the jar when it fires. their operation is the same. especially when that component is stuck.Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drill String – Accessory Equipment • Jars are mechanical devices used downhole to deliver an impact load to another downhole component. the vibrations might not be visible at the surface. In deep wells. which are harmful for both the bit and the drill pipes. While their respective designs are quite different. • • • Shock Absorbers is a device placed above the bit to reduce the axial vibrations generated during drilling. such as slow penetration rate and a particular bit wear pattern. In this case other signals are observed. • • Year 2012 . hydraulic and mechanical jars.2013 .

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drill String Specification in the well Programme Year 2012 .2013 .

Chesapeak Drilling .com/watch?v=g1LE3IMAfY8 .youtube.2013 endscreen .com/watch?v=7-WqVgksKtk .Drilling – Good & short overview .Openhole Fishing: .Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Drill String – Useful Links .youtube.youtube.http://www.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nlSKA7PkSzo .Drill Collars: .http://www.com/watch?v=fBQCQ6HL2Yw&feature= Year 2012 .http://www.

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