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Typical vertebra .
Superior & inferior articular facets zygapophyseal / facet joints •intervetebral disc allows secondary cartilaginous joints between vertebrae / .
The cervical vertebrae • Triangular vertebral canal • Foramen transversarium – Vertebral artery (from subclavian A) passes through these except for C7 • Spinous processes – short & bifid – Except C7 – VERTEBRA PROMINENS very long & not bifid .
Typical cervical vertebra .
anterior & posterior arches • No spinous process • Kidney shape facets superiorly – for occipital condyles – allows nodding of head up & down • Groove for vertebral artery on upper surface .C1 Atlas • No body .
Alar ligaments from the dens to occipital condyles – limit rotation of the head .C2 . Also a weaker longitudinal band from axis to basiocciput 1+2 = the cruciate ligament • 3. Transverse ligament of the atlas 2.Axis • • • C1 rotates on C2– a pivot joint Superior articular surfaces for C1 to rotate Dens / odontoid process Ligaments 1.
Joints in the vertebral column Or Facet joints Secondary cartilaginous joints / symphyses .
Curvatures of the spine Primary curvatures – Thoracic & sacral Secondary curvatures – cervical & lumbar .
Cervical enlargement Lumbar enlargement Spinal cord ends at L1/L2 – adult L3/L4 child Subarachanoid space ends at S2 Filum terminale – extension of pia mater to coccyx .
8 pairs of cervical spinal nerves .
31 pairs spinal nerves 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal .
Intervertebral foramina – allow spinal through nerves & blood vessels to pass .
Arachnoid mater Dura mater Extradural / epidural space – containing loose connective tissue.Vertebral canal • Spinal cord – Surrounded by meninges • • • • • Pia mater Subarachnoid space – CSF. fat & venous plexus .
•Artery of Adamkiewicz thoracic or upper lumbar region lower Veins Drain in to the internal vertebral plexus in the extradural / epidural space Also communicates with intracranial veins . Come into vertebral foramina so supplu spinal cord.Arterial supply •1 x Anterior spinal artery From the vertebral arteries •2 x Posterior spinal artery From Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA) Vert ASubclavian A •Segmental arteries.
Suboccipital muscles –important bcoz contraction extends the head at atlantoaxial joint Innervation – posterior ramus of C1 .
Greater occipital nerve • • • • Dorsal ramus of C2 Large sensory nerve Passes up between suboccipital muscles Then supplies skin of back of head & scalp .
conin • Fetal position – to split the vertebral bodies as fas as possible.Lumbar puncture • Position of patient??fetal • Usually to gain specimen of CSF also others. supraspinous ligs. • Contraindicated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP). muscle. sitting on top of the foramen magnum.+/- . Brain stem/medulla.must below the level of spinal cord. interspinous ligs. subcutaneous tissue. • Spinal cord ends in adults … in children???? • Layers passed – skin.
Go raibh míle maith agaibh go léir .