You are on page 1of 34

Tjhin Wiguna Divisi Psikiatri Anak dan Remaja Departemen Psikiatri FKUI/RSCM 21 januari 2011

The two basic questions are:

1. 2.

What to investigate? Why? How to investigate it? Why?


Whats important? Personal interests and skills? Difficult! Read literature and discuss. Field visits, Pra? Manageable (time, data,..?) Literature, present knowledge, predictions from medical theory. Use box-arrow diagrams (in some cases: mathematical/analytical models). Dependent independent variables, proxies, enough data variation.

The problem area; an unclear research idea Identify a researchable problem, the research question(s) Conceptual basis (theory) & develop hypotheses

Identify data needed to test hypotheses

How to get data? Surveys to be done. Methodologies to be used

Availability, primary vs. secondary data. Time and money constraints. Statistical methods, research design, etc.

1. 2.

contains information about the above steps; has consistency between the steps!

Title Introduction/background (inc. statement of research problem/ question/ aims objectives) Literature Review Research Design, i.e;

Method of data selection Instruments/ techniques to be used Methodological significance/ innovation Data analysis strategy Ethical issues Timeline Resources required Expected outcomes of research

Make it specific and attractive

Your opportunity to convince the reviewers that you are upto-date and conversant in your field of enquiry. Concise, thorough, well referenced review.

Preliminary data may strengthen your proposal.

Should lead to the logical conclusion that your proposed question needs to be answered !!!

Feasible. Interesting. Novel. Ethical. Relevant.

Choose something you are interested in, think it fascinating, relevant for your future work, Youll need that personal motivation during long evenings/nights the weeks before the theses is submitted.

Policy relevant and hot: useful to someone more motivating to work on help in your future carrier see journals (popular/scientific), policy, and other documents to find out whats hot and whats not.

The most difficult part, spend time on it! Risk if not well defined: collect data that will not be used; dont collect data that would be useful. A good research question limit the scope research. A good research question structure the research: define relevant literature, develop good hypotheses, define data needed, . It helps the reader you tell them what you are going to answer.

It simply makes it more interesting!

These three types of questions usually form a sequence

What Why How

Not purely descriptive: What are the main uses of Risperidone? A contribution to our knowledge base and science. A new question, or an old question taken a step further (building on old answers). An old question but applied to a new area? Researchable: Can the theses answer the question, given particularly two constraints: The time, money and skills available The data availability and variability (e.g., enough variation in the data to test the hypotheses)

Read discuss think! Get into your creative mood!

Should be clearly stated in one or two sentences. Clear and simple declarative sentence, no double meaning. Should be having a good theoretical background. Showing the relationship between one dependent variable and one or several independent variables. Can be empirically testing. Should be specific and describing the variables which be tested.

Parenting style relating with childhood growth and development. Children who can not communicate with their friends will show a severe mental disability. Giving an antipsychotic can improve the mental process.

a question well asked is a question half answered: the way the question (or hypothesis) is stated shows what data will be necessary to answer (or test) it, and probably suggests also how and from where or from whom the data will be obtained

Punch, K. (1998). Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches. London: Sage.

A good approach and balance between the three first components of the proposal;
one grand research idea; a few (maximum 4) research questions;

some hypotheses, at least one, maximum 3-4, linked to

each research question. There is a limit on the total number of hypotheses (probably not more than 6-8).

Define one or two specific objectives. Do not try to answer too many questions (most important problems are answered one question at a time).

Ultimate objective.
Specific objective.

Conceptual/theoretical framework. Research framework.

Methods are the techniques/ procedures used to collect and analyse data. Methodology refers to discussions of how research is done, or should be done, and the critical analysis of methods of research. (Blaike, 2000:8)

Describe Facilities and resources. Study population. Methodology. Sample size determination. Data management. Statistical analysis.

A. Describing how we answer the research question/s or the way we test he hypothesis.
Observational research design.

Interventional research design.

B. Place and time of research C. Population;

Target population. Accessible population/source population.

D. Sample and method of data collection. E. Sample size determination. F. Inclusion and exclusion criteria/s. G. Plain language statement and informed consent.

H. Research pathway
Variable identification. Sample allocation. Measurement and intervention.

Define each variable.

K. Data management and statistical analysis.

Must be reasonable, itemized, justified. Document expenses with copies of proposed charges, maintenance contracts, etc.

Give degree of overlap with other grants (either submitted or funded).

Include full reference - Author, title, vol., pages, year. Reviewers have been chosen for their critical thinking ability and will seldom accept a statement contrary to their own perception without determining your source of information.

Too much on: background other studies (theories) Too little on what the project is about: research questions Methodologies. If not sure: write something and be specific: not: I will use a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods Weak on: Research questions and hypotheses not specific enough Covers too much can she really do this?

Finalise your research question/ problem statement/ hypothesis. Make sure your proposal is logical.

Identify possible weaknesses in your research design, acknowledge them and explain why they are there.
Critically review/ edit your own writing, seek others help with this. Learn to read like a writer examine structure, style, organisation etc.

Write for clarity not impressiveness. Show that you are planning your research carefully (think about pragmatic issues agency support/ ethics/ resources you may need/ potential hurdles). You are the expert on your topic. Help the reader to grasp your ideas.

Edit for clarity (dont just proofread).

Should emphasize the training and experience of investigators. Should not be embellished (peer reviewed publications important). When you first create a CV have another researcher critically review your method.

Needed for human clinical research OR Research employing human tissues


Research question(s) Methodologies

Conceptual model & hypotheses Data collection

Data needs
Theory should inform all stages.

Proof read carefully to see if you any words out Anonymous