Comparative Anatomy on the

Braceros, Jann Denise Jopia, Fe Marie Zoo 113 C – 1L

Circulatory System of the Shark

Heart
ü Transverse septum separates the two coelomic cavities. o Pericardial cavity encloses the heart. o Peritoneal cavity encloses the visceral organs.

Heart
ü Sharks have single – circuit blood flow wherein it flows in a one – way path through the heart, and low pressure circulation. ü It pumps deoxygenated blood toward the gills.

Deoxygenated Blood Flow
Low O2 sinus venosus atriu m Low O2 conus arteriosus ventric le

Ventral Aorta
ü first vessel that exits the heart ü divided into two branchial artery o afferent branchial arterye

Ventral Aorta
ü Afferent branchial artery o take deoxygenated blood up into the gills

Ventral Aorta
ü Efferent branchial artery o where oxygenated blood leaves the gills

Major Arterial Pathway
Conus arteriosus Ventral aorta Afferent Branchial artery Gill capillaries Efferent branchial artery Parietal Heart pericardi muscle um capillari capillarie es Pericardi Coronar al artery y artery Commissural artery

Major Systemic Vein Caudal vein Pathway Abdominal
vein Renal portal vein Posterior cardinal vein Cardinal sinus Common cardinal vein Posterior cardinal vein Common cardinal vein Sinus venosus Hepatic vein

Circulatory System of Birds

Cardiovascular system
ü It does not only delivers O2 to body cells but also maintains the bird’s temperature. ü It consists of a heart and vessels that transports nutrients, O2 and CO2, waste

Heart
ü Birds have four – chambered heart. ü The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs. ü The left ventricle pumps blood to the rest of the body. o The left ventricle must generate greater pressure to pump throughout the body.

Heart
ü Avian heart tends to pump more blood per unit time than mammalian hearts. ü Birds have larger hearts than mammals. o This is necessary to meet the high metabolic demands of flight.

Major Blood Vessels

Jugular vein o neck and head Brachial veins o wings Pectoral veins o Pectoral muscles and anterior thorax Coccygeomesenteric vein o Posterior digestive system and empties in the hepatic portal vein

Cardiovascular System of Avian

Circulatory System of the Cat

Heart
ü It lies within the pericardial cavity, which is isolated from the mediastinum by the pericardium. ü It has a flattened, anterior base and a pointed, posterior apex. ü Within it are the left and right atria anteriorly and the left and right ventricles posteriorly.

Heart
ü Coronary arteries and veins respectively supply and drain blood from the heart. ü Interventricular groove marks the separation of the ventricles. ü Atrioventricular groove marks the separation between the atria and ventricles.

Aorta
ü It carries blood from the left ventricle. ü It curves sharply to the left as the aortic arch. ü It passes dorsally to the root of the left lung as the thoracic aorta.

Pulmonary Arteries
ü Left Pulmonary Artery • It passes laterally to the left lung. ü Right Pulmonary Artery • It passes under the aortic arch to reach the right lung.

Vena Cava
ü Anterior vena cava • It drains the region anterior to the diaphragm. ü Posterior vena cava • It drains the region posterior to the

Basic Flow of Blood
A vein carries blood toward the heart, and an artery carries blood away from the heart.

Right atrium Right ventricle Pulmonary artery

L un

Left ventricle Left atrium Pulmonary vein

Arteries and Veins of the Cat

Thoracic Arteriole and Venous Pathway of the Cat

Major Thoracic Arterial Pathway Left
ventricle Dorsal aorta Branchioceph alic artery Right subclavi an artery Right shoulde r and arm

Corona ry arterie Comm Heart on myocardi carotid um artery Brai n

Left subclavi an artery Left should er and

Major Thoracic Venous Pathway
Head, brain Exter nal jugula r vein Arms, shoulders Subclavi an vein

Heart myocardi um Coronary Branchiocephalic veins veins Superior vena cava Right atrium

References
De Iuliis, G. and D. Pulera. 2007. Dissection of Vertebrates Laboratory Manual. USA: Hing Yip Printing Co. https://segue.middlebury.edu/view/ht ml/site/biol0202a-s08/node/1877608 http://courses.washington.edu/chord ate/453labs/453lab13-09.pdf