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LTE Radio Access Network PROTOCOLS & PROCEDURES

LTE Radio Access Network Protocols and Procedures LZU 1088773


Overview text: Hi! The LTE Protocols and Procedures eLearning course gives a detailed description of the LTE RAN signaling. It covers the X2 and S1 interfaces and corresponding protocols X2AP and S1AP as well as the protocols used over these interfaces: RRC, PDCP, RLC, MAC and the physical layer for the radio interface.

Objectives
Explain the RRC Protocol Explain the PDCP Protocol Explain the RLC and MAC Protocols Explain the X2/S1 Interface and the X2AP/S1AP Protocol Describe attach procedure and UE states and the difference between connected and idle mode Describe call setup Describe mobility over X2 and S1 Interfaces Describe IRAT Handover

Why learn about


Understand the protocols and procedures involved within the Evolved Packet System (EPS). Understand how signaling is performed between the UE, eNodeB, MME, Serving-Gateway and Packet Data Network Gateway.

Introduction to LTE Protocols & procedures

Module Scope and Objectives


Scope

Evolved Packet System Architecture Control and user plane protocols General Protocol model and Protocol interactions

Objectives

Describe the Evolved Packet System Architecture. List the Control and user plane protocols Explain the General Protocol model and Protocol interactions Describe the various traffic cases in EPS

3GPP LTE and SAE Work Items


Specification Group Work Item Result

TSG RAN

LTE

EUTRAN Specifications (36 series)

LTE: Long Term Evolution EUTRAN: Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network

Specification Group

Work Item

Result

TSG SA

SAE

SAE: System Architecture Evolution EPC: Evolved Packet Core

EPC Specifications (From Rel 8 onwards)

Evolved Packet System Architecture


HSS S6a

EPC (Evolved Packet Core)

MME P/S-GW

MME P/S-GW

SAE (System Architecture Evolution)

EPS

S1

(Evolved Packet System)

E-UTRAN
eNB

X2 X2
eNB eNB

LTE (Long Term Evolution)

X2

Uu
UE

EPS Protocol Categories


L3 Signalling
Non Access Stratum (NAS)
Communication between UE and MME

L2 Transport
Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP)
- Ciphering and integrity protection for RRC messages - IP header compression/decompression for user plane

Radio Resource Control (RRC)


Communication between UE and eNodeB

Radio Link Control (RLC) - Transfer of RRC messages and user data using:
* Acknowledged Mode (AM) * Transparent Mode (TM) or * Unacknowledged Mode (UM) - Error Correction (ARQ)

S1 Application Protocol (S1AP)


Communication between eNodeB and MME

X2 Application Protocol (X2AP)


Communication between eNodeB and eNodeB

Medium Access Control (MAC)


- Error Correction (HARQ) - Transfer of RRC messages and user data using: - Priority handling (scheduling) - Transport Format selection

GPRS Tunneling Protocol Control (GTP-C)


- Communication between MME and SGW - Communication between SGW and PGW - Communication between MME and MME

GPRS Tunneling Protocol User (GTP-U)


Transfers data between GPRS tunneling endpoints

General Protocol Model


For each layer the payload is called SDU (Service Data Unit) For each layer SDU+Protocol Header is called PDU (Packet Data Unit) Layer n PDU = Layer n+1 SDU E.g. A PDCP PDU = RLC SDU and RLC PDU = RLC Header+RLC SDU

Header

Payload
Layer n SDU Layer n PDU

Layer n

Header

Payload
Layer n+1 SDU Layer n+1 PDU

Layer n+1

EPS Bearer service and NAS Signalling Connection


RBS UE MME S/P-GW

EPS Bearer Service (S1-UP) Data Radio Bearer


Radio Link
Traffic Channel RRC Signalling Channel

Transport Bearer (GTP)

S1 Signalling Bearer

Signalling Radio Bearer NAS Signalling Connection

UE Protocol Stack
NAS
Session Mobility Management Management NAS Security

Application
Connected Mode Mobility

System Info Aquisition AS Security

Cell Selection RRC Connection

Paging Reception

IP

RRC

RB Measurement Managementv Reporting

Control/Report SAPs

Integrity/ Ciphering PDCP

Header Compression

TM
RLC

AM

UM

L2

MAC

RA Control RA Control

HARQ HARQ
Control Control

Physical Layer

Protocol Interaction

IP packet User #i User #j

IP packet

EPS bearers
PDCP
#i

PDCP Header Compr. Header Compr.

Ciphering MAC
Payload selection

Deciphering

RLC
#i

E-UTRAN Radio Bearers


Segmentation, ARQ

RLC Concatenation, ARQ

Logical Channels
Priority handling, payload selection Retransmission control

MAC multiplexing HybridARQ ARQ Hybrid

MAC

MAC demultiplexing HybridARQ ARQ Hybrid

PHY MAC scheduler


Modulation scheme Antenna and resource assignment

Coding + RM Coding
Modulation

Transport Channels

PHY

Coding + RM Decoding
Demodulation

Data modulation

Data modulation

Antenna and Antenna and resrouce mapping resource mapping

Antenna and Antenna and resrouce mapping resource demapping

Physical Channels

eNodeB

UE

Redundancy version

UE MME Control Plane

NAS RRC PDCP RLC MAC L1 UE


Uu

NAS Relay RRC PDCP RLC MAC L1 eNodeB


S1-MME

S1- AP SCTP IP L2 L1

S1-AP SCTP IP L2 L1 MME

UE Packet Data NW Gateway User Plane


Application IP PDCP RLC MAC L1 Uu
Relay Relay

IP GTP-U UDP/IP L2 L1 S5/S8 SGi

PDCP RLC MAC L1

GTP-U UDP/IP L2 L1 S1-U

GTP-U GTP-U UDP/IP UDP/IP L2 L1 L2 L1

UE

eNodeB

Serving GW

PDN GW

Summary

Summary
The control signaling between the UE and the Evolved Packet Core is done with NAS protocol.
NAS RRC PDCP RLC MAC Application IP PDCP RLC MAC L1
UE user plane protocols

The control signaling between the UE and the E-UTRAN (eNodeB) is done with the RRC protocol.

L1
UE control plane protocols

LTE

Quiz

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Radio Resource Control protocol - RRC

Introduction

Scope and Objectives


Scope
RRC States and mobility RRC Procedures and Messages System Information Idle Mode behavior Paging initiated by the Core Network and how it is forwarded to the UE. Signaling Radio Bearers and RRC Connection establishment

Objectives
Explain the RRC idle and connected states and elaborate on mobility in each case; Mention the RRC Procedures and Messages Describe how System Information is transmitted Explain how the UE performs cell selection and reselection in idle mode. Describe the paging procedure and the RRC connection establishment procedure

RRC Procedures
System information Cell Selection / Reselection Connection control RRC connection establishment Security activation RRC connection re-establishment RRC connection reconfiguration Paging RRC connection release Radio link failure related actions Measurement Control Measurement configuration Measurement reporting Mobility Management Inter/Intra E-UTRAN mobility Mobility from E-UTRAN Handover to E-UTRAN Other procedures Transparent transfer of NAS messages (DL/UL Direct Transfer) UE capability transfer Protocol error handling

RRC

System Info Aquisition AS Security

Cell Selection RRC Connection

Paging Reception RB Managementv

Connected Mode Mobility Measurement Reporting

RRC Messages
CounterCheck CounterCheckResponse CSFBParametersRequest CSFBParametersResponse DLInformationTransfer HandoverFromEUTRAPreparationRequest MasterInformationBlock MeasurementReport MobilityFromEUTRACommand Paging RRCConnectionReconfiguration RRCConnectionReconfigurationComplete RRCConnectionReestablishment RRCConnectionReestablishmentComplete RRCConnectionReestablishmentReject RRCConnectionRelease RRCConnectionRequest RRCConnectionSetup RRCConnectionSetupComplete SecurityModeCommand SecurityModeComplete SecurityModeFailure SystemInformation SystemInformationBlockType1 UECapabilityEnquiry UECapabilityInformation ULHandoverPreparationTransfer ULInformationTransfer

RRC States

RRC States
Tracking Area Update Connection Re-activation Tracking Area Update

RRC-IDLE
(EMM- REGISTERED) MME-initiated Connection Release

RRC- CONNECTED
(EMM-REGISTERED)

Protocol States and Mobility

System Information

Example of mapping to channels


MIB SIB1 SIB2 SIB3 SIB4 SIB5

SI

SI

BCCH

BCCH

BCCH

BCH TTI= 40 PBCH

DL-SCH TTI=80 PDSCH TTI= 160

DL-SCH TTI= 320 PDSCH

System Information Blocks


System Parameters Related to
Cell Selection Info PLMN-id Tracking Area Code Cell Id Cell Barred Frequency Band Indicator SIB Scheduling UL EARFCN UL Bandwith DL Bandwith Common Radio Resource Conf Paging Info Cell Reselection Neighbouring Cells -intra frequency Neighbouring Cells -inter frequency Inter RAT reselection (UTRAN) Inter RAT reselection (GRAN) Inter RAT reselection (CDMA2000) home eNodeB ETWS notification
x x x x

System Information carried in System Information Blocks

MIB

SIB 1
x x x x x x x

SIB 2

SIB 3

SIB 4

SIB 5

SIB 6

SIB 7

SIB 8

SIB 9

SIB 10

SIB 11

x x

x x x x x x x

Idle Mode

Idle Mode Tasks


Manual Mode Automatic mode

PLMN Selection
Indication to user
Location Registration response

PLMNs available

Support for manual CSG ID selection


PLMN selected CSG ID selected

AvailableCSG IDs to NAS

Cell Selection and Reselection


Registration Area changes Service requests

NAS Control

Radio measurements

Location Registration

RRC_IDLE Cell Selection Cell Reselection


go here whenever a new PLMN is selected cell information stored for the PLMN Stored Information Cell Selection no suitable Cell found Cell Selection when leaving connected mode return to Idle Mode Connected Mode suitable cell found suitable cell found

1
no suitable cell found

no cell information stored for the PLMN Initial Cell Selection

Camped Normally
trigger Suitable Cell found

suitable cell found

Leave Idle Mode

Selected PLMN is rejected

go here Any Cell Selection When no USIM in the UE USIM inserted

Cell Reselection Evaluation Process no acceptable cell found

no suitable Cell found

Cell Selection when leaving connected mode return to Idle Mode Connected Mode (Emergency calls only)

Acceptable Cell found leave Idle Mode

Acceptable Camped on any cell Acceptable Cell found no acceptable Cell Found Suitable Cell found Cell Found

1 2

trigger

Cell Reselection Evaluation Process

Paging

CN Initiated Paging

LTE Paging - Initial Context Setup


The MME a paging message which is sent to all eNodeBs in a tracking area(s)

MME

UEs use the Random Access procedure to initiate access to the serving cell

RRC PAGING

S1AP:Paging

Random Access Procedure


NAS: Service Request

S1-AP: INITIAL UE MESSAGE (FFS) + NAS Service : Request eNB + UE signalling connection ID

NAS messaging continues in order to set up the call

Paging and DRX cycle


Paging channel (PCH) uses PDSCH transmission Paging indicated on PDCCH
DRX cycle defined Special paging MAC ID indicating paging group If ID matches UE reads PDSCH to find which UE that is paged

PDCCH
UE receiver circuitry switched off subframe DRX cycle

Possibility to page this terminal

UE receiver circuitry switched off

SRBs and RRC Connection

Signaling Radio Bearers (SRBs)


RRC
SRB0 SRB1 SRB2

PDCP Signaling Radio Bearers (SRBs) are offered by the PDCP layer to the RRC layer for transport of RRC (and NAS) messages
SRB0: Used for RRC messages on the CCCH SRB1: Used for RRC and NAS messages on the DCCH SRB2 (optionally configured): Used for low-priority NAS messages on DCCH

RRC Connection Establishment

Idle Mode RRC Connection Request CCCH/ULSCH

RRC Connection Request is initiated by the higher layers in the UE

A unique UE identity S-TMSI is used in the request message


RRC Connection Setup RRC connection establishment procedure creates the signaling radio bearer SRB1

RRC Connection Setup CCCH/DLSCH Connected Mode RRC Connection Setup Complete DCCH/ULSCH

Security Related Procedures


MME
INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP REQUEST
(Integrity Protection Algorithm EIA; Ciphering Algorithm EEA; Security Key)

2. Decide Algorithms, Derive Keys Activate Security for SRB

SECURITY MODE COMMAND (EEA;EIA)

SECURITY MODE COMPLETE


INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP RESPONSE

Summary

summary
Master Information Block System Information Block

RRC IDLE

RRC Connection Request CCCH/ULSCH

RRC Connection Request is initiated by the higher layers in the UE RRC Connection Setup (C-RNTI is allocated)

DLSCH RRC Connection Setup

RRC Connection Setup Complete DCCH/ULSCH


RRC CONNECTED

RRC connection establishment procedure creates the signaling radio bearer RB#1,

Quiz

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Packet Data Convergence protocol - PDCP

Introduction

Scope and Objectives


Scope
Sequence numbering Header compression Integrity protection Ciphering PDCP data and control PDU

Objectives
Explain what happens when a PDU arrives in the PDCP transmitting and receiving entity Explain what happens during Sequence numbering, header compression, integrity protection, ciphering and why we need them Describe the PDCP data and control PDU

Packet Data Convergence Protocol


PDCP Functions
Header compression/decompression of IP data flows using ROHC Transfer of data Maintenence of sequence numbers for radio bearers In sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs at re-establishment of lower layers Duplicate detection of lower layer SDUs at re-establishment Ciphering/deciphering of data Integrity protection/verification of Control Plane Timer based discard Duplicate discarding

PDCP PDCP Services Services Transfer Transfer of of user user plane plane data data
Transfer Transfer of of control control plane plane data data Header Header compression compression Integrity Integrity protection protection of of control control plane plane Ciphering Ciphering both both control control and and user user plane plane

PDCP Entity and Functions

PDCP Entity
UE/E-UTRAN
Transmitting PDCP entity Receiving PDCP entity

E-UTRAN/UE

Sequence numbering

In order delivery and duplicate Detection (U plane)

Header Compression (user plane only)


Packets associated to a PDCP SDU

Header Compression (user plane only)

to a PDCP SDU

Packets NOT associated

Packets associated to a PDCP SDU

to a PDCP SDU

Packets NOT associated

Integrity Protection (control plane only) Ciphering

Integrity Verification (control plane only) Deciphering Remove PDCP Header

Add PDCP header

Radio Interface (Uu)

Sequence Numbering
WHY: Reordering Duplicate detection Integrity protection Ciphering
SRB1_UL SRB1_DL
COUNT COUNT

eNB
SRB1_UL SRB1_DL

UE UE

DRB_UL DRB_DL

COUNT-C COUNT-C

DRB_UL DRB_DL

UE UE Ctx Ctx

HOW: PDCP SN:


HFN PDCP SN

Next_PDCP_TX_SN TX_HFN COUNT

Header Compression
Save the bandwith by: * Removing redundant info * Encoding important info * Hop by Hop * Unidirectional
RT P 8 V=4 Hlen IPv 4 TTL TOS Flags Protocol Packet length Fragment offset STATIC INFERRED CHANGES RARELY Destination port Checksum PT Sequence no CHANGES OFTEN Appr. 30 of 40 octets are static or easily compressible! Checksum Identification Source address Destination address UD P Source port Length V P X CC M Timestamp SSRC Identifier

UE/UE Context
Header PDCP PDU

RB_UL

PDCP PDU

RB_UL

Header

PDCP PDU

CRC checksum covering the header before compression is included in the compressed header

Compressed Header Contains encoded data

UE/UE Context

Integrity Protection
WHY: To ensure data origin

PDCP PDU Header

PDCP PDU
PDCP PDU Header PDCP SDU

PDCP PDU
PDCP SDU PDCP PDU Header

PDCP SDU

COUNT Direction K_eNB_RRCInt Bearer Id

EIA EIA

MAC-I

XMAC-I

EIA EIA

COUNT Direction K_eNB_RRCInt Bearer Id

MAC-I

XMAC-I

Sending Side UE/eNB

Receiving Side UE/eNB

Ciphering
WHY: To protect the data over radio
EEA0 EEA1 EEA2

COUNT-C/ COUNT DIRECTION LENGTH BEARER

COUNT-C/ COUNT DIRECTION BEARER LENGTH

KEYUPenc

EEA

KEYUPenc

EEA

KEYSTREAM BLOCK PLAINTEXT PLAINTEXT BLOCK BLOCK Sender

KEYSTREAM BLOCK PLAINTEXT PLAINTEXT BLOCK BLOCK Receiver

CIPHERTEXT CIPHERTEXT BLOCK BLOCK

PDCP PDU

PDCP Data PDU


The PDCP Data PDU is used to convey: A PDCP SDU SN User plane data containing uncompressed PDCP SDU User plane data containing compressed PDCP SDU Control plane data MAC-I field (for SRB only)

PDCP Data PDU Format


D/C R R R PDCP SN Oct 1 Oct 2 Oct 3

R Data ... MAC-I

PDCP SN

Oct 1 Oct 2

PDCP SN (cont.) Data

Oct N-3 Oct N-2 Oct N-1 Oct N


D/C

...

MAC-I (cont.) MAC-I (cont.) MAC-I (cont.)

PDCP S N Data ...

Oct 1 Oct 2

PDCP Data: PDU format SRB

PDCP Data: PDU format DRB: SN 12 bits mapped to RLC AM/UM SN 7 bits mapped to RLC UM

PDCP Control PDU Format

D/C

PDU Type

Oct 1 Oct 2

D/C

PDU Type FMS (cont.) Bitmap 1 (optional) ... Bitmap N (optional )

FMS

Oct 1 Oct 2 Oct 3

Interspersed ROHC feedback packet ...

Oct 2+N

PDCP Contorol: ROCH feedback

PDCP Contorol: STATUS Report

D/C FMS

Data/Control First Missing PDCP SN

ROHC RObust Header Compression

Summary

Summary
Data transfer addition of PDCP sequence number Ciphering and deciphering of user and control plane data Header compression and decompression with ROHC Integrity protection of control plane data

Quiz

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Radio Link Control ProtocolRLC

Introduction

Scope and Objectives


Scope

RLC transparent mode entity RLC unacknowledged mode entity RLC acknowledged mode entity RLC PDUs
Objectives

Explain why we need three RLC modes Describe the RLC entities, their function and the RLC PDUs in each mode

RLC Protocol Entity


RLC Services
Provided to Upper Layers: Transparent data transfer Unacknowledged data transfer Acknowledged data transfer Expected From Lower Layers: Data transfer Notification of a transmission opportunity Notification of HARQ delivery failure from transmitting MAC entity In-sequence delivery Duplicate detection Flow control RLC Re-establishment Protocol Error Detection and Recovery

RLC Functions
Segmentation and re-assembly Concatenation Padding Transfer of user data in TM, UM and AM Error correction (ARQ)

RLC Entities & Modes

RLC Entities

RLC Transparent Mode Entity


UE/ENB radio interface TM-SAP TM-SAP ENB/UE

Transmission buffer

Transmitting TM-RLC entity

Receiving TM- RLC entity

BCCH/PCCH /CCCH

BCCH/PCCH /CCCH

RLC unacknowledged Mode Entity


UE/ENB UM-SAP radio interface UM-SAP ENB/UE

Transmission buffer

SDU reassembly Transmitting UM-RLC entity Receiving UM-RLC entity Remove RLC header

Segmentation & Concatenation

Add RLC header

Reception buffer & HARQ reordering

DTCH

DTCH

RLC AM Entity
AM -SAP

Transmission buffer

RLC control

SDU reassembly

Segmentation & Concatenation

Retransmission buffer

Remove RLC header

Reception buffer & HARQ reordering

Add RLC header Routing

DCCH/DTCH

DCCH/DTCH

RLC PDU

Protocol Data Units - PDU


RLC Data PDU
TM PDU, UM PDU, AM PDU and AMD PDU Segment

RLC Control PDU


STATUS PDU

RLC Transparent Mode PDU


The RLC TM PDU introduces no overhead

TM is used for signaling on BCCH and PCCH

RLC Unacknowledged Mode PDU


Header: Fixed Part (FI, E, SN) + Extension Part (Es, LIs) UM RLC Entity configured by RRC to use either 5 bit SN or 10 bit SN

UMD PDU with 5 bit SN (No LI )

UMD PDU with 10 bit SN (No LI )

RLC Unacknowledged Mode PDU, 5 bits SN, cont

UMD PDU with 5 bit SN (Odd number of LIs, i.e. K = 1, 3, 5, )

PDU with 5 bit SN (Even number of LIs, i.e. K = 2, 4, 6, )

RLC Unacknowledged Mode PDU, 10 bits SN, cont

UMD PDU with 10 bit SN (Odd number of LIs, i.e. K = 1, 3, 5, )

UMD PDU with 10 bit SN (Even number of LIs, i.e. K = 2, 4, 6, )

RLC Acknowledged Mode PDU


AM RLC Entity uses10 bit SN Header: Fixed Part (D/C, RF, P, FI, E, SN) + Extension Part (E(s), LI(s))

AMD PDU with 10 bit SN (No LI )

RLC Acknowledged Mode PDU

Information Element: E bit


Extension bit
Fixed header

Value
0 1

Description
Data field follows from the octet following the fixed part of the header A set of E field and LI field follows from the octet following the fixed part of the header

Extension part of the header

Value
0 1

Description
Data field follows from the octet following the LI field following this E field A set of E field and LI field follows from the bit following the LI field following this E field

Information Element: Length Indicator, LI


Length Indicator (LI) field
The LI field indicates the length in bytes of the corresponding data field element present in the RLC data PDU delivered/received by an UM or an AM RLC entity. The value 0 is reserved.

Information Element: Framing Information field, FI

Value
00 01 10 11

Description
First byte of the Data field corresponds to the first byte of a RLC SDU. Last byte of the Data field corresponds to the last byte of a RLC SDU. First byte of the Data field corresponds to the first byte of a RLC SDU. Last byte of the Data field does not correspond to the last byte of a RLC SDU. First byte of the Data field does not correspond to the first byte of a RLC SDU. Last byte of the Data field corresponds to the last byte of a RLC SDU. First byte of the Data field does not correspond to the first byte of a RLC SDU. Last byte of the Data field does not correspond to the last byte of a RLC SDU.

Information Element: Segment Offset, SO

The Segment Offset field indicates the position of the AMD PDU segment in bytes within the original AMD PDU. The first byte in the Data field of the original AMD PDU is referred by the SO field value "000000000000000"

Information Element: Last Segment Flag, LSF

Last Segment Flag field


Value
0 1

Description
Last byte of the AMD PDU segment does not correspond to the last byte of an AMD PDU. Last byte of the AMD PDU segment corresponds to the last byte of an AMD PDU.

Information Element: Resegmentation Flag, RF

Value
0 1 AMD PDU AMD PDU segment

Description

Information Element: Poll, P


Polling bit field
Value
0 1 Status report not requested Status report is requested

Description

Information Element: Control Pdu Type, CPT

Control PDU Type bit field


Value
000 001-111 STATUS PDU Reserved (PDUs with this coding will be discarded by the receiving entity for this release of the protocol)

Description

Summary

Summary
Data transfer in Acknowledged, Unacknowledged and Transparent mode Error correction by ARQ (AM) Concatenation, segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs (AM & UM)
Examples VoIP: UM TCP-based traffic: AM
TM is only used for SRBs when no RLC UM or AM entity is set up yet.

Quiz

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Medium Access Control Protocol - MAC

Introduction

Scope and Objectives


Scope
Mapping of channels MAC PDU Random access procedure HARQ mechanism DL / UL Scheduling mechanism UL Time Alignment Connection Setup procedure

Objectives
Explain how logical channels are mapped to transport channels and physical channels Describe the MAC PDU format, the Random access procedure, the HARQ mechanism, the DL and UL scheduling mechanism and UL time alignment Explain the connection setup procedure.

MAC Protocol Entity


MAC Services
Data Transfer Reallocation of resources

MAC Functions
Mapping between logical- and transport channels Multiplexing of MAC SDUs Demultiplexing of MAC SDUs Scheduling information reporting Error Correction Priority handling between UEs Priority handling between logical channels Logical channel prioritization Transport Format selection
Upper layers PCCH BCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MAC -control

Logical Channel Prioritization (

(De-) Multiplexing

Control

HARQ

Random Access Control

PCH

BCH

DL-SCH

UL-SCH Lower layers

RACH

Channels

Logical Channels
Control: Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
DL broadcast of system control information.

Paging Control Channel (PCCH)


DL paging information. UE position not known on cell level

Common Control Channel (CCCH)


UL/DL. When no RRC connection exists.

Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)


UL/DL dedicated control information. Used by UEs having an RRC connection.

Traffic: Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)


UL/DL Dedicated Traffic to one UE, user information.

Transport Channels
Downlink: Broadcast Channel (BCH)
System Information broadcasted in the entire coverage area of the cell. Beamforming is not applied. User data, control signaling and System Info. HARQ and link adaptation. Broadcast in the entire cell or beamforming. DRX and MBMS supported. Paging Info broadcasted in the entire cell.

Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH) Paging Channel (PCH) Uplink: Uplink Shared channel (UL-SCH)

User data and control signaling. HARQ and link adaptation. Beamforming may be applied.

Random Access Channel (RACH)


Random Access transmissions (asynchronous and synchronous). The transmission is typically contention based. For UEs having an RRC connection there is some limited support for contention free access.

Physical Channels and Signals


Physical channels Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
transmission of the DL-SCH transport channel

Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)


transmission of the UL-SCH transport channel

Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)


indicates the PDCCH format in DL

Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)


DL L1/L2 control signaling

Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)


UL L1/L2 control signaling

Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)


DL HARQ info

Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)


DL transmission of the BCH transport channel.

Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)


UL transmission of the random access preamble as given by the RACH transport channel

Physical signals Reference Signals (RS)


support measurements and coherent demodulation in uplink and downlink.

Primary and Secondary Synchronization signals (P-SCH and S-SCH)


DL only and used in the cell search procedure.

Sounding Reference Signal (SRS)


supports UL scheduling measurements

Channel Mapping
Downlink Uplink

PCCH

BCCH
MIB SIB

DTCH DCCH

CCCH

DTCH

DCCH

CCCH

Logical Channels
type of information (traffic/control)

PCH

BCH

DL-SCH

UL-SCH

RACH

Transport Channels
how and with what characteristics (common/shared/mc/bc)

PDCCH info

-Sched TF DL -Sched grant UL -Pwr Ctrl cmd -HARQ info ACK/NACK

-CQI -ACK/NACK -Sched req.

Physical Channels
bits, symbols, modulation, radio frames etc

PBCH

PDSCH PCFICH PDCCH


-half frame sync -cell id

PHICH

PUCCH

PUSCH PRACH
-measurements for UL scheduling

-meas for DL sched -meas for mobility -coherent demod

-frame sync -cell id group

-coherent demod

Physical Signals
only L1 info

RS

P-SCH

S-SCH

RS

SRS

MAC PDU

MAC PDU
R/R/E/LCID/F/L R/R/E/LCID/F/L R/R/E/LCID/F/L R/R/E/LCID/F/L sub-header sub-header sub-header sub-header ... R/R/E/LCID/F/L R/R/E/LCID padding sub-header sub-header

MAC header

MAC Control MAC Control element 1 element 2

MAC SDU

...

MAC SDU

Padding (opt)

MAC payload

LCID E R F L

Logical Channel ID Extension Bit Reserved Length Flag Length

MAC Sub-header

R F

E L

LCID

Oct 1 Oct 2

R F

E L L

LCID

Oct 1 Oct 2 Oct 3

R/R/E/LCID/F/L sub-header with 7-bits L field

R/R/E/LCID/F/L sub-header with 15-bits L field

LCID

Oct 1

R/R/E/LCID sub-header

MAC Procedures

MAC Procedures
Random Access Maintenance of Uplink Time Alignment DL-SCH data transfer UL-SCH data transfer PCH reception BCH reception Discontinuous Reception (DRX) MAC reconfiguration MAC Reset Semi-Persistent Scheduling

Random Access Procedure


Purpose
Initial access Establish UL synchronization Indicate presence of UL data

MAC procedure

Two types
CBRA Contention Based CFRA Contention Free

Consists of four phases


1.Random Access Preamble 2.Random Access Response 3.RRC Connection Request 4.RRC Connection Setup

RRC procedure

Data Transfer using HARQ


Demultiplexed into logical channels and forwarded to RLC for reordering
TrBlk 1 Hybrid ARQ processes TrBlk 2 TrBlk 0 TrBlk 5

Receiver processing Receiver processing Receiver processing Receiver processing Receiver processing Receiver processing Receiver processing Receiver processing NACK ACK
4 TrBlk 0

ACK 5 TrBlk 4

NACK 6 TrBlk 5 7

ACK

NACK 8 TrBlk 0 9

ACK

NACK

CFN0 TrBlk 0

1 TrBlk 1

2 TrBlk 2

3 TrBlk 3

TrBlk 3

TrBlk 4

1 ms TTI

Fixed timing relation

Number of HARQ processes tuned to match the RTT FDD 8 HARQ processes TDD depending on asymmetry

DL Scheduling Mechanism
UE provides a Channel Quality Report (CQI) based on DL reference symbols Scheduler assigns resources per RB based on QoS, CQI etc. Resource allocation is transmitted in connection with data

DL scheduler
Re s CQ I Re fe ou rc

Da ta
ea llo ca tio n

rep

ren ce

ort mb ol s

sy

eNodeB

UE

UL Scheduling Mechanism
UE requests UL transmission via scheduling request Scheduler assigns initial resources without detailed knowledge of buffer content More detailed buffer status report may follow in connection with data
Measurements
Ch an ne l

UL scheduler
Bu ffe r Re s Sc he ou rc lin g

Da ta
sta tus rep

so un d in g,

RS

du

ea

ort

ss

ign

Re q

ue s

me n

eNodeB

UE

Maintenance of Uplink Time Alignment


When the UE gets Timing - Random Access Response - Piggy Backed together with data
+ TA
TA -

UE 2 UE 1

Timing Advance Command Oct 1

Connection Setup

Connection Setup
eNodeB
RRC
BCCH: System Information

MME

RRC

Random Access
RRC_CONNECTED

Cell Selection

Admission Ctrl
PRACH: RACH preamble

MAC MAC RRC

MAC MAC

DL-SCH: RACH response UL-SCH: RRC Connection Request


(Initial UE identity, Cause) (SRB1 parameters)
(Selected PLMN id, NAS: Attach Request *)

Allocation of SRB resources in BB

RRC Connection Establishment

RRC DL-SCH: RRC Connection Setup RRC RRC S1-AP S1-AP RRC RRC RRC RRC S1-AP RRC S1-AP
RRC connected

RRC RRC

UL-SCH: RRC Connection Setup Complete

MME selection (based on S-TMSI)


Initial UE Message (eNB UE S1AP
id **,NAS:Attach Request,TAI)

S1-AP

Initial Context Setup Request DL-SCH: Security Mode Command


(MME UE S1AP id ***, NAS: Attach Accept, Security, Bearer params, e.g. TEID)

S1-AP

Initial Context Setup

RRC RRC RRC RRC

(Security Configuration)

UL-SCH: Security Mode Complete DL-SCH: RRC Connection Reconfiguration


(Intra-frequency measurement configuration, Bearer Setup, NAS: Attach Accept)

Allocation of payload bearer resources


Initial Context Setup Response
(Bearer params, e.g. TEID)

UL-SCH: RRC Conn Reconf Complete

* The IMSI is provided in the Attach Request ** eNB UE S1AP id is included in all UE-related DL S1AP messages

UL Inform Transfer (NAS: Attach RRC


Complete)

S1-AP

Uplink NAS Transport


(NAS: Attach Complete)

S1-AP
LTE active

*** MME UE S1AP id is included in all UE-related LTE active UL S1AP messages except for Initial UE message

Summary

Summary
Random Access Procedure

Hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ)


1 2 6

Receiver Sender

Receiver processing Receiver processing Receiver processing Receiver processing Receiver processing Receiver processing Receiver processing

NAK

ACK

ACK

NAK

NAK

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Mobility in RRC Connected State

Introduction

Scope and Objectives


Scope

S1 Interface and S1- AP X2 Interface and X2- AP X2, S1 and IRAT Mobility CS Fallback
Objectives

Understand the S1 and X2 Interfaces and the related protocols Describe the X2, S1 and IRAT Mobility Understand the CS Fallback concept.

S1 Interface and S1 Application Protocol

S1 Interface

Functions of S1AP
E-RAB Management Initial Context Transfer Function Mobility Function for UEs in LTE_ACTIVE Paging NAS signaling Transport between UE and MME Common ID management UE Capability Info Indication Function S1 Interface Management Functions S1 UE Context Release Function UE Context Modification Function Status Transfer Trace Function Location Reporting S1 CDMA 2000 Tunneling Function Warning Message Transmission Function

S1AP Elementary Procedures, class 1


Elementary Procedure, class 1 Handover Preparation Handover Resource Allocation Path Switch Request Handover Cancellation Initiating Message HANDOVER REQUIRED HANDOVER REQUEST PATH SWITCH REQUEST HANDOVER CANCEL Successful Outcome Response Message HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE PATH SWITCH REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE HANDOVER CANCEL ACKNOWLEDGE E-RAB SETUP RESPONSE Unsuccessful outcome Response Message HANDOVER PREPARATION FAILURE HANDOVER FAILURE PATH SWITCH REQUEST FAILURE

E-RAB Setup

E-RAB SETUP REQUEST

E-RAB Modify

E-RAB MODIFY REQUEST

E-RAB MODIFY RESPONSE

E-RAB Release

E-RAB RELEASE COMMAND

E-RAB RELEASE RESPONSE

Initial Context Setup

INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP REQUEST

INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP RESPONSE

INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP FAILURE

S1AP Elementary Procedures, class 1


Elementary Procedure, class 1 Reset S1 Setup UE Context Release UE Context Modification Initiating Message RESET S1 SETUP REQUEST UE CONTEXT RELEASE COMMAND UE CONTEXT MODIFICATION REQUEST ENB CONFIGURATION UPDATE MME CONFIGURATION UPDATE WRITE-REPLACE WARNING REQUEST Successful Outcome Response Message RESET ACKNOWLEDGE S1 SETUP RESPONSE UE CONTEXT RELEASE COMPLETE UE CONTEXT MODIFICATION RESPONSE ENB CONFIGURATION UPDATE ACKNOWLEDGE MME CONFIGURATION UPDATE ACKNOWLEDGE WRITE-REPLACE WARNING RESPONSE UE CONTEXT MODIFICATION FAILURE ENB CONFIGURATION UPDATE FAILURE MME CONFIGURATION UPDATE FAILURE S1 SETUP FAILURE Unsuccessful outcome Response Message

eNB Configuration Update

MME Configuration Update

Write-Replace Warning

S1AP Elementary Procedures, Class 2


Elementary procedure, class 2
Handover Notification E-RAB Release Indication Paging Initial UE Message Downlink NAS Transport Uplink NAS Transport NAS non delivery Indication Error Indication UE Context Release Request Downlink S1 CDMA 2000 Tunneling Uplink S1 CDMA2000 Tunneling UE Capability Info Indication eNB Status Transfer MME Status Transfer Deactivate Trace Trace Start

Initiating Message
HANDOVER NOTIFY E-RAB RELEASE INDICATION PAGING INITIAL UE MESSAGE DOWNLINK NAS TRANSPORT UPLINK NAS TRANSPORT NAS NON DELIVERY INDICATION ERROR INDICATION UE CONTEXT RELEASE REQUEST DOWNLINK S1 CDMA 2000 TUNNELING UPLINK S1 CDMA2000 TUNNELING UE CAPABILITY INFO INDICATION ENB STATUS TRANSFER MME STATUS TRANSFER DEACTIVATE TRACE TRACE START

S1AP Elementary Procedures, Class 2


Elementary procedure, class 2
Trace Failure Indication Location Reporting Control Location Reporting Failure Indication Location Report Overload Start Overload Stop eNB Direct Information Transfer MME Direct Information Transfer eNB Configuration Transfer MME Configuration Transfer Cell Traffic Trace

Initiating Message
TRACE FAILURE INDICATION LOCATION REPORTING CONTROL LOCATION REPORTING FAILURE INDICATION LOCATION REPORT OVERLOAD START OVERLOAD STOP ENB DIRECT INFORMATION TRANSFER MME DIRECT INFORMATION TRANSFER ENB CONFIGURATION TRANSFER MME CONFIGURATION TRANSFER CELL TRAFFIC TRACE

X2 Interface and X2 Application Protocol

X2 Interface
Inter-connection of eNodeBs supplied by different manufacturers; Support of continuation between eNodeBs of the E-UTRAN services offered via the S1 interface; Separation of X2 interface Radio Network functionality and Transport Network functionality to facilitate introduction of future technology The main purpose for X2 is to support the active mode UE mobility (Packet Forwarding).

X2 Protocol Model

Functions of X2AP
Setting up the X2 Resetting the X2 Mobility Management Load Management Reporting of General Error Situations eNodeB Configuration Update

X2AP Elementary Procedures, class 1


Elementary Procedure, class 1 HANDOVER PREPARATION Initiating Message Successful Outcome Response Message HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE RESET RESPONSE Unsuccessful outcome Response Message HANDOVER PREPARATION FAILURE

HANDOVER REQUEST

RESET

RESET REQUEST

X2 SETUP

X2 SETUP REQUEST

X2 SETUP RESPONSE

X2 SETUP FAILURE

ENB CONFIGURATION UPDATE

ENB CONFIGURATION UPDATE

ENB CONFIGURATION UPDATE ACKNOWLEDGE

ENB CONFIGURATION UPDATE FAILURE

RESOURCE STATUS REPORTING INITIATION

RESOURCE STATUS REQUEST

RESOURCE STATUS RESPONSE

RESOURCE STATUS FAILURE

X2AP Elementary Procedures, Class 2


Elementary procedure, class 2
LOAD INDICATION

Initiating Message
LOAD INFORMATION

HANDOVER CANCEL

HANDOVER CANCEL

SN STATUS TRANSFER

SN STATUS TRANSFER

UE CONTEXT RELEASE

UE CONTEXT RELEASE

RESOURCE STATUS REPORTING

RESOURCE STATUS UPDATE

ERROR INDICATION

ERROR INDICATION

Ue initial attach procedure


>

UE Attach
MME
1. SYSTEM INFORMATION

RRC IDLE

Cell Select *

2. RANDOM ACCESS PREAMBLE 3. RANDOM ACCESS RESPONSE 4. RRC CONNECTION REQUEST 5. RRC CONNECTION SETUP

RRC CONNECTED

6. RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE (Attach Request) 8.RRC DL INFORMATION TRANSFER (UE Identity Request) 9. RRC UL INFORMATION TRANSFER (UE Identity Response) 10.RRC DL INFORMATION TRANSFER (Authentication Request) 11. RRC UL INFORMATION TRANSFER (Authentication Response) 12. RRC DL INFORMATION TRANSFER (Security Mode Command) 13. RRC UL INFORMATION TRANSFER (Security Mode Complete) 15. RRC SECURITY MODE COMMAND 16.RRC SECURITY MODE COMPLETE 17. RRC UE CAPABILITY ENQUIRY 18. RRC UE CAPABILITY iNFORMATION 20. RRC CONNECTION RECONFIGURATION (Attach Accept, Bearer Setup) 21. RRC CONNECTION RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE 23. RRC UL INFORMATION TRANSFER (Attach Complete))

7. INITIAL UE MESSAGE (Attach Request) DL NAS TRANSPORT (UE Identity Req) UL NAS TRANSPORT (UEid Response) DL NAS TRANSPORT (Authentication) UL NAS TRANSPORT (Auth. Response) DL NAS TRANSPORT (NAS SMC) UL NAS TRANSPORT (NAS SMC) 14. INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP REQUEST (EPS bearers, Attach Accept, Security)

19. UE CAPABILITY INFO INDICATION (UE Radio Capability) 22. INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP RESPONSE (EPS bearers) UL NAS TRANSPORT (Attach Complete) 24. UE CONTEXT RELEASE COMMAND

RRC IDLE
26. RRC CONNECTION RELEASE

25. UE CONTEXT RELEASE COMPLETE

Intra lte handover

X2 Handover

DL Data Forwarding
end marker
S-GW

PDCP SN is continuous through Handover


X2APNext SN = 7
Transmitter State 6 5 4 Receiver State 6 5 4
Source forwards outstanding un-ACK:ed SDUs to target with their SN attached. Source tells Target what PDCP SN to allocate next. Non-outstanding SDUs are forwarded (in order) without SN Target prioritizes forwarded SDUs. UE re-orders PDCP SDUs based on the SN. UE may submit a PDCP Status to guide Target re-Tx NO Data forwarding for SRBs; PDCP SN and HFN are reset @ target Source eNB

4
Target eNB

Status: ACK 4 & 5

S1 Handover
RRC CONNECTED

RRC CONNECTED

Irat mobility

Interworking with 2G/3G


PMM_CONNECTED

Handover

ECM - CONNECTED E-UTRA RRC_CONNECTED

CELL_DCH CELL_FACH
CELL_PCH URA_PCH
Connection establishment/release

Handover

GSM_Connected
GPRS Packet transfer mode

Release with Redirect

CCO with NACC

CCO, Reselection

Reselection Reselection
Reselection + PDP context est* Cell change without signaling

Connection establishment/release

Connection establishment/release
Reselection

UTRA_Idle
PMM_IDLE

E-UTRA RRC Idle


ECM -IDLE

CCO, Reselection + PDP context est*

GSM_Idle/ GPRS Idle

PMM_DETACHED

EMM-DEREGISTERED

Cell change without signaling

Idle

* PDP Context establishment is needed if no PDP context exists

LTE to 3G Handover
PDN-GW

target S-GW

source S-GW

SGSN

MME

RNC

Cs fallback

Why CS Fallback?
The alternative if investment in IMS should be avoided Based on reuse of legacy CS access CS Fallback may be used as a generic telephony fallback method.
E.g. secure functionality for incoming roamers. Terminals are expected to support it even if IMS/MMtel is supported

CS Fallback - Concept
Subscribers roaming with preference on LTE access, no CS-voice service available (i.e. IMS is not used as voice engine) Fallback triggered to overlapping CS domain (2G/3G) whenever voice service is requested Resumed LTE access for PS services after call completion (cell reselection)

LTE island PS PS LTE LTE CS (+PS) LTE GERAN/UTRAN LTE

CS Fallback
MSS as voice engine for LTE subscribers
2. CS domain updated of subscribers whereabouts through CS signaling over MME-MSC (LUP, SMS etc.) 1. Subscriber registered in MSC but roam in LTE

CS signaling
Packet Core LTE RAN
MME SGSN SAE Gw GGSN

CSFB Terminal
GSM / WCDMA RAN

4. Page over SGs-interface

MSS

5. RAN triggers an release with redirect

CSFB Terminal payload


6. Page response and call setup over 2G/3G radio

RC M-MGw IM-MGw MRFP MSC-S MGCF

3. Incoming call to subscriber in LTE

Attach Procedure CS Fallback


MME MSC Server/ VLR HSS

RRC Connection Set up Procedure RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE (Attach Request)
EPS attach type IE: 001 EPS attach 010 combined EPS/IMSI attach 110 EPS emergency attach 111 reserved

EPS Attach Procedure - initiated Derive VLR number; Allocate default LAI
LOCATION UPDATE REQ

Update Location in CS domain


LOCATION UPDATE ACCEPT

EPS Attach Procedure completed

Summary

Summary

More Information
3GPP Technical Specifications 36-series
3GPP TS 36.331 3GPP TS 36.323 3GPP TS 36.322 3GPP TS 36.321 3GPP TS 36.300 E-UTRA; RRC Protocol specification E-UTRA; Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification E-UTRA; Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol specification E-UTRA; Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification E-UTRA; Overall description

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