IN THE ERA OF RESEARCH

Presented to Dr. V. D. Nayak
VEER NARMAD SOUTH GUJARAT UNIVERSITY

Presented by- Jilpa D. Patwa
Sir K. P. College of commerce, Surat

M.phil.08-09 Roll no.10 Date: 23 may, 2009 RESEARCH----

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PRESENTATION OBJECTIVES
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To understand the nature of the research To know the importance and need or utilities of the research To come in touch with the TERMS used To get a clear thought about the various types of research

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CONTENTS
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Background Introduction Objectives Motivation Terms used • Research techniques – methods • So called difference • Understanding specific meaning • Scientific method • Research methodology • Different types of methodology Types of research Types of approaches Qualities of good research Research process Conclusion References

BACKGROUND

Man has main three tools which can help him coming to grip his environment and understand the nature :

EXPERIENCE- Body of knowledge and skills derived from encounters environment REASONING - Deductive (Aristotle) –From whole to part - Inductive (Francis Bacon) –From number of observations - Combined RESEARCH -- Combination of both experience & reasoning - Most successful approach to the discovery of truth - More scientific, systematic, controlled, empirical and selfcorrecting & acquaintance with facts and events in his

INTRODUCTION
Research – a process of production of the knowledge
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Application of human intelligence in a systematic way. A voyage of discovery, a journey, an experience, a method of critical thinking, a careful inquiry in seeking facts for principles. A systematic and chronological efforts of finding out a more appropriate solution to the problem or to gain knowledge. An art of scientific investigation. • Pertinent information on a specific topic. • Process of arriving at dependable solutions to problems through planned and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. Systemized efforts to gain knew knowledge - a movement from known to the unknown • Through objective, systematic and scientific methods of finding solutions to a problem. • Implicit question + explicit answer + data to answer

OBJECTIVES

To gain familiarity with a phenomenon----To achieve new insight -----• exploratory studies

To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group---• Descriptive studies

To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else---• Diagnostic studies

To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables---• Hypothesis testing or experimental studies

MOTIVATION
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To get a degree To get respectability To get intellectual joy of doing creative work To face a challenge To solve unsolved problems To serve the society
• By increasing the standard of living • By showing the right path to society

TERM USED TERM USED

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES – METHODS
Techniques :
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Behaviour and instruments used in research operations Examples: • Scales, recording techniques, longitudinal / cross sectional collection of data, etc. Behavior and instruments used in selecting and constructing technique Examples: • Observation, questionnaire, interview, [a range of approaches used to gather data] • case study, etc.

Methods :
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SO CALLED DEFERENCE
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Methods are more general than techniques. Methods & Techniques are used in performing research operations, i.e..,
• Collection of data • Statistical processing & analysis (tests) • To evaluate the accuracy of the results obtained

It is the method, that generate techniques

UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC MEANING

SCIENTIFIC METHOD
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The method of logically trained minds The pursuit of truth as determined by logical considerations Classifies facts, sees their mutual relation through experimentation, observation, logical arguments from accepted postulates Tenets of scientific faith

1.DETERMINISM:Events have causes that events are determined by other circumstances (i.e.. Causal links can eventually be uncovered and understood) 2.EMPIRICISM:Verifiable by observation and ‘evidence’ (data) 3.PRINCIPLES OF PARSIMONY: Phenomenon should be explained in the most economical way possible 4.GENERALITY:

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
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A science of studying how research is done scientifically Concerns with logic behind the adoption of various steps to solve the problem in a systematic way Helps to understand not only the products of scientific inquiry but the process itself Aims to describe and analyze methods, throw light on their limitations and resources, clarify their presuppositions and consequences, relating their potentialities

It is the knowledge about not only how to apply particular methods and techniques but also which of them are relevant and which are not, and what would they mean and indicate and why

DIFFERENT TYPES OF METHODOLOGIES

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QUALITATIVE
Based on the behavioral science generally using diagnostic analysis Emphasis on non-numerical data & oriented towards case study Use an inductive approach [theory should be grounded in the day to day realities, concerns with theory formulation] Involves the generation of data in qualitative form Applicable to the phenomena where expression in the quantity is not possible E.g. motivation research, attitude or opinion research

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QUANTITATIVE
Based on the measurement of quantity or amount

TYPES OF RESEARCH TYPES OF RESEARCH

BASIC RESEARCH
Concerned with generalization and formulation of the theory Knowledge for knowledge’s shake, possess diagnostic outlook Based on theoretical abstraction Broad based, developing principles and theory Long term and time assuming need huge financial outlay More scholastic knowledge and efforts required

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APPLIED RESEARCH
Finding a solution for an immediate problem Can be problem solving


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CONCEPTUAL RESEARCH
Related to some abstract idea or theory Like basic or theoretical research To develop new concept or to reinterpret existing one Relatively less control


EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
Relays on experience or observation

OTHER TYPES
1. Cross sectional- One time v/s LongitudinalDevelopmental & Trend or prediction studies (the time domain) 2. Field setting v/s Lab / Simulation research 3. Clinical v/s diagnostic studies 4. Exploratory v/s Formulated (the degree of formulation of the problem) studies 5. Historical studies (Greater part of it is quantitative) 6. Content Analysis (one such quantitative method –a multipurpose method developed specifically for investigating a broad spectrum of problems in which the contents of communication serve as a basis of inference. Example: word usage rates, word counts, etc. 7. Correlational research 8. Conclusion oriented or decision oriented research

TYPES OF APPROACHES

DESCRIPTIVE
To describe the state of affairs or characteristics of the problem No control over variables as not knowing the full details about them Only to report what has happened or happening or to understand the nature of the variable E g. Ex post facto research

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ANALYTICAL
To analyze the fact or the information available

QUALITIES OF GOOD RESEARCH
1.SYSTEMATIC-Reject the use of guessing & intuition, but does not rule out creative thinking 2.CONTROLLED–Variables are identified & controlled, wherever possible 3.LOGICAL-Guided by rules of logical reasoning & logical process of induction & deduction 4.EMPIRICAL-Provides a basis for external validity to results (validation) 5.REPLICABLE-Verified by replicating the study 6.SELF CORRECTING-Built in mechanism & open to public scrutiny by fellow professionals

RESEARCH PROCESS
1. Selection & formulation of Research Problem 2. Literature survey 3. Development of working hypotheses 4. Research design 5. Sampling strategy or sample design 6. Pilot (quick & dirty) study 7. Data collection 8. Processing & analysis of data 9. Testing hypotheses 10.Interpretation & generalization 11.Preparation of the report

CONCLUSION

Research is a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.

The obvious function of research is to add new knowledge to the exiting store Its role in human-life is as important as that of salt in a recipe.

REFERENCES

C.R.KOTHARI, research methodology – methods and technique, wishwa prakashan new delhi,2002. WILLIAM ZIKMUND, business research methods, Oklahoma state university, 2007 S.MOHAN, R.ELANGOVAN, research methodology in commerce, deep & deep publication pvt.ltd. New Delhi, 2007 G. C. BERI, Marketing research, Tata McGraw hill publishing , new Delhi, 2000. SANJAY NARULA, research methodology, JOHN BRALTON, MILITZA CALLINAN, CAROLYN FORSHAW, PETER SAWCHUK, work and organizational behaviour, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007 A document on Research Methodology by M S Sridhar Head, Library & Documentation ISRO Satellite Centre Bangalore

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