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Chapter No. 4


Carpentry General
Timber has been in very common use forengineering purposes since ancient times. Even today there are certain works, where timber is considered as the most ideal material. To-day although materials like steel, cement, stone bricks etc. have occupied lot of field, where timber was predominantly used, still timber continues to be an important structural material. There is difference between terms timber and wood. Wood includes all types of wood which may be burning wood, structural wood, furniture wood etc. But wood suitable for use as a structural material is called timber.

Carpentry General
Timber is obtained from trees. Timber denotes structural wood. A standing living tree is known as standing timber. Rough timber. When tree has been cut and its stem and branches are roughly converted into pieces of suitable lengths. Converted timber When roughly converted timber is further sawn and converted into commercial size the planks, logs, battens, posts, beams, etc


if they are not protected with special preservative. Additions and alterations to timber structures can be easily done. . Timber constructions can be easily repaired.Carpentry Advantages of Timber       It is easily available every where. It can be easily transported by converting large pieces into smaller pieces. Working on timber is easy. It can be easily jointed. Cement and iron structures corrode in sea water. In marine works. timber is considered as an ideal material as it does not corrode. Its salvage value is high.

It can with stand. shocks better than iron and concrete. It is good insulator of electricity and heat. Timber can be easily strengthened by attaching steel or other material with it. it is preferred for building works in earth quake prone regions. Lot of other internal decorations can be carried out with it. . It is an excellent material for decorative and general use furniture. It is good sound absorbing material.Carpentry Advantages of Timber       Being light in weight.

ceiling. where timber is not used one way or the other.      . and partition walls.Carpentry  Use of Timber  It can be said that there is no Engineering field. Uses of timber are numerous. doors and windows. beams. It can also be used as members of roofing trusses. lintels. It can be used inform of piles. It is an important material for furniture-making It is used for floors. vertical posts. Some of its important uses are given as follows: It is very much used for railway track sleepers.

Packing cases are mostly made from soft timber. It is very much used for timbering the deep.Carpentry  Use of Timber     It is used as form-work for cement concrete structures. agricultural implements. . etc. trenches. musical instruments. Railway coaches and wagons are also made from high class timber. well curbs. It is very much used in making sports. goods.



Colour should be uniform. chemicals and physical agencies.  It should be properly seasoned. twists.  A good timber should be hard and durable. It should be obtained preferably from heart wood.Carpentry Qualities of Good Timber Following are the qualities of good timber. upsets.  The timber should be free from knots. .  It should be capable of resisting the actions of fungi.  Its colour should be dark.  The fibers of the timber should be straight and compact. flaws etc. burls shakes.  Its freshly cut surface should smell sweet.

 It should be able to withstand the weathering affects.  It should be elastic Carpentry .  It should offer adequate fire resistance.Qualities of Good Timber  Its weight should be heavy. It should not clog the teeth of saw and should be capable of being easily planned. Heavy dull sound indicates decayed timber.  It should be easily workable.e.  It should be strong enough to withstand bending.  Timber should be tough i. it should be capable of resisting shocks.  A clear ringing sound should be emitted by the timber when struck. direct and shear effects efficiently..

Defects that develop after felling the tree.Carpentry Defects in Timber The defects that usually occur in the timber may be classified into two categories as follows:   Defects that develop during growth of the tree. .

Shakes may be of several types. These are sort of cracks which partly or completely separate the fibers of wood. . A shake is nothing. This is most serious type of defect in timber.Carpentry Defects in Timber Defects that develop during growth of tree have been briefly discussed as follows: Shakes. but separation of the timber along the grains.

The cracks are widest at the circumference and go on narrowing as they proceed towards the Centre of the tree.Carpentry Star shakes. Defects in Timber These are radial cracks or splits that extend from bark towards the sap wood. They usually remain confined up to the plane of sap wood only. . Star shakes usually develop due to fierce heat and frost When logs having this defect are sawn they usually separate out into a number of pieces and hence become useless.

. Heart shakes divide the tree cross-section into several parts. Defects in Timber These splits or cracks occur in the central part of the trees. This defect is usually caused due to shrinkage of the heart wood. There are widest at the centre and go on narrowing as they proceed towards outside. Straight running heart shake is not as serious as twisted heart shake. This defect usually occurs in overmatured trees.Carpentry Heart shakes.

This defect usually develops due to unequal growth.Cup shakes. Carpentry Defects in Timber This defect develops curved slit between successive annual rings. . The split does not run for the full circumference of the annual rings. Another possible reason for their development may be contraction of timber under atmospheric changes together with the twisting action of strong winds.

Carpentry Ring shakes. They are numerous. Radial shakes. The cracks run for a short distance from bark to-wards the centre and then follows the course of an annual ring and ultimately goes towards the pith. They are similar to star shakes. Defects in Timber When cup shake defect runs for full circumference of the annual ring. it is called ring shake. fine and irregular. . It is more serious than cup shake. They usually occur when felled tree is exposed to sun for seasoning.

They are caused by twisting of young trees constantly in one direction under the action of strong prevalent winds. Upsets are mainly due to improper felling of tree and exposure of tree in its young age to fast blowing wind. Twisted fibers. The timber having this defect is mostly used for posts and poles in an unsawn condition . Defects in Timber This defect is caused due to injury suffered by wood fibers by crushing or compression. Timber with twisted fibers is unsuitable for sawing.Carpentry Upsets or. This defect indicates change in direction of wooden fibers.

This defect indicates change in direction of wooden fibers. . Defects in Timber This defect is caused due to injury suffered by wood fibers by crushing or compression.Carpentry Upsets or. Upsets are mainly due to improper felling of tree and exposure of tree in its young age to fast blowing wind.

The amount of weakness caused by the knot depends upon the position. . Knot is the most commonly encountered defect of wood. As knots break the continuity of the wooden fibers. they form a source of weakness. hard rings.Carpentry Defects in Timber Knots. Knots are generally developed at the bases of branches cut off from the tree. and degree of grain distortion around it. size. known as knots. This phenomenon ultimately results in the formation of dark.

It is very difficult to plane the timber at knots.It is impossible to procure timber free of knots. . Their presence on tension members is objectionable . or tight. Tight knots are not objectionable unless they are too large. Knots may be dead. live loose.

Defects in Timber .Carpentry Wind cracks. The outer layers of a standing tree suffer from the effect of shrinkage due to atmospheric agencies. This causes cracks on the outer surface only. These cracks are known as wind cracks.

the timber should be stacked in yards so as to protect the timber from direct sun. Ends of logs should be protected against splitting by applying anti-Splitting compositions and stacked on foundations in closed stacks in one or more layers. .Carpentry Methods of stacking. Before seasoning.

Carpentry One and nine method of stacking. For reference . Defects in Timber This method of stacking timber is most suitable for moderately heavy coniferous sleepers in hot climates and for heavy timbers in moist climates.

This method is recommended for stacking heavy structural timbers like sal in hot and dry localities. . Defects in Timber This method of stacking timber allows reduced air circulations and thus slows down the pace of seasoning.Carpentry Close crib method.

Cups for fixing hardwood joinery shall be cast brass cups with milled edges and shall be neatly let in to finish flush with the face of the work. Hardwood joinery shall be put together and fixed brass cups and screws. Any screws appearing on face work shall have the heads let in and be pelted unless otherwise described. Softwood fixings shall be about steel screws. .Carpentry Doors Defects in Timber Joinery works shall be carefully put together and properly jointed in accordance with best practice. all joints shall be glued and screwed or doweled.

Paneled doors .

Flush doors .

windows and fly screens shall be provided and built in to the sizes Frames shall be securely tied to walls by means of steel or similar metal cramps. . galvanized or dipped in bitumen as follows: Door frames: Three cramps to each side.Carpentry Frames Defects in Timber Frames to doors.

Window frames: Two or more cramps to each side according to size. Doors. . etc shall be carefully and accurately fitted to the frames to give a uniform clearance of not more than 3mm all rounds. Glazed beads where required shall be wrought splayed and rounded and shall be neatly mitered and fixed with small brads or lost-head nails. windows.




Carpentry End .