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Optimization of carbon dioxide sequestration in brine aquifers

David Cameron & Lou Durlofsky Smart Fields Seminar April 15, 2009

Optimizing CO2 sequestration is similar to optimizing oil production
Reservoir Data

Set Well Controls

Update Model

Optimize Well Settings
April 15, 2009

SFC

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CO2 sequestration process     Flue gas is separated to get pure CO2 stream CO2 is injected in brine aquifer as supercritical fluid A long equilibration phase (~1000 yrs) follows injection CO2 is trapped in different ways April 15. 2009 SFC 3 .

Time scales for trapping mechanisms (from Benson. 2009 SFC 4 . 2007) April 15.

2009 SFC 5 .Potential goal: minimize mobile CO2 Definition of mobile CO2  Proportion of CO2 above residual saturation after equilibration Controlling parameters  Well configurations  Model parameters April 15.

2009 SFC 6 .Contents of this talk    Description of the reservoir model Formulation of optimization case study Optimization methods   Optimization results from case study Summary and conclusions April 15.

1 – 10000 md (M = 100) Porosity 0.1 Inner section (not to scale) Porosity Max inj.35 Kv/Kh 0. 2009 SFC 7 . per well 50 000 STB/d (super critical) Total injection 5 Mta (500 MW coal plant) Injection time 30 yrs Equilibration time 1 000 yrs 900 ft April 15.15 to 0.Reservoir model features Full reservoir model (to scale) Base case parameters Dimensions 10 km x 10 km x 250 m Grid 25 x 25 x 20 Permeability 0.

These figures were obtained using the preprocess file Permeability 1000 (md) TO SCALE NOT TO SCALE 900 800 700 600 500 250 m 400 300 200 100 0 250 m April 15. 2009 SFC 8 .

2009 SFC 9 .Simulation features  Used Stanford’s General Purpose Research Simulator (GPRS) Two phase (water and CO2) compositional     Peng Robinson EOS Hysteresis (Carlson method) No mineral trapping April 15.

4 I4 I5 (7.001. R6 I1 (7.17) (13.9) I2 (13.0. 2009 .Case study: 6 fixed wells Optimize using rate control Well configuration Control parameters: The fraction of total injection rate at each well (vectors over time): R1.17) R i 1 6 i 1 Possible objective functions: 1) Mobile CO2 2) CO2 under cap rock SFC 10 April 15.9) I3 (19.17) I6 (19. ….9) Bounds: Constraint: R i  0.

2 0.5 0.Base case: equal injection rates Base case phase distribution 0.6 0. 2009 SFC 11 .4 0.1 0 0 mobile residual aqueous Top Layer proportion of injected CO2 200 400 600 time (yrs) 800 1000 April 15.7 0.3 0.8 0.

1 0 0 mobile residual aqueous Top Layer proportion of injected CO2 200 400 600 time (yrs) 800 1000 April 15.4 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.6 0. 2009 SFC 12 .Base case: equal injection rates Base case phase distribution 0.

8 0.6 0.3 yrs t = 1000.5 01 April 15.5 0 0.0 yrs 2 1 0 t = 750.5 yrs t = 30.5 yrs 1 0.Base case: saturation and dissolution snap shots cross section Base case CO2 saturation t = 15.0 yrs t = 750.5 0 0.5 01 1 0. 2009 SFC 13 .0 yrs 1 0.4 0.3 yrs t = 1000.0 yrs t = 15.2 0 Base case dissolved CO2 (kg) x 10 5 4 3 7 t = 30.

2009 SFC .General Pattern Search (GPS) optimization method ADVANTAGES    Gradient free Easy and robust Parallelizable DISADVANTAGES   Local method Slow 14 April 15.

2009 SFC 15 .Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) optimization method  Generates random positive basis set Samples an area more densely than GPS  April 15.

2009 SFC 16 .Pattern search (N+1) polling  Fewer function evaluations per iteration Less likely to find global optimum GPS (N+1) is biased   April 15.

144 0 50 100 150 17 Function evaluations April 15.153 0.145 0.Minimization of mobile gas phase with 6 unknowns using different techniques 0.151 0.148 0. 2009 SFC .152 0.149 0.15 GPS GPS Np1 MADS MADS Np1 Objective 0.147 0.146 0.

2 0.Different methods converge to different solutions Base Case 0.05 0 well 1 well 3 well 5 April 15. 2009 SFC 18 .1 0.15 0.25 GPS GPS (Np1) MADS injection fraction 0.

11 0.1 0 6 unknowns 12 unknowns 18 unknowns Mobile CO2 100 200 300 400 500 Function evaluations April 15.12 0.13 0.14 0. 2009 SFC 19 .16 0.15 0.Minimization of mobile CO2 phase using more unknowns 0.

45 0.35 0.2 0.25 0.15 0.4 0.3 0.Time updates tend toward “bang-bang” solutions 6 par 0.05 0 well 1 well 3 well 5 12 par 18 par Injection fraction April 15.1 0. 2009 SFC 20 .

14 0.18 0. 2009 SFC 21 .19 Objective 0.2 0.13 0.Minimizing CO2 phase in the top layer 0.12 0 50 100 150 200 mobile (6 par) mobile (12 par) top layer (6 par) top layer (12 par) Function evaluations April 15.17 0.16 0.22 0.15 0.21 0.

4 top 6 par mobile 12 par top 12 par Injection fraction 0.45 0.1 0.Optimization with respect to mobile and top layer CO2 give similar results mobile 6 par 0. 2009 SFC 22 .05 0 well 1 well 3 well 5 April 15.3 0.15 0.35 0.25 0.2 0.

1 0 0 Base case phase balance mobile residual aqueous 0.8 0.7 0.6 0. mobile CO2) mobile residual aqueous proportion of injected CO2 proportion of injected CO2 200 400 600 time (yrs) 800 1000 April 15.8 0.1 200 400 600 time (yrs) 800 1000 0 0 Optimized phase balance (18 par. 2009 SFC 23 .2 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.Base case versus optimal solution 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.2 0.5 0.

1 0.2 0.1 0.0 yrs x 10 5 7 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 Base case saturation (1000 yrs) 1 0.0 yrs 0.0 yrs x 10 5 7 Optimized dissolution (1000 yrs) t = 1000.5 0 0.0 yrs 0.2 0.15 0.15 1 0.Cross sections for dissolution and saturation cross section Base case dissolution (1000 yrs) t = 1000.5 1 t = 1000.05 0.5 0 0. 2009 1 SFC 1 24 .05 0 0 April 15.5 1 Optimized saturation (1000 yrs) t = 1000.

2009 SFC 25 .Summary and conclusions Summary     Formulated CO2 sequestration as an optimization problem Designed a realistic synthetic model for CO2 injection Optimal solutions reduced mobile CO2 by 30 % Solutions exhibit bang-bang behavior Conclusions  Bang-bang injection increases dissolved and residually trapped CO2 April 15.

2009 SFC 26 .Future directions    Test using more parameters Test more optimization methods Use position of wells as additional optimization variables Incorporate closed-loop optimization  April 15.

2009 SFC 27 .Acknowledgements Huanquan Pan Yaqing Fan David Echeverria for modeling and GPRS help for modeling and GPRS help for optimization and coding help April 15.