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RIVER

The Meaning of River
• A river is a natural watercourse,[1] usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through a drainage basin from surface runoffand other sources such as groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (e.g., from glaciers).Potamology is the scientific study of rivers.

Use
• • Rivers have been used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, and as a means of disposing of waste. Rivers are of immense importance geologically, biologically, historically and culturally. Although they contain only about 0.0001% of the total amount of water in the world at any given time, rivers are vital carriers of water and nutrients to areas all around the earth. They are critical components of the hydrological cycle, acting as drainage channels for surface water – the world's rivers drain nearly 75% of the earth's land surface. They provide habitat, nourishment and means of transport to countless organisms; their powerful forces create majestic scenery; they provide travel routes for exploration, commerce and recreation; they leave valuable deposits of sediments, such as sand and gravel; they form vast floodplains where many of our cities are built; and their power provides much of the electrical energy we use in our everyday lives. Rivers are central to many of the environmental issues that concern society, and they are studied by a wide range of specialists including hydrologists, engineers, ecologists andgeomorphologists.

• Rivers are very dependent on climate and their characteristics are closely related to the precipitation and evaporation regimes in their drainage areas. Three main types of rivers have been distinguished: • (a) Perennial or permanent rivers have a constant flow of water (although there may be considerable seasonal variation in amount of flow) and occur in regions where precipitation generally exceeds evaporation (such as Canada). • (b) Periodic rivers may run dry occasionally but have streamflow during regular periods of variable duration. These occur in regions where evaporation exceeds precipitation on an annual average but periodically precipitation is greater. • (c) Episodic rivers only rarely and fleetingly have water in their channels. These occur in very arid climates (such as desert regions).

The river has different forms between the one with the other parts. In general, a river can be divided into three parts. The top (upper), middle, and lower (downstream). Each section has a typical, shape, and own their own activities. 1. Upstream section Upstream of the initial part of a river. Usually this section is located in the mountains. In this section, the river valley has a shape resembling the letter V. Character traits are, the river section upstream of the river has a very heavy flow of rivers and streams pretty deep. This is because due to its location in a mountainous area that has a fairly steep slope. So water will be very quick to flow downward. The process that happens here is the process of erosion. Erosion process itself caused by a very heavy flow before. Because this flow is well, the water will erode the stream very quickly, so that this river valley to form the letter V.

2. Central The middle section is a continuation of earlier upstream. The middle of the river valleys usually have cirri forming the letter U. This is because the condition of the location is not steep longer, but the ramps. This resulted in the flow of water is not so swift. Because water is not too heavy, then the process of erosion here sidah not so dominant. There is still a process of erosion, but it's very small. The dominant processes occur in this area is transportation. The point is, the result of erosion on the upstream side was 'just happen', carried by water to the area underneath, toward the upstream.
3. Downstream section The lower is the last part of the river, which eventually will lead this section of the river to the sea (estuary). Cirri characteristic of this part is, the valley of the river here is not a V-shaped or U again, but more resembles the letter U the width. River downstream is usually air-meanders (Winding twists). In this area the dominant process is sedimentation.Articles particle erosion results in the upstream, which then in transport in the central part, will in this endapkan downstream. If the river empties into the sea below the sea surface slope, and current / wave is not large, it is likely to form the delta.

• *River Depth depth of the river depends on the amount of water being stored in the river channel crosssection measured from base to surface water. Average level of the riverbed of measurement are averaged from at least three different points of the middle and right-left.

• *River discharge River discharge is the amount of volume of water flowing per unit time. The volume ofwater is calculated based on cross-sectional area multiplied by the high water. The biggest source of river water comes from rainfall, upstream of the rainfall is generallyhigher, than in the middle and downstream areas. Another source comes from an underground stream. In rainy season, the flow of underground water sourced from rainentering through infiltration events> percolation. Water percola tion into the ground waterlayer inside.

• *Water temperature The temperature of water in rivers affected by the altitude where the horizontal. In the headwaters, the river water is relatively cold, while in the middle and lower reaches of the higher temperature.

• *salinity Water salinity in the upper and middle almost rarely affected by salinity, in contrast to the lowlands. The high salinity of river water in downstream areas due to the influence of tides