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# WHAT ARE OUTLIERS?

• A database may contain data objects that do not comply with the general behavior or model of the data. These data objects are outliers. • the outliers may be of particular interest . • Outliers can be caused by measurement or execution error.

Applications: • Fraud detection • Medicine • Public health • Sports statistics • Detecting measurement errors .

OUTLIER DETECTION METHODS • Statistical Distribution-Based Outlier Detection • Distance-Based Outlier Detection • Density-Based Local Outlier Detection • Deviation-Based Outlier Detection .

.Statistical Distribution-Based Outlier Detection • assumes a distribution for the given data set • identifies outliers with respect to the model using a discordancy test • requires knowledge of the data set parameters • knowledge of distribution parameters • expected number of outliers.

How does the discordancy testing work? • This test examines two hypotheses: • working hypothesis • alternative hypothesis .

• Verifies whether oi is <> in relation to F • Assume T is some statistic used as discordancy test • Assume value of the statistic for object oi is vi • Then distribution T is constructed • SP(vi)=Prob(T > vi). is evaluated • If SP(vi) is small H is rejected . 2. n. H. … . • H : oi E F. F. where i = 1. that is.• A working hypothesis. is a statement that the entire data set of n objects comes from an initial distribution model.

• An alternative hypothesis. H. which states that oi comes from another distribution model. G. . is adopted. • The result is very much dependent on which model F is chosen because oi may be an outlier under one model and a perfectly valid value under another.

2. 2. : : : . • Slippage alternative distribution . H : oi E (1-mu)F +muG. where i = 1.• kinds of alternative distributions. • Inherent alternative distribution H’ : oi E G. : : : . n • Mixture alternative distribution G. where i = 1. n.

Distance-Based Outlier Detection • An object. D. is a distance-based (DB) outlier with parameters pct and dmin.dmin)-outlier. if at least a fraction. pct.11 that is. in a data set. . o. of the objects in D lie at a distance greater than dmin from o. a DB(pct.

algorithms for mining distancebased outliers • Index-based algorithm • Nested-loop algorithm • Cell-based algorithm .

Density-Based Local Outlier Detection • Distance-based outlier detection is based on global distance distribution • It encounters difficulties to identify outliers if data is not uniformly distributed. .

Deviation-Based Outlier Detection • it identifies outliers by examining the main characteristics of objects in a group • two techniques for deviation-based outlier detection • Sequential Exception Technique • OLAP Data Cube Technique .

Sequential Exception Technique .

OLAP Data Cube Technique .