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6

First Canadian Edition By Reilly, Brown, Hedges, Chang

Chapter 6

An Introduction to Portfolio Management

• Some Background Assumptions • Markowitz Portfolio Theory • Efficient Frontier and Investor Utility

Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

6-2

Background Assumptions

• As an investor you want to maximize the returns for a given level of risk. • Your portfolio includes all of your assets and liabilities. • The relationship between the returns for assets in the portfolio is important. • A good portfolio is not simply a collection of individually good investments.

Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

6-3

6-4 . and Disability Income. • Yield on bonds increases with risk classifications • Not All Investors are Risk Averse • It may depend on the amount of money involved Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. Automobile. risk-averse investors will select the asset with the lower level of risk • Evidence • Many investors purchase insurance for: Life. Health.Background Assumptions: Risk Aversion • Given a choice between two assets with equal rates of return.

future value of investment in Google’s stock is uncertain so the investment is risky • On the other hand.Some Background Assumptions • Definition of Risk • Uncertainty • Risk means the uncertainty of future outcomes • For instance. 6-5 . purchase of a six-month Certificate of Deposit (CD) or Guaranteed Investment Certificate (GIC) has a certain future value. the investment is not risky Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

Some Background Assumptions • Probability • Risk is measured by the probability of an adverse outcome. 6-6 . Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. there is 40% chance you will receive a return less than 8%. • For instance.

Markowitz Portfolio Theory • Quantifies risk • Derives the expected rate of return for a portfolio of assets and an expected risk measure • Shows that the variance of the rate of return is a meaningful measure of portfolio risk • Derives the formula for computing the variance of a portfolio. 6-7 . showing how to effectively diversify a portfolio Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

Similarly. investors prefer less risk to more risk Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. which demonstrate diminishing marginal utility of wealth • Estimate the risk of the portfolio on the basis of the variability of expected returns • Base decisions solely on expected return and risk • Prefer higher returns for a given risk level.Markowitz Portfolio Theory • Assumptions • Consider investments as probability distributions of expected returns over some holding period • Maximize one-period expected utility. for a given level of expected returns. 6-8 .

Markowitz Portfolio Theory • Using these five assumptions. or lower risk with the same (or higher) expected return Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. a single asset or portfolio of assets is considered to be efficient if no other asset or portfolio of assets offers higher expected return with the same (or lower) risk. 6-9 .

6-10 .Alternative Measures of Risk • Variance or standard deviation of expected return • Range of returns • Returns below expectations • Semi-variance – a measure that only considers deviations below the mean • These measures of risk implicitly assume that investors want to minimize the damage from returns less than some target rate Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

Alternative Measures of Risk • The Advantages of Using Standard Deviation (σ) • Somewhat intuitive • Correct and widely recognized risk measure • Used in most of the theoretical asset pricing models Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. 6-11 .

6-12 .Expected Rate of Return • For an Individual Asset [E(Ri)] • It is equal to the sum of the potential returns multiplied with the corresponding probability of the returns Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

Expected Rate of Return Portfolio Investment Assets If you want to construct a portfolio of n risky assets. 6-13 . what will be the expected rate of return on the portfolio if you know the expected rates of return on each individual asset? n E(Rport) W R i i i1 where : W the percent of the portfolio in asset i i E(R ) the expected rate of return for asset i i Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

6-14 .Expected Rate of Return Portfolio Investment Assets • It is equal to the weighted average of the expected rates of return for the individual investments in the portfolio Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

from the expected rate of return [E(Ri)] Variance ( ) [R i .Measuring Risk Using Variance • What is variance? • Measure of the variation of possible rates of return Ri. Ri Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. 6-15 .E(R i )] Pi 2 2 i 1 n Where: Pi is the probability of the possible rate of return.

Measuring Risk Using Standard Deviation • What is standard deviation? • Square root of the variance • Standardized measure of risk Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. 6-16 .

Calculating Risk of an Individual Investment Asset Possible Rate of Return (Ri) 0.0005 0.000058 0.14 Expected Return E(Ri) 0.0000 0.017 0.037 [Ri .E(Ri)] 0.000451 2 Variance ( σ2) = 0.0014 2 Pi 0.0003 0.E(Ri) -0.000185 0.35 0.003 0. 6-17 .000205 0.08 0.103 0.20 0.021237 To calculate σ take the square root of the variance Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.103 0.12 0.E(Ri)] Pi 0.103 0.023 -0.15 [Ri .103 Ri .30 0.000451 Standard Deviation ( σ ) = 0.000003 0.10 0.

Monthly Return Rates for Canadian Stocks & Bonds Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. 6-18 .

Measuring Covariance of Assets • A measurement of the degree to which two variables “move together” relative to their individual mean values over time Covij = E{[Ri .E(Rj)]} Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. 6-19 .E(Ri)] [Rj .

This means that returns for the two assets move together in a positively and completely linear manner. Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.Correlation Coefficient • Coefficient can vary in the range +1 to -1. 6-20 . This means that the returns for two assets move together in a completely linear manner. but in opposite directions. • Value of +1 would indicate perfect positive correlation. • Value of –1 would indicate perfect negative correlation.

Covariance and Correlation • The correlation coefficient is obtained by standardizing (dividing) the covariance by the product of the individual standard deviations • Computing correlation from covariance Cov r ij ij i j r the correlatio n coefficien t of returns ij i the standard deviation of R it j the standard deviation of R jt Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. 6-21 .

6-22 .Standard Deviation of a Portfolio n 2 2 n n port w w w Cov ij i1 i i i1i1 i j where : port the standard deviation of the portfolio Wi the weights of the individual assets in the portfolio. where Covij rij i j Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. where weights are determined by the proportion of value in the portfolio i2 the variance of rates of return for asset i Covij the covariance between th e rates of return for assets i and j.

Standard Deviation of a Two Stock Portfolio • Any asset of a portfolio may be described by two characteristics: • Expected rate of return • Expected standard deviations of returns • Correlation. 6-23 . measured by covariance. affects the portfolio standard deviation • Low correlation reduces portfolio risk while not affecting the expected return Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

Coefficient Si2 .20 Wi .10 Covariance A B C D E +1.00 -. 6-24 .0049 .50 -1.00 -.00 +.007 Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.0035 -.50 .50 Correl.00 .50 0.Standard Deviation of a Two Stock Portfolio Asset 1 2 Case E(Ri ) .0100 Si .0035 0.07 .007 .10 .

6-25 .0 correlation will not reduces the portfolio standard deviation • Combining two assets with -1.0 correlation may reduces the portfolio standard deviation to zero Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.Standard Deviation of a Two Stock Portfolio • Assets may differ in expected rates of return and individual standard deviations • Negative correlation reduces portfolio risk • Combining two assets with +1.

6-26 .0 correlation may reduces the portfolio standard deviation to zero Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.Standard Deviation of a Two Stock Portfolio • Assets may differ in expected rates of return and individual standard deviations • Negative correlation reduces portfolio risk • Combining two assets with +1.0 correlation will not reduces the portfolio standard deviation • Combining two assets with -1.

6-27 .Standard Deviation of a Two Stock Portfolio Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

0812 0.20 0.1000 0. 6-28 .14 0.80 1.0662 0.50 0.0700 Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.80 0.00 0.16 0.18 0.50 0.60 0.40 0.0610 0.0580 0.00 E(Ri) 0.10 E(Fport) 0.0595 0.40 0.Standard Deviation of a Two Stock Portfolio Case f g h i j k l W1 0.00 0.15 0.12 0.00 W2 1.20 0.20 0.60 0.

more risk will be reduced everything else being the same • General computing procedure is still the same.Standard Deviation of a Three Stock Portfolio • Results presented earlier for two-asset portfolio can extended to a portfolio of n assets • As more assets are added to the portfolio. but the amount of computation has increased rapidly • Computation has doubled in comparison with twoasset portfolio Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. 6-29 .

950 correlation estimates • Estimation risk refers to potential errors Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.Estimation Issues • Results of portfolio allocation depend on accurate statistical inputs • Estimates of • Expected returns • Standard deviation • Correlation coefficient • Among entire set of assets • With 100 assets. 4. 6-30 .

6-31 .Estimation Issues • With the assumption that stock returns can be described by a single market model. the number of correlations required reduces to the number of assets Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

Estimation Issues: A Single Index Model R i a i bi R m i bi = the slope coefficient that relates the returns for security i to the returns for the aggregate market Rm = the returns for the aggregate stock market Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. 6-32 .

Estimation Issues 2 m rij bib j i j 2 where the variance of returns for the m aggregate stock market Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. 6-33 .

Efficient Frontier The efficient frontier represents that set of portfolios with the maximum rate of return for every given level of risk. 6-34 . or the minimum risk for every level of return Efficient frontier are portfolios of investments rather than individual securities except the assets with the highest return and the asset with the lowest risk Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

6-35 .Efficient Frontier & Investor Utility • An individual investor’s utility curve specifies the trade-offs he is willing to make between expected return and risk • The slope of the efficient frontier curve decreases steadily as you move upward • The interactions of these two curves will determine the particular portfolio selected by an individual investor • The optimal portfolio has the highest utility for a given investor Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

16. with a different set of utility curves. Investor Y will achieve the highest utility by investing the portfolio at Y • Which investor is more risk averse? Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd. 6-36 . Investor X with the set of utility curves will achieve the highest utility by investing the portfolio at X • As shown in Exhibit 6.16.Efficient Frontier & Investor Utility • The optimal lies at the point of tangency between the efficient frontier and the utility curve with the highest possible utility • As shown in Exhibit 6.

6-37 .Efficient Frontier Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

6-38 .Efficient Frontier & Investor Utility Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Ltd.

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