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How to segment Industrial Markets

nested approach
managers can determine the best segmentation method

Course: Industrial Marketing Presented By: Shah Rukh (12485) Sana Sadiq (12877) Hur Hussain Syed (12479) Faculty: Amir A. Khan

Very little information available Much difficult then consumer segmentation
Several Products, same applications

Customer differ greatly
Which differences are important OR trivial?

Most industrial marketers use segmentation as a way to explain results rather than as a way to plan. IM assist companies in many ways : Analysis, Selection & Segmentation of market


Business markets vs. consumer markets
Consumer markets
Many customers, geographically dispersed Smaller amounts of money involved Shorter decision cycles More reliance on mass marketing via advertising, Web sites, and retailing Less-rigid product standards

Business markets
Fewer customers, often geographically concentrated, with a small number accounting for most of the company’s sales Larger amounts of money involved Longer decision cycles

More reliance on personal selling
More-rigid product standards

NEW ANALYTICAL TOOL TO SEGMENT THE MARKET…  Focus complex grouping of purchase situations, events, and personalities  5 general segmentation Criteria Not necessary or desirable that every Industrial marketer use each 5 criteria's  Marketer completely Understand the process & may skip some criteria 4

Analytical Tool- NESTED APPROACH…

• Picture explains how criteria relates to one another in a nest • Marketer to move from general to specific segmentation criteria • Largest and Generic = Demographics • Smallest and Specific = Personal Characteristics 5



Basics of DEMOGRAPHICS Segmentation

• Most general segmentation criteria • Broad description of company

• Relate to General Customer Need
• Can be determined w/o visiting customer



•Company Size •Customer Location


Eg.: Segmentation in various Industries for CAT

• • • • • • • •

Textile Oil & Gas Institutes Hotels and Resorts Shopping Malls Hospitals Automotives Beverages

Regional Market Share of CAT gensets Eg.: Geographical Segmentation
Geographical Market Share
1% 5% 1%


61% 2% 1%

Karachi Faisalabad Multan Lahore Muzafargarh Islamabad Kotri



•Company Technology
•Product & Brand-Use Status •Customer Capabilities


Eg.: Product Use status

Product Population
3406NA 3406TA 3412TA

156 200 350

125 160 280

Engine Population

3508 3512LE 3512E 3516A 3516B 3516C 3520C

600 906 1250 1220 1430 1945 2450

480 725 1000 975 1350 1550 1950


14% 9%

20% 14% 3% 3% 1%


3306 3406 3412 3508 3512 3516 3516B 3516C 3520

Criteria 3: Purchasing Approach


•Purchasing Function Organization

• Power Structure
•Buyer Seller Relation ships •General Purchasing policies •Purchasing criteria


Examples of Purchasing Approaches:
 Purchasing function organization:
 Centralized versus De-Centralized Approach
 Global Key Accounts

 Shell Pakistan was trying its best to tap KCA Deutag Pakistan, a drilling company, however could not close the deal as all decisions were made by their regional offices.

Examples of Purchasing Approaches:
 Power Structure:
 Identifying the right D.M.U
Dominance of Procurement / Engineering / Finance Dept over purchase of a particular product Uch Power needs 100,000 Litres of Turbine Oil for their newly built plant. The power to decide would rest in a cross functional decision making team, consisting of engineering as well as finance dept.

Examples of Purchasing Approaches:
 Buyer Seller Relationship
 Relationship plays key role in purchase decisions. This includes partners, joint venture establishments and industrial alliances also. A successful B2B marketer is the one who can build his relationship with his customers. Out of the office relationships can also play a role if there are no conflict of interests. Some marketers also end up developing friendships and informal relationships with their buyers as well.

Examples of Purchasing Approaches:
 General Purchasing Policies
 The organizations general purchasing terms also plays an important role for segmentation. One can differentiate between credit and cash customers.

Long term / Short Term Policies.
Purchase patterns, requirements. safety stocks policies, contractual

Govt owned entities have very stringent purchase policies.

Examples of Purchasing Approaches:
 Purchase Criteria
 A mix of all the criterias mentioned in the previous slides.


One of the most important segmentation criteria. As from situation factors, you find problem areas for the customers. From problem areas , you understand the marketing implications!

Examples of Situational Factors:
 Urgency of order fulfillment
 IoBM procures diesel fuels for their standby generators every month. Chevron usually takes 3 working days to deliver the fuel to them. On the convocation day – due to an unfortunate spillage in their storage area – all the diesel became contaminated and could not be used. Mr. Talib Karim calls Mr. Amir Khan and speaks about the problem. How, in your opinion, will the sales person respond to the customer in this situation?
Difference between routine replacements and emergency replacements Hot-Order Shop – A factory for urgent orders only Most companies are willing to pay an extra charge to get the job done more quickly.

Examples of Situational Factors:
 Product Application
 Linde Pakistan (Formerly British Oxygen Company) is a company that captures, compresses and supplies Oxygen. Ever wondered – the marketing implication for a sales person for two different types of customers. – A Hospital and A Mechanical Welding Shop?
Standby Machinery V/s Critical Machinery

Routine V/s Special Scenarios

Examples of Situational Factors:
 Size of Order
 You are a Mitchells Ketchup Sales Person, How would you differentiate between receiving a call from the Procurement Lead of McDonalds Pakistan & a call from the local Aslam Kiryana Store?
Volume Does Matter Minimum Order Quantities Implication for suppliers having multiple manufacturing facilities


Always remember, People, not companies, make purchase decisions!

Examples of Personal Characteristics:
 Buyer – Seller Similarities
 As humans we have a natural tendency towards bias.
The most successful sellers are the ones who can find the most similarities in their buyers. Synergy in place – Sharing best practices

Examples of Personal Characteristics:
 Individual Behaviors
Some people base their decisions on past experiences, some base it on their knowledge. (eg. :3 Global suppliers, good experience with 1 Only- MHE’s) Relationships can play a major role. Especially in Pakistani markets.
Descon is an engineering giant. A few years ago – some key persons moved out of the company and formed Etimad Engineering. Taking along with them a major chunk of business.

Examples of Personal Characteristics:
 Risk Management Strategies
 Some buyers are risk averse, others are risk receptive.
The bad news is that majority of the buyers are risk averse.

Risk Receptive Buyers can be targeted by highlighting the positive outcomes.
Risk averse buyers need to be proof of performance. Testimonials, Recommendations, OEM Approvals, Field Test Results and what not !

Reassembling the Nest 4 other possibilities of Segmentation
1.) No Segmentation 2.)After the fact Segmentation 3.)Superficial Segmentation 4.) Obtuse, Convoluted and disorganized segmentation
Outer nest data: Highly Visible more or less permanent Require little intimate knowledge of customers Inner nest data: Less visible more transient Require extensive vendor research

• 3 outer nests = Company Variables
• Criteria change when move from Outer to inner nest in terms of: 1.) Visibility 2.) Permanence 3.) Intimacy


• Easy approach to use HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE • Marketer  balance b/w “Easily acquired data from Outer nests” & “Detailed analysis of Inner nests” • Outer nests = More data , clear definitions • Inner nests = detailed, more useful •“ Data Availability” and “Analysis of available data” are two separate approaches •Any approach can not be neglected ONLY b/c the data is unavailable • Cost = stay in outer nests, cost = gain useful data of inner nests

• Inner nests not considered  Ignoring buying differences b/w customers • Small Markets  Emphasis on inner nest factors is EXPENSIVE & TIME CONSUMING