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Organ transplant

Face transplant/Facial allograft transplant (FAT)

The donated organ may be from a deceased donor.Definition: What are Organ Transplants? • An organ transplant is a surgical operation in which a failing or damaged organ in the human body is removed and replaced with a functioning one. a living donor. In some cases an artificial organ is used. or an animal. .

The number of patients on the waiting list for organ donation far exceeds the number of available donors.403 transplant surgeries had been performed.900 people remained on a waiting list.Ethical Issues • The major ethical concerns regarding organ transplant stem from the issue of a shortage of organs. As of January 2008. and between January and September of 2007 only 21. over 97. .

either monetary or non-monetary (smoking. drinking.Issues • • • • • • better chance for survival be given priority parents of young children incentives. etc transplant tourism Should prisoners on death row be given the option of donating organs upon their death. obesity. or even be offered the option of trading a kidney or bone marrow in exchange for a life sentence in prison without parole? • required to indicate their wishes regarding organ transplantation . drug use.

heart-beating donors (NHBD) to increase the number of organs available? . so that organs are donated unless a person. while still living. specifically requests not to donate upon death? • Should organs be created through the use of stem cells? • Should hospital policies permit organs to be taken from non.• Should consent to donate organs be presumed.

2003) • The first partial face transplant(of the nose. .. lips and chin) was carried out by Dubenard and colleagues.• bilateral hand transplantation(Dubernard et al. in November 2005. in France.

where the eyelids have been lost(leading to corneal ulceration and blindness) or where the nose or ears have been lost. It provides opportunities for functional improvement and improved cosmesis currently impossible with other surgical techniques .where burns contractures prevent mouth opening orother facial movement.• facial transplantation will beused to alleviate functional impairment. for example .

2005). .• The final appearance is likely to be a composite of donor and recipient faces. not identical to either original face but retaining some superficial donor characteristics such as eyebrows (Clarke & Butler.

and concluded that more research and planning was needed before the procedure should be carried out.face transplantation • excited considerable interest and debate • the issue of the psychological impact on the recipient. • Among the major concerns identified were the problem of informed consent for a new procedure • The impact of lifelong immunosuppression in a ‘quality of life • psychological problems of altered appearance .

• The operation will be performed only for the improvement of facial function where current surgical techniques are limited • Facial transplantation is not.e. in particular the consequences of life long immunosuppression. indicated for cosmetic reasons.: in the absence of facial pathology. because of both short and long-term risk. . i. at present.



Lisa mengaku juga banyak mendapat ilmu dan nasehat dari tim dokter. Hal tersebut membuatnya makin kuat menjalani hidup dan menatap masa depan. tapi juga memperbaiki psikologi. hati dan imannya.Baginya operasi face-off tidak sekadar memperbaiki wajahnya. Selama di rumah sakit. .