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Analysis of Stackability of CFB Boxes

By Rushikesh S. Aravkar (108PPT02) Narayan Iyer(108PPT08) Shaikh Fehmida Begum(108PPT27)

Stage - I
We discussed about : Objectives of project. Theory related to CFB boxes
Manufacturing Types Quality control parameters and tests

McKees Formula. Theoretical Determination of Stacking strength of CFB boxes.

7 BCT trials were done. Difference between theoretical and practical values was standardized. RCT index was generated. MS-Excel based kraft paper estimator was developed. A 3-ply box was designed as an alternative for existing 5-ply box.

Stacking Strength of CFB Box

The compression strength of a CFB box is a direct measure of its stacking strength and box performance. BCT is the measure of the ability of CFB box to take top-down loads Determines how much load can be stacked upon the box without the walls buckling

McKees Equation
BCT = 0.6 x ECT x Z x t
Where, BCT = Box Compression in kg, ECT = Edge Compression in kN/m, Z = Box Inside Perimeter in mm, t = Board thickness in mm Relation between RCT and ECT:

ECT=1.28 x [RCT(L1) + TUF(F) x RCT(F) + RCT(L2)]

where, ECT = Edgewise Compression in kN/m RCT = Ring Crush Test in kN/m RCT in CD is to be considered. TUF = Take-up Factor L1,L2 = Liners; F=Flute

BCT Trials
Seven trials were performed To standardize the difference between theoretical and practical results was Reading BCT BCT Factor done.

No 1 2 Theoretical 438.39 387.79 Practical 371.9 272 Difference 15.17 29.86

4 5

344.26 332.38

256.4 238.4

25.52 28.28





BCT : Theoretical v/s Practical

500 450 438.39 400 350 BCT(kgs) 300 250 200 150

387.79 371.9
344.26344.26332.38 272 262.6 256.4



282.2 238.4 BCT Theoretical BCT Practical Factor Difference

50 0 1 2 3 4 5 Reading No. 6 7 15.17 29.86 23.72 25.52 28.28 26.8 18.28

BCT Trials
It was observed that the factor difference varies from about 15% to 30%. So we can standardize this difference to be 30 % at the max. Significant box to box variation in BCT values Paper properties are variable depending on the amount and quality of recycled content used and the

CFB box is designed with regards to its performance during stacking. The paper is selected on the basis of BF and GSM. Required BCT is approximately achieved by altering the GSM BF combination by trial and error method. But, BF is not directly related to stacking strength. RCT ECT BCT Stacking (paper) (board) (box)

RCT Index
Paper suppliers in India do not supply paper as per the RCT. So an attempt was done to work out an index which would give the approximate RCT value of given GSM and BF paper. Variety of papers of different specifications in terms of GSM and BF were tested for RCT. The samples contained papers from different paper mills.

RCT Index
It can be seen that RCT of paper of given GSM and BF varies significantly for different mills. It is because of varying source of pulp. Also it is impossible to determine the no. of times the fibres are recycled . Recently some mills like Ruby Macons have started providing Kraft Paper as per RCT specifications but there is still inconsistency.

RCT Index

It gives the range of RCT values for given specification of GSM and BF.
Paper Grade 140 GSM 18 BF 140 GSM 20 BF 150 GSM 20 BF 150 GSM 22 BF Range (CD) (kgf) 9 14 13 17 12 18 13 20

150 GSM 24 BF 180 GSM 20 BF

180 GSM 24 BF 200 GSM 28 BF

18 24 18 23
24 29 26 - 32

RCT Index
35 32 30 29 26 24 20 17 15 10 5 0 140 140 150 150 150 180 180 200 GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM 18 BF 20 BF 20 BF 22 BF 24 BF 20 BF 24 BF 28 BF Paper Specifications 9 24

RCT CD (kgf) 20




Minimum RCT Maximum RCT




Designing 3-ply Box as an Alternative for 5-ply Box

A 5-ply box is always stronger than a 3-ply box of same dimensions and specifications. But if a stronger paper is used a 3-ply box can provide equal strength as that of a 5-ply box of same dimensions cost savings and paper savings also.

An existing 5-ply box was tested for BCT. New 3-ply box should provide the same BCT value as that of existing 5ply. BCT5-ply = BCT3-ply => ECT3-ply => RCT Thus using McKees Equation, RCT of paper was determined from required BCT. Sample Boxes were prepared from the

C-Box Specifications Length (L) (mm) Width (W) (mm) Height (H) (mm) Box-Perimeter (mm) Thickness of box (5-ply) Thickness of box (3-ply) Practical BCT for existing 5 ply For 150 GSM 22 BF paper Desired BCT considering 30% Factor Difference

521 527 340 2096 6.54 3.1 272 353.6 ECT=7.31 kN/m 1.69 kN/m 26.26 kgf

ECT= BCT/ (0.6 x SQRT (BP x Thickness)) RCT = ECT/ [1.28*(2+TUF B-Flute)] RCT=

So the paper which provides an RCT of 24.24 kgf is required for 3-ply box From our study we would recommend to use 180 GSM 24 BF

The 3-ply boxes made of 180 GSM 24BF was tested for BCT and the results were found to be matching very closely with existing 5-ply box.
BCT trial performed on 3-ply box made of 180GSM 24BF Reading No. BCT kgs 1 270 2 250 3 274 4 272 5 268 Average 266.8

41.32 % less paper was used for the 3-ply box as compared to 5-ply. The cost of the box was reduced by about Rs.16.50 per box. Also there is no significant loss of bursting strength. BS was reduced by 2.4 kg/

Static Load Testing of CFB Box

Compression strength is not equal to stacking strength. Compression strength (BCT) is a laboratory value measured under ideal conditions. Although BCT typically overestimates by four to eight times the real stacking strength in distribution It provides a starting point for estimating stacking strength. So to determine the load bearing capacity of the box under actual stacking conditions the newly designed 3-ply CFB box was tested for static load testing.

Net weight of Box Contents: 8.5 kgs Weight of an empty box: 1.12 kgs Gross weight of one box: 9.62 kgs No. of boxes on the top of bottommost box: 5 (as desired stack is 6 boxes) Total weight required for the test = 9.62 x 5 = 48kgs The test was conducted from 23rd April to 30th April 2012. No deflection was recorded. The box did not fail for 8 days. Hence we can conclude that the box has passed the static load test.

Kraft Paper Estimator

Predicts the specifications of the Kraft Paper, in terms of GSM and BF. This estimator is in the form of an excel-sheet. It uses McKees formula and RCT index.

Inputs to be given:
No. of plies and flute construction C-Box Specifications TUF Thickness of the board Weight of contents that the CFB box will carry Number of boxes on the top of bottommost box Factor of Safety (3 to 8, generally 5)

Given the following inputs the estimator calculates Box perimeter Weight of the box (150GSM paper as a reference) BCT = (total load on top of bottommost box) x( factor of safety) Then increasing this by 30 % as a standard difference between theoretical and practical value. This BCT value is used to estimate ECT of the board and RCT of the paper. Depending on the RCT found, the RCT index is referred to suggest the paper that is suitable for making the CFB box.


According to our study we conclude that: Theoretical BCT values are at the max. 30% higher as compared to the practical results.

RCT values vary significantly for paper of different paper mills. Generated an RCT index.


Kraft Paper Estimator was developed. 5-ply boxes can be replaced with 3-ply construction by using stronger paper. The 3-ply box designed saves paper by about 40 % and cost is reduced by Rs.16/box.