p
; Hole mobility (unit; cm
2
/Vs)
Describes how well a carrier move due to E
Drift current density, J
drf
(unit; A/cm
2
) due to hole
dp drf p
epv J =

pE e J
p drf p
=

Drift current density due to electron
nE e J
n drf n
=

Total drift current;
E p n e J
p n drf
) ( + =
The sum of the individual electron and hole drift current densities
Mobility effects
*
p
cp
p
m
et
=
Mobility is important parameter to determine the conductivity of material
*
n
cn
n
m
et
=
t; mean time between collisions
If t=10
15
s, in average, every 10
15
s, carrier involves in collision @ scattering
Two dominant scattering mechanism
1.Phonon or lattice scattering
2.Ionized scattering
1. Lattice scattering or phonon scattering
At temperature, T > 0 K, atoms randomly vibrate. This thermal vibrations cause a
disruption of the periodic potential function. This resulting in an interaction
between carrier and the vibrating lattice atoms.
Mobility due to lattice scattering,
L
2 / 3
T
L
+
= =
L
+

V
I
Area, A
Bar of semiconductor
Current density,
A
I
J =
Electric field,
L
V
E =
IR I
A
L
I
A
L
V
L
V
A
I
E J
=

.

\

=

.

\

=
=
=
o
o
o
Resistance, R is a function of resistivity, or
conductivity, as well as the geometry of the
semiconductor
Consider ptype semiconductor with an acceptor doping N
a
(N
d
=0) in which N
a
>>n
i
p e p n e
n p n
o ~ + = ) (
Assume complete ionization
o
1
~ ~
a n
N e
Function of the majority carrier
ex.;
Consider compensated ntype Silicon at T=300 K with a conductivity of =16
(cm)
1
and an acceptor doping concentration of 10
17
cm
3
. Determine the donor
concentration and the electron mobility.
Solution;
At T=300 K, we can assume complete ionization. (N
d
N
a
>>n
i
)
) 10 ( ) 10 6 . 1 ( 16
) (
17 19
=
= ~
d n
a d n n
N
N N e n e
o
To determine n and Nd, we can use figure mobility vs. impurity concentration with
trial and error
) 10 ( 10
17 20
=
d n
N
If N
d
=2 x 10
17
cm
3
, impurity
concentration, N
I
= N
d
+
+N
a

=3 x 10
17
cm
3
. from the figure, n= 510
cm
2
/Vs. so =8.16 (cm)
1
.
If N
d
=5 x 10
17
cm
3
, impurity
concentration, N
I
= N
d
+
+N
a

=6x 10
17
cm
3
. from the figure, n= 325
cm
2
/Vs. so =20.8 (cm)
1
.
N
d
should be between 2 x 10
17
and 5 x
10
17
cm
3
. after trial and error.
Nd= 3.5 x 10
17
cm
3
n=400 cm
2
/Vs
= 16 (cm)
1
Ex 2.; designing a semiconductor resistor with a specified resistance to
handle a given current density
A Si semiconductor at T=300 K is initially doped with donors at a concentration of
N
d
=5 x 10
15
cm
3
. Acceptors are to be added to form a compensated ptype
material. The resistor is to have a resistance of 10 k and handle a current
density of 50 A/cm
2
when 5 V is applied.
Solution;
When 5 V is applied to 10 k resistor, the current, I
mA
R
V
I 5 . 0
10
5
4
= = =
If the current density, J is limited to 50 A/cm
2
, the crosssectional area, A is
2 5
3
10
50
10 5 . 0
cm
J
I
A
= =
Consider that electric field, E is limited to 100 V/cm. Then the length of the
resistor, L is
The conductivity, of the semiconductor is
cm
E
V
L
2
10 5
100
5
= = =
1
5 4
2
) ( 5 . 0
10 10
10 5
O =
= = cm
RA
L
o
The conductivity of the compensated ptype semiconductor is
) (
d a p p
N N e p e = ~ o
Here, the mobility is function of total ionized impurity concentration Na+Nd
Using trial and error, if Na=1.25x10
16
cm
3
, then Na+Nd=1.75x10
16
cm
3
, and the
hole mobility, from figure mobility versus impurity concentration, is approximately
p=410 cm
2
/Vs. The conductivity is then,
492 . 0 ) 10 ) 5 5 . 12 (( 410 10 6 . 1 ) (
15 19
= = =
d a p
N N e o
This is very close to the value we need. From the calculation
L=5x10
2
cm
A=10
5
cm
2
Na=1.25x10
16
cm
3
Velocity Saturation
E v
d
=
Drift velocity increase linearly with applied electric field.
At low electric field,
vd increase linearly
with applied E.
slope=mobility
At high electric field,
vd saturates
Constant value
Carrier diffusion
Diffusion; process whereby particles flow from a region of high concentration
toward a region of low concentration.
divider
Carrier
E
l
e
c
t
r
o
n
c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
,
n
Position x
Electron diffusion
current density
Electron flux
dx
dn
eD J
dx
dn
D e J
n dif nx
n dif nx
=

.

\

=


) (
D
n
; electron diffusion coefficient
H
o
l
e
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
,
p
Position x
Hole diffusion
current density
Hole flux
dx
dp
eD J
dx
dp
eD J
p dif px
p dif px
=

.

\

=


D
p
; hole diffusion coefficient
Diffusion coefficient; indicates how well carrier move as a result of
density gradient.
Total Current Density
Total Current
Density
Electron drift
current
hole drift
current
Electron diffusion
current
hole diffusion
current
dif px drf p dif nx drf n
J J J J J
   
+ + + =
dx
dp
eD
dx
dn
eD E ep E en J
p n x p x n
+ + =
1D
3D
p eD n eD E ep E en J
p n p n
V V + + =
Graded impurity distribution
Mobility,; indicates how well carrier moves due to electrical field
Diffusion coefficient, D; how well carrier moves due to density gradient
Here, we derive relationship between mobility and diffusion
coefficient using nonuniformly doped semiconductor model
Einstein relation
Nonuniformly doped semiconductor
electron
x
E
C
E
F
E
v
x
Energyband diagram
E
C
E
F
E
v
x
Doping concentration decreases as x increases
Electron diffuse in +x direction
The flow of electron leaves behind positively
charged donor
Induce electrical field, E
x
, given by
dx
x dN
x N e
kT
E
d
d
x
) (
) (
1

.

\

=
Since there are no electrical connections, there is no current(J=0)
0
) (
) ( = + =
dx
x dN
eD E x N e J
d
n x d n
eq.1
eq.2
Electron current
From eq.1 and 2,
e
kT D
n
n
=
e
kT
D
D
p
p
n
n
= =
Diffusion coefficient and mobility are not independent parameters.
The relationship between this 2 parameter Einstein relation
Exercise 1
Assume the mobility of a particular carrier is 1000 cm
2
/Vs at T=300K.
Determine the diffusion coefficient given the carrier mobility.
Using the Einstein relation we have that
e
kT
D
D
p
p
n
n
= =
2
0.0259 1000 25.9 cm /s
D kT kT
D
e e
 
= = = =

\ .
Exercise 2
Assume that electron diffusion coefficient of a semiconductor at T=300K is
D
n
=215 cm
2
/s. Determine the electron mobility.
Using the Einstein relation we have that
e
kT
D
D
p
p
n
n
= =
2
215
8301cm /Vs
0.0259
D kT D
kT
e
e
= = = =
 

\ .
The Hall effect
Using the effect, we can determine
The type of semiconductor
Carrier concentration
mobility
Magnetic field
Applied electrical field
Force on charged particle
in magnetic field (Lorentz
force)
B qv F =
the Lorentz force on electron
and hole is in y direction
There will be buildup of negative
charge (ntype) or positive charge
(ptype) at y=0
As a results, an electrical field
called Hall field, E
H
is induced.
Hall field produces Hall voltage,
V
H
In ydirection, Lorentz force will be balanced by force due to Hall field
z x H
H
z x
WB v V
W
V
q B qv
=
=
(ptype)
Polarity of V
H
is used to determine the type of semiconductor
For ptype
) )( ( Wd ep
I
v
x
x
=
d eV
B I
p
epd
B I
V
H
z x
z x
H
=
=
Can calculate the hole concentration in ptype
For ntype
d eV
B I
n
end
B I
V
H
z x
z x
H
=
=
Note that V
H
is negative for ntype
When we know the carrier concentration, we can calculate carrier mobility
x p x
E ep J =
Similar with ntype, mobility is determined from
Wd enV
L I
x
x
n
=
Wd epV
L I
L
V ep
Wd
I
x
x
p
x p
x
=
=
Exercise 3
Silicon at T = 300 K is uniformly doped with phophorus atoms at a
concentration of 2 10
16
cm. A Hall effect device has been fabricated with
the following geometry: d = 10
3
cm, W = 10
2
cm, and L = 10
1
cm. The
electrical parameters measured are: I
x
= 1.2 mA, and B
z
= 500 gauss = 5
10
2
Tesla. Determine
a) The Hall voltage
b) The Hall field
Exercise 3
Determine
a) The Hall voltage
( )( )
( )( )( )
3 2
22 19 5
3
1.2 10 5 10
2 10 1.6 10 10
1.875 10 1.875
X Z
H
I B
V
ned
V mV
= =
= =
b) The Hall Field
3
2
1.875 10
0.1875 V cm
10
H
H H H
H
H
V
V W
W
V
W
= E E =
E = =
, n=2 10
16
cm, I
x
= 1.2 mA, B
z
= 500
Quiz 1
Consider a silicon at T = 300 K. A Hall effect device has been fabricated
with the following geometry: d = 5 10
3
cm, W = 5 10
2
cm, and L = 0.50
cm. The electrical parameters measured are: I
x
= 0.50 mA, V
x
= 1.25 V, and
B
z
= 650 gauss = 6.5 10
2
Tesla. The Hall voltage is E
H
= 16.5 mV/cm.
Determine
a) The Hall voltage
b) The conductivity type
c) The majority carrier concentration
d) The majority carrier mobility
Quiz 1
Determine
a) The Hall voltage
( )( )
3 2
16.5 10 5 10
0.825 mV
H H
V W
= E =
=
b) The conductivity type
negative ntype
H
V =
c) The majority carrier concentration
( )( )
( )( )( )
3 2
15 3
19 5 3
0.5 10 6.5 10
4.924 10 cm
1.6 10 5 10 0.825 10
x z
H
I B
n
edV
= = =
d) The majority carrier mobility
( )( )
( )( )( )( )( )
3 2
19 21 4 5
0.5 10 0.5 10
1.6 10 4.924 10 1.25 5 10 5 10
1015 cm/ Vs
x
n
x
I L
enV Wd
= =
=
d = 5 10
3
cm,
W = 5 10
2
cm, and
L = 0.50 cm.
I
x
= 0.50 mA,
V
x
= 1.25 V,
B
z
= 650 gauss = 6.5 10
2
Tesla
E
H
= 16.5 mV/cm