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# Carrier Transport Phenomena

## Transport; the process by which charged particles (electrons

and holes) move

By Dr. Ghanshyam Kumar Singh
In this section, we will

Describe the mechanism of carrier drift due to an applied
electric field

Describe the characteristics of carrier mobility

Describe the mechanism of carrier diffusion

Describe the effects of a nonuniform impurity doping
concentration

Discuss and analyze the Hall Effect

Understanding of electrical properties (I-V
characteristics)
Basic current equation;
E n e I
e; electronic charged (constant, 1.6 x 10
-19
C)
; mobility ( figure of merit that reflect the speed)
n; carrier concentration
E; Electric field
Carrier Transport
Drift
The movement of carrier due
to electric field (E)
Diffusion
The flow of carrier due to density
gradients (dn/dx)
V
+
-
E
electron
divider
electron
Carrier Drift
Drift current density
Consider a positively charged hole,
When electric field, E, is applied, the hole accelerates
eE a m F
p
= =
*
m*
p
; effective mass of hole, a; acceleration, e; electronic charge
However, hole collides with ionized impurity atoms and with thermally vibrating
lattice atom
hole
Lattice atom
Ionized impurity atom
E
hole
Lattice atom
Ionized impurity atom
E
Holes accelerates
due to E
Involves in collision
(Scattering Process)
Loses most of energy
Gain average drift velocity, v
dp
E v
p dp
=

p
; Hole mobility (unit; cm
2
/Vs)
Describes how well a carrier move due to E
Drift current density, J
drf
(unit; A/cm
2
) due to hole

dp drf p
epv J =
|
pE e J
p drf p
=
|
Drift current density due to electron
nE e J
n drf n
=
|
Total drift current;
E p n e J
p n drf
) ( + =
The sum of the individual electron and hole drift current densities
Mobility effects
*
p
cp
p
m
et
=
Mobility is important parameter to determine the conductivity of material
*
n
cn
n
m
et
=
t; mean time between collisions

If t=10
-15
s, in average, every 10
-15
s, carrier involves in collision @ scattering
Two dominant scattering mechanism

1.Phonon or lattice scattering

2.Ionized scattering
1. Lattice scattering or phonon scattering
At temperature, T > 0 K, atoms randomly vibrate. This thermal vibrations cause a
disruption of the periodic potential function. This resulting in an interaction
between carrier and the vibrating lattice atoms.
Mobility due to lattice scattering,
L
2 / 3
T
L

## As temperature decreases, the probability of a scattering event decreases.

Thus, mobility increases

Temperature +, Scattering Probability +, Mobility |
Temperature |, Scattering Probability |, Mobility +
electron
hole
2. Ionized Ion scattering
Coulomb interaction between carriers and ionized impurities produces scattering
or collusion. This alter the velocity characteristics of the carriers.
Mobility due to ionized ion scattering,
I
Total ionized impurity concentration
If temperature increases, the random thermal velocity of a carrier increases,
reducing the time the carrier spends in the vicinity of the ionized impurity center. This
causes the scattering effect decreases and mobility increases.

Temperature |, Thermal velocity|, Time around ionized impurity+, Mobility |

If the number of ionized impurity centers increases, then the probability of a carrier
encountering an ionized impurity centers increases, thus reducing mobility

Ionized Impurity |, Scattering Probability |, Mobility +
I
N
T
I
2 / 3

The net mobility is given by
I L

1 1 1
+ =
Due to phonon scattering
Due to ionized ion scattering
Normally, more than one source of scattering is present, for example both impurities
and lattice phonons.

It is normally a very good approximation to combine their influences using
"Matthiessen's Rule" (developed from work by Augustus Matthiessen in 1864):
Conductivity
E E p n e J
p n drf
o = + = ) (
Drift current
; conductivity [(.cm)
-1
]
) ( p n e
p n
o + =
electron
hole
Function of electron and hole concentrations and mobolities
; resistivity [.cm]
) (
1 1
p n e
p n
o

+
= =
L
+
-
V
I
Area, A
Bar of semiconductor
Current density,
A
I
J =
Electric field,
L
V
E =
IR I
A
L
I
A
L
V
L
V
A
I
E J
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=

o
o
o
Resistance, R is a function of resistivity, or
conductivity, as well as the geometry of the
semiconductor
Consider p-type semiconductor with an acceptor doping N
a
(N
d
=0) in which N
a
>>n
i
p e p n e
n p n
o ~ + = ) (
Assume complete ionization

o
1
~ ~
a n
N e
Function of the majority carrier
ex.;
Consider compensated n-type Silicon at T=300 K with a conductivity of =16
(cm)
-1
and an acceptor doping concentration of 10
17
cm
-3
. Determine the donor
concentration and the electron mobility.
Solution;
At T=300 K, we can assume complete ionization. (N
d
-N
a
>>n
i
)
) 10 ( ) 10 6 . 1 ( 16
) (
17 19
=
= ~

d n
a d n n
N
N N e n e

o
To determine n and Nd, we can use figure mobility vs. impurity concentration with
trial and error
) 10 ( 10
17 20
=
d n
N
If N
d
=2 x 10
17
cm
-3
, impurity
concentration, N
I
= N
d
+
+N
a
-
=3 x 10
17

cm
-3
. from the figure, n= 510
cm
2
/Vs. so =8.16 (cm)
-1
.
If N
d
=5 x 10
17
cm
-3
, impurity
concentration, N
I
= N
d
+
+N
a
-
=6x 10
17

cm
-3
. from the figure, n= 325
cm
2
/Vs. so =20.8 (cm)
-1
.
N
d
should be between 2 x 10
17
and 5 x
10
17
cm
-3
. after trial and error.
Nd= 3.5 x 10
17
cm
-3
n=400 cm
2
/Vs
= 16 (cm)
-1
Ex 2.; designing a semiconductor resistor with a specified resistance to
handle a given current density
A Si semiconductor at T=300 K is initially doped with donors at a concentration of
N
d
=5 x 10
15
cm
-3
. Acceptors are to be added to form a compensated p-type
material. The resistor is to have a resistance of 10 k and handle a current
density of 50 A/cm
2
when 5 V is applied.
Solution;
When 5 V is applied to 10 k resistor, the current, I
mA
R
V
I 5 . 0
10
5
4
= = =
If the current density, J is limited to 50 A/cm
2
, the cross-sectional area, A is
2 5
3
10
50
10 5 . 0
cm
J
I
A

= =
Consider that electric field, E is limited to 100 V/cm. Then the length of the
resistor, L is
The conductivity, of the semiconductor is
cm
E
V
L
2
10 5
100
5

= = =
1
5 4
2
) ( 5 . 0
10 10
10 5

O =

= = cm
RA
L
o
The conductivity of the compensated p-type semiconductor is
) (
d a p p
N N e p e = ~ o
Here, the mobility is function of total ionized impurity concentration Na+Nd
Using trial and error, if Na=1.25x10
16
cm
-3
, then Na+Nd=1.75x10
16
cm
-3
, and the
hole mobility, from figure mobility versus impurity concentration, is approximately
p=410 cm
2
/Vs. The conductivity is then,
492 . 0 ) 10 ) 5 5 . 12 (( 410 10 6 . 1 ) (
15 19
= = =

d a p
N N e o
This is very close to the value we need. From the calculation
L=5x10
-2
cm
A=10
-5
cm
2
Na=1.25x10
16
cm
-3
Velocity Saturation
E v
d
=
Drift velocity increase linearly with applied electric field.
At low electric field,
vd increase linearly
with applied E.
slope=mobility
At high electric field,
vd saturates
Constant value
Carrier diffusion
Diffusion; process whereby particles flow from a region of high concentration
toward a region of low concentration.
divider
Carrier
E
l
e
c
t
r
o
n

c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

n

Position x
Electron diffusion
current density
Electron flux
dx
dn
eD J
dx
dn
D e J
n dif nx
n dif nx
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
) (
D
n
; electron diffusion coefficient
H
o
l
e

c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

p

Position x
Hole diffusion
current density
Hole flux
dx
dp
eD J
dx
dp
eD J
p dif px
p dif px
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
D
p
; hole diffusion coefficient
Diffusion coefficient; indicates how well carrier move as a result of
density gradient.
Total Current Density
Total Current
Density
Electron drift
current
hole drift
current
Electron diffusion
current
hole diffusion
current
dif px drf p dif nx drf n
J J J J J
| | | |
+ + + =
dx
dp
eD
dx
dn
eD E ep E en J
p n x p x n
+ + =
1-D
3-D
p eD n eD E ep E en J
p n p n
V V + + =
Graded impurity distribution
Mobility,; indicates how well carrier moves due to electrical field
Diffusion coefficient, D; how well carrier moves due to density gradient
Here, we derive relationship between mobility and diffusion
coefficient using nonuniformly doped semiconductor model
Einstein relation
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor
electron
x
E
C
E
F
E
v
x
Energy-band diagram
E
C
E
F
E
v
x
Doping concentration decreases as x increases
Electron diffuse in +x direction
The flow of electron leaves behind positively
charged donor
Induce electrical field, E
x
, given by
dx
x dN
x N e
kT
E
d
d
x
) (
) (
1
|
.
|

\
|
=
Since there are no electrical connections, there is no current(J=0)
0
) (
) ( = + =
dx
x dN
eD E x N e J
d
n x d n

eq.1
eq.2
Electron current
From eq.1 and 2,
e
kT D
n
n
=

## Hole current must also be zero. We can show that

e
kT
D
p
p
=

e
kT
D
D
p
p
n
n
= =

Diffusion coefficient and mobility are not independent parameters.
The relationship between this 2 parameter Einstein relation
Exercise 1
Assume the mobility of a particular carrier is 1000 cm
2
/V-s at T=300K.
Determine the diffusion coefficient given the carrier mobility.

Using the Einstein relation we have that

e
kT
D
D
p
p
n
n
= =

2
0.0259 1000 25.9 cm /s
D kT kT
D
e e

| |
= = = =
|
\ .
Exercise 2
Assume that electron diffusion coefficient of a semiconductor at T=300K is
D
n
=215 cm
2
/s. Determine the electron mobility.

Using the Einstein relation we have that

e
kT
D
D
p
p
n
n
= =

2
215
8301cm /V-s
0.0259
D kT D
kT
e
e

= = = =
| |
|
\ .
The Hall effect
Using the effect, we can determine
The type of semiconductor
Carrier concentration
mobility
Magnetic field
Applied electrical field
Force on charged particle
in magnetic field (Lorentz
force)
B qv F =
the Lorentz force on electron
and hole is in y direction
There will be buildup of negative
charge (n-type) or positive charge
(p-type) at y=0
As a results, an electrical field
called Hall field, E
H
is induced.
Hall field produces Hall voltage,
V
H

In y-direction, Lorentz force will be balanced by force due to Hall field
z x H
H
z x
WB v V
W
V
q B qv
=
=
(p-type)
Polarity of V
H
is used to determine the type of semiconductor
For p-type
) )( ( Wd ep
I
v
x
x
=
d eV
B I
p
epd
B I
V
H
z x
z x
H
=
=
Can calculate the hole concentration in p-type
For n-type
d eV
B I
n
end
B I
V
H
z x
z x
H
=
=
Note that V
H
is negative for n-type
When we know the carrier concentration, we can calculate carrier mobility
x p x
E ep J =
Similar with n-type, mobility is determined from
Wd enV
L I
x
x
n
=
Wd epV
L I
L
V ep
Wd
I
x
x
p
x p
x
=
=

Exercise 3
Silicon at T = 300 K is uniformly doped with phophorus atoms at a
concentration of 2 10
16
cm. A Hall effect device has been fabricated with
the following geometry: d = 10
-3
cm, W = 10
-2
cm, and L = 10
-1
cm. The
electrical parameters measured are: I
x
= 1.2 mA, and B
z
= 500 gauss = 5
10
-2
Tesla. Determine
a) The Hall voltage
b) The Hall field

Exercise 3
Determine
a) The Hall voltage

( )( )
( )( )( )
3 2
22 19 5
3
1.2 10 5 10
2 10 1.6 10 10
1.875 10 1.875
X Z
H
I B
V
ned
V mV

= =

= =
b) The Hall Field
3
2
1.875 10
0.1875 V cm
10
H
H H H
H
H
V
V W
W
V
W

= E E =

E = =
, n=2 10
16
cm, I
x
= 1.2 mA, B
z
= 500
Quiz 1
Consider a silicon at T = 300 K. A Hall effect device has been fabricated
with the following geometry: d = 5 10
-3
cm, W = 5 10
-2
cm, and L = 0.50
cm. The electrical parameters measured are: I
x
= 0.50 mA, V
x
= 1.25 V, and
B
z
= 650 gauss = 6.5 10
-2
Tesla. The Hall voltage is E
H
= -16.5 mV/cm.
Determine
a) The Hall voltage
b) The conductivity type
c) The majority carrier concentration
d) The majority carrier mobility
Quiz 1
Determine
a) The Hall voltage

( )( )
3 2
16.5 10 5 10
0.825 mV
H H
V W

= E =
=
b) The conductivity type
negative n-type
H
V =
c) The majority carrier concentration
( )( )
( )( )( )
3 2
15 -3
19 5 3
0.5 10 6.5 10
4.924 10 cm
1.6 10 5 10 0.825 10
x z
H
I B
n
edV

= = =

d) The majority carrier mobility
( )( )
( )( )( )( )( )
3 2
19 21 4 5
0.5 10 0.5 10
1.6 10 4.924 10 1.25 5 10 5 10
1015 cm/ V-s
x
n
x
I L
enV Wd

= =

=
d = 5 10
-3
cm,
W = 5 10
-2
cm, and
L = 0.50 cm.
I
x
= 0.50 mA,
V
x
= 1.25 V,
B
z
= 650 gauss = 6.5 10
-2
Tesla
E
H
= -16.5 mV/cm