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Existing Teaching Methods Effectiveness and improvisations

Mrs. Mini Rajeev (Elect) Mrs. Megha Kolhekar (EXTC)

Their eyes are on you. Waiting, watchful, they follow your every move. You begin to sweat as you realize that everything you say and do will affect the outcome of the rest of the year. You are about to begin on the most important adventure yet: you are about to begin a years worth of lessons. Are you ready? Do you have the map youll need to get this adventure started? Will you make it to the X on the map? Possibly one of the most important tools for a teacher is their teaching method.

Why study teaching methods?

Different students learn in different ways (learning styles). Different topics must be taught in different ways. Teaching in different settings requires different methods. Variety is the spice of life, but it is the life of teaching.

What do we do?

Program planning leads to a curriculum Curriculum planning leads to teaching calendar

Teaching calendar leads to lessons

Lesson planning leads to methods We use teaching skills to implement the methods


What is effective teaching?

From perspective of PRODUCT:

How much the students learn. Difficult to measure.

Results may not be known for years.

Results flavored by student ability.

What is effective teaching?

From perspective of PROCESS:

Use of good procedures. Directly observable

Results immediately visible

Results may be flavored by available resources and

skills of individual teachers

Effective Teaching Defined

Patterns of classroom interactions that consistently produce desirable student outcomes in the form of higher test scores, increased

problem solving skills, improved attitude toward

subject, etc.

Borich. (1988). Effective Teaching Methods

Effective Teachers Exhibit

Clarity Variety Task Orientation Engagement Moderate-High Success Rate

Effective teachers Use

Student Ideas Structuring Questioning Probing Enthusiasm

Four Major Effective Teacher Skills

Stimulus Variation Repetition Reinforcement Examples and Non-Examples

Stimulus Variation

Kinetic Variation Focusing Shifting Interaction Pausing Shifting Senses

Kinetic Variation

Teacher Movement Volume Variation Get into Space Move Behind



This is Important, Write This Down, This Will be on the Test


Point, bang on desk, gesture


Point and look at this!

Shifting Interaction

Teacher to Student Student to Teacher Student to Student Teacher to Student to Teacher to Student


Alert Students to Change Promotes Thinking Emphasize Key Point Break Monotony Regain Control

Shifting Senses

Hearing Seeing Smelling Feeling Tasting

Repetition -- Why

Increase Level of Learning Prolong Retention

Repetition -- How

Restating another way Providing examples/non-examples to illustrate Partial Reviews Massed Reviews Re-use skills in subsequent learning Practice, Practice, Practice


Positive Reinforcement

praise grades feedback knowledge of results

constructive suggests solutions, improvements

Negative Reinforcement

Examples & Non-Examples

Why? Teacher Experiences Student Experiences Literature Made up

Why is Lesson Planning Important?

Forces us to think through WHAT we want the students to learn. Forces us to think through HOW we will teach it. Allows us to decide in advance what equipment, supplies, and materials we will need to assemble for the class. Provides structure for both teacher and students. Increases likelihood that learning will occur.


The Lecture Method

Possibly the most popular and widespread teaching method The teacher gives information and the students listen or take notes. A useful way of imparting a great deal of information quickly But. passive for students, keeping the students attention is a major dilemma The best use of lecturing is in combination with other methods; this helps your students retain their interest and attention, allows for more student participation, and emphasizes different learning styles.

Small Group Discussion (or cooperative learning)

An equally popular teaching method in which students are working together in groups to solve problems Giving knowledge a much-needed social context, it makes the students responsible for themselves and each other But louder classroom and the occasional giggling of friends in the same groups Can be avoided by careful splitting into groups, and constant reminders to keep the noise level low.

Questioning Method

The educator begins the lesson by introducing some provocative idea or question and the students respond. One of the best ways to generate discussion is to ask an open-ended question (one which can't be answered by a simple "yes" or "no"). But There are drawbacks to this teaching method, such as lack of class participation due to discomfort from speaking out loud or misunderstanding the questions given to them. Can be overcome by having a student reword the question or giving the class time to react to the questions are good solutions to these drawbacks.

Inquiry/Inductive Teaching

Inductive teaching is an investigative learning process that asks students to pose questions, analyze data, and develop conclusions or generalizations This teaching method requires educators to teach kids how to think. Constructivism is an approach to teaching and learning based on the premise that cognition (learning) is the result of mental construction. Students learn by fitting new information together with what they already know.

Example 1
You are teaching science class students about the solar system. Which of the following lesson plans would you use? A. Give facts about the solar system, which the students can copy down and study from. B. Have the class break into groups, assign each a planet, and have the groups report their findings to the class. C. Begin the class by asking the students, If you could go anywhere in outer space, where would you go and why? D. All of the Above

Example 2
You are teaching history class about Vikings. Which of the following lesson plans would you use? A. Give notes on the Viking way of life. Assign passages from the textbook on Vikings. B. Have the class break into groups and build their own Viking longships. C. Ask the class, If you could take over anywhere, anything, what (or where) would it be and why? D. Have the class invade another classroom.

Your Method

If yours is mostly As: You prefer the lecture method.. If yours is mostly Bs: You prefer the small-group/discussion method. If yours is mostly Cs: You prefer the questioning method. Try integrating other teaching methods to make your classes more interesting and interactive. If yours is mostly Ds: You prefer the inquiry/inductive method. This is a combination of all the methods together, and probably the most effective teaching method.


In what settings do you teach?

Large group classroom instruction Small group classroom instruction Individual instruction Laboratory instruction

Large group classroom instruction

Resource person Role play Brainstorming Field trip Student presentations Lecture Discussion (content-based) Discussion (issue-based) Supervised study Practical exercise Case study Others?

Small group classroom instruction

Cooperative learning

Supervised study
Group projects Computer-assisted instruction

Practical exercise
Learning activity packet Others?

Individualized instruction

Individual projects

Directed reading
Programmed instruction Learning activity packet

Computer-assisted instruction
Practical exercise Others?

Laboratory instruction


Conducting experiment
Practical exercise Task/job sheets

Individual project
Group project Others?


What is meant by effective teaching? What are the skills useful for effective teaching methods? In what settings are you likely to teach? What is one method appropriate for each setting?


Limiting the methods you use to teach is like limiting the tools you use to build or repair something. Neither is very smart Neither is likely to work in the long run

Performance Objective
A teacher needs a performance objective just as a builder needs a clear vision of what the finished building will look like.