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 Formed where a bone joins another

bone, or where a cartilage joins a bone

 The closer the fit, the stronger the joint,
the more restricted the movement
 The looser the fit, the weaker the joint,
the greater degree of movement, the
greater the chance of dislocation
Classification of
 3 types of joints if we classify by function
(i.e., by the degree of movement
 Diarthroses
 Freely moveable joints
 Shoulder, knee, hip, elbow, interphalangeal, tarsal,
and carpal joints
 Amphiarthroses
 Slightly moveable joints
 Intervertebral discs, costosternal joints, pubic
 Synarthroses
 Joints with little or no movement
 Skull sutures, mental symphysis, teeth in sockets,
1st costosternal joint.
Joint Classification
 We can also classify
joints by structure:
 Synovial joints:
 Bones separated by
a joint cavity;
lubricated by
synovial fluid;
enclosed in a fibrous
joint capsule.
 Shoulder, hip,
elbow, knee, carpal,

How would we classify these

joints functionally?
Joint Classification
 Fibrous joints:
 Bones held together
by collagenous fibers
extending from the
matrix of one bone
into the matrix of the
 No joint cavity
 Skull sutures, teeth
in joints, distal
radioulnar joints &
tibiofibular joints
Joint Classifications
 Cartilaginous joints:
 Bones held together by cartilage; no joint cavity
 Epiphyseal plates of long bones, costosternal joints,
pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs
Functions of joints

• Hold bones together

• Allow for mobility

 A. Fibrous joints - held together
by fibrous CT
 1. Gomphosis - cone-
shaped peg in a socket; teeth
roots in maxillae and mandibles
 2. Sutures - may
become a
found only in the
 3.Syndesmosis
- tibia and fibula
distally, between
shafts of ulna and
B. C ar ti laginous
joi nt s  1. Synchondrosis
- hyaline cartilage
connects; between
epiphysis and
(synarthrotic), costal
cartilage between
sternum and ribs
 2. Symphysis
- fibrocartilage
Structure and Function
 Joints are designed
for their function.
 Let’s look at sutures
as our 1st example:
 Name 4 sutures!
 What function do you
suppose sutures are
designed for?
Structure and Function
 Let’s look at some symphyses.
 What kind of joint is a symphysis? What kind of
movement is possible?
 Name a symphysis! (an obvious one is in the picture)
 What connects the bones in these joints?
Structure and Function
 Now let’s talk about
synovial joints.
 How do they differ from
the previous 2?
 5 main structural
 Articular cartilage
 What kind of cartilage is
it? (H _ _ _ _ _ _ )
 Where do we find it?
 What does it do?
Structure and Function
1. Articular capsule
 2 layered. Surrounds both
articular cartilages and the
space btwn them.
 External layer is made of
dense irregular CT & is
continuous w/ the
 Inner layer is a synovial
membrane made of loose
connective tissue.
 It covers all internal joint
surfaces except for those
areas covered by the
articular cartilage.
Structure and Function
 Joint (Synovial) Cavity
 The potential space within
the joint capsule and
articular cartilage
2. Synovial Fluid
 A small amount of slippery
fluid occupying all free
space w/i the joint capsule
 Formed by filtration of
blood flowing thru
capillaries in the synovial
 Synovial fluid becomes
less viscous as joint
activity increases.
St ructure a nd
 Reinforcing Ligaments
 What kind of tissue are
 What do you suppose
their function is?
 Double-jointed-ness
results from extra-
stretchy ligaments and
joint capsules. Is this
necessarily a good
Other Synovial Structures
 The knee and hip joints
have cushioning fatty
pads btwn the fibrous
capsule and the synovial
membrane or bone.
 Discs of fibrocartilage
(i.e., menisci) which
improve the fit btwn bone
ends, thus stabilizing the
 Found in the knee, jaw, and
sternoclavicular joint.
 Bursae are basically bags
of lubricant - fibrous
membrane bags filled w/
synovial fluid. Often
found where bones,
muscles, tendons, or
ligaments rub together.
Types of
Synovial Joints
 Plane joints
 Articular surfaces are flat and
allow short slipping or gliding
 Intercarpal and intertarsal
2. Hinge joints
 A cylindrical projection of one
bone fits into a trough-
shaped surface on another
(like a hotdog in a bun)
 Movement resembles a door
 Elbow joint – ulna and
humerus; Interphalangeal
Type of
Synovial Joints
1. Pivot joints
 Rounded end of one bone
protrudes into a ring formed by
another bone or by ligaments of
that bone.
 Proximal radioulnar joint
 Atlas-axial joint
2. Condyloid joints
 Oval articular surface of one
bone fits into a complementary
depression on another.
 Radiocarpal joints
 Metacarpophalangeal joints
Types of
Synovial Joints
1. Saddle joints
 Each articular surface has convex
and concave areas. Each
articular surface is saddle-
 Carpometacarpal joints of the
2. Ball-and-Socket joints
 Spherical or semi-spherical head
of one bone articulates with the
cuplike socket of another.
 Allow for much freedom of
 Shoulder and hip joints.
 1. Angular - increase or decrease the
angle between bones
 a. Flexion - except at the knee and
toe joints, it decreases the angle
between the anterior surfaces of the
 b. Extension - except at the knee
and toe joints, it increases the angle
between the anterior surfaces of the
bones. Continuation behind the
anatomical position - hyperextension
 c. Adduction - movement toward
 d. Abduction - movement away
from midline. Includes spreading the
fingers or toes.
 2. Rotation - movement of a bone
around its longitudinal axis - atlas
around the axis, moving head to say no
 3. Circumduction - distal end of bone
moves in a circle while the proximal end
is stable
 4. Gliding - one flat surface moves
back and forth and side to side over the
other - intercarpal and intertarsal joints
 5. Inversion - move sole of foot inward
 6. Eversion - move sole of foot
 7. Dorsiflexion - flexion of foot at ankle
 8. Plantar flexion - extension of foot at
ankle joint
 9. Protraction - movement of
mandible or clavicle forward
 10. Retraction - move a protracted
part back; squaring your shoulders
 11. Elevation - upward movement
of a bone - mandible, shrugging
 12. Depression - downward
movement of a bone
 13. Pronation - move forearm to
turn palm posterior or inferior;
lowering the medial part of the foot
 14. Supination - move forearm to
turn palm forward or superior;
raising the medial part of the foot
The Knee
 Largest and most complex
diarthrosis in the body.
 Primarily a hinge joint, but
when the knee is flexed, it is
also capable of slight rotation
and lateral gliding.
 Actually consists of 3 joints:
 Patellofemoral joint
 Medial and lateral tibiofemoral
 The joint cavity is only partially
enclosed by a capsule – on
the medial, lateral, and
posterior sides.
The Knee
 The lateral and medial
condyles of the femur
articulate with the
lateral and medial
condyles of the tibia.
 Btwn these structures,
we have the lateral and
medial menisci.
 Anteriorly, the patellar
ligament binds the
tibia (where?) to the
inferior portion of the
patella. The superior
portion of the patella
is then connected to
the quadriceps
femoris muscle
 At least a dozen
bursae are associated
The Knee
with the knee.
 Multiple ligaments are
 The fibular collateral
ligament extends from
the lateral epicondyle
of the femur to the
head of the fibula.
 The tibial collateral
ligament connects
medial epicondyle of
the femur to the medial
condyle of the tibial
shaft and is also fused
to the medial
 Both of these
ligaments prevent
excessive rotation
 The anterior and posterior
cruciate ligaments are
The Knee
also very important.
 ACL connects the anterior
intercondylar area of the
tibia to the medial side of the
lateral femoral condyle.
 Prevents forward sliding of
the tibia and hyperextension
of the knee.
 PCL connects the posterior
intercondylar area of the
tibia to the lateral side of the
medial femoral condyle.
 Prevents backward
displacement of the tibia or
forward sliding of the femur.
 Arthritis describes about
100 different types of
inflammatory or
degenerative joint
 Osteoarthritis
 Most common arthritis.
 Normal joint use prompts
the release of cartilage-
damaging enzymes. If
cartilage destruction  Eventually bone tissue
exceeds cartilage thickens and forms spurs that
replacement, we’re left with can restrict movement.
roughened, cracked,  Most common in C and L
eroded cartilages. spine, fingers, knuckles,
knees, and hips.
 Rheumatoid arthritis
 Chronic inflammatory Clinical
 Marked by flare-ups Conditions
 Autoimmune disease.
 Body creates antibodies
which attack the joint
 The synovial membrane
can inflame and eventually
thicken into a pannus – an
abnormal tissue that clings
to the articular cartilage.
 The pannus erodes the
cartilage and eventually
scar tissue forms and
connects the 2 bone ends.
This scar tissue can later
ossify, fusing the bones
together. This is known as

 Gouty arthritis
 When nucleic acids (such as ????) are
metabolized uric acid is produced.
Normally uric acid is excreted in the urine.
 If blood [uric acid] rises due to decreased
excretion or increased production, it may
begin to form needle-shaped crystals in
the soft tissues of joints.
 Inflammation ensues causing painful