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 Formed where a bone joins another bone, or where a cartilage joins a bone  The closer the fit, the

stronger the joint, the more restricted the movement  The looser the fit, the weaker the joint, the greater degree of movement, the greater the chance of dislocation

3 types of joints if we classify by function (i.e., by the degree of movement possible):
  Freely moveable joints Shoulder, knee, hip, elbow, interphalangeal, tarsal, and carpal joints Slightly moveable joints Intervertebral discs, costosternal joints, pubic symphysis Joints with little or no movement Skull sutures, mental symphysis, teeth in sockets, 1st costosternal joint.

Classification of Joints!

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Joint Classification

We can also classify joints by structure:
Synovial joints:
 Bones separated by a joint cavity; lubricated by synovial fluid; enclosed in a fibrous joint capsule. Shoulder, hip, elbow, knee, carpal, interphalangeal

How would we classify these joints functionally?

Joint Classification

Fibrous joints:
Bones held together by collagenous fibers extending from the matrix of one bone into the matrix of the next. No joint cavity Skull sutures, teeth in joints, distal radioulnar joints & tibiofibular joints

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Joint Classifications
 Cartilaginous joints:
  Bones held together by cartilage; no joint cavity Epiphyseal plates of long bones, costosternal joints, pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs

Functions of joints
• Hold bones together • Allow for mobility

Structural Classification

 A. Fibrous joints - held together by fibrous CT  1. Gomphosis - coneshaped peg in a socket; teeth roots in maxillae and mandibles

 2. Sutures - may become a synostosis; found only in the

skull 3.Syndesmosis
- tibia and fibula distally, between shafts of ulna and radius

B. C ar ti laginous joi nt s  1. Synchondrosis

- hyaline cartilage connects; between epiphysis and diaphysis (synarthrotic), costal cartilage between sternum and ribs (amphiarthrotic)

 2. Symphysis - fibrocartilage connects; symphysis pubis, intervertebral discs (amphiarthrotic)

Structure and Function
 Joints are designed for their function.  Let’s look at sutures as our 1st example:
 Name 4 sutures!  What function do you suppose sutures are designed for?

Structure and Function
 Let’s look at some symphyses.
 What kind of joint is a symphysis? What kind of movement is possible?  Name a symphysis! (an obvious one is in the picture)  What connects the bones in these joints?

Structure and Function

Now let’s talk about synovial joints.
How do they differ from the previous 2?

5 main structural characteristics:
Articular cartilage
   What kind of cartilage is it? (H _ _ _ _ _ _ ) Where do we find it? What does it do?

Structure and Function
1. Articular capsule
  2 layered. Surrounds both articular cartilages and the space btwn them. External layer is made of dense irregular CT & is continuous w/ the perisoteum. Inner layer is a synovial membrane made of loose connective tissue.
 It covers all internal joint surfaces except for those areas covered by the articular cartilage.

Structure and Function

Joint (Synovial) Cavity
The potential space within the joint capsule and articular cartilage

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Synovial Fluid
A small amount of slippery fluid occupying all free space w/i the joint capsule Formed by filtration of blood flowing thru capillaries in the synovial membrane Synovial fluid becomes less viscous as joint activity increases.

St ructure a nd Function

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Reinforcing Ligaments
What kind of tissue are they? What do you suppose their function is? Double-jointed-ness results from extrastretchy ligaments and joint capsules. Is this necessarily a good thing?

Other Synovial Structures
 The knee and hip joints have cushioning fatty pads btwn the fibrous capsule and the synovial membrane or bone.  Discs of fibrocartilage (i.e., menisci) which improve the fit btwn bone ends, thus stabilizing the joint.

 Found in the knee, jaw, and sternoclavicular joint.

 Bursae are basically bags of lubricant - fibrous membrane bags filled w/ synovial fluid. Often found where bones, muscles, tendons, or ligaments rub together.

Types of Synovial Joints

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Plane joints
Articular surfaces are flat and allow short slipping or gliding movements. Intercarpal and intertarsal joints


Hinge joints
A cylindrical projection of one bone fits into a troughshaped surface on another (like a hotdog in a bun) Movement resembles a door hinge. Elbow joint – ulna and humerus; Interphalangeal joints

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Type of Synovial Joints

Pivot joints
Rounded end of one bone protrudes into a ring formed by another bone or by ligaments of that bone. Proximal radioulnar joint Atlas-axial joint

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Condyloid joints
Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression on another. Radiocarpal joints Metacarpophalangeal joints

Types of Synovial Joints
1. Saddle joints
 Each articular surface has convex and concave areas. Each articular surface is saddleshaped. Carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs. Spherical or semi-spherical head of one bone articulates with the cuplike socket of another. Allow for much freedom of motion. Shoulder and hip joints.

2. Ball-and-Socket joints
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 1. Angular - increase or decrease the angle between bones  a. Flexion - except at the knee and toe joints, it decreases the angle between the anterior surfaces of the bones.  b. Extension - except at the knee and toe joints, it increases the angle between the anterior surfaces of the bones. Continuation behind the anatomical position - hyperextension

c. Adduction - movement toward midline  d. Abduction - movement away from midline. Includes spreading the fingers or toes.  2. Rotation - movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis - atlas around the axis, moving head to say no  3. Circumduction - distal end of bone moves in a circle while the proximal end is stable 

 4. Gliding - one flat surface moves back and forth and side to side over the other - intercarpal and intertarsal joints  5. Inversion - move sole of foot inward  6. Eversion - move sole of foot outward  7. Dorsiflexion - flexion of foot at ankle joint  8. Plantar flexion - extension of foot at ankle joint

 9. Protraction - movement of

mandible or clavicle forward  10. Retraction - move a protracted part back; squaring your shoulders  11. Elevation - upward movement of a bone - mandible, shrugging shoulders  12. Depression - downward movement of a bone

 13. Pronation - move forearm to turn palm posterior or inferior; lowering the medial part of the foot  14. Supination - move forearm to turn palm forward or superior; raising the medial part of the foot

The Knee
 Largest and most complex diarthrosis in the body.  Primarily a hinge joint, but when the knee is flexed, it is also capable of slight rotation and lateral gliding.  Actually consists of 3 joints:
 Patellofemoral joint  Medial and lateral tibiofemoral joints

 The joint cavity is only partially enclosed by a capsule – on the medial, lateral, and posterior sides.

 The lateral and medial condyles of the femur articulate with the lateral and medial condyles of the tibia.
 Btwn these structures, we have the lateral and medial menisci.

The Knee

 Anteriorly, the patellar ligament binds the tibia (where?) to the inferior portion of the patella. The superior portion of the patella is then connected to the quadriceps femoris muscle

 At least a dozen bursae are associated with the knee.  Multiple ligaments are present.
 The fibular collateral ligament extends from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of the fibula.  The tibial collateral ligament connects medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle of the tibial shaft and is also fused to the medial meniscus.  Both of these ligaments prevent excessive rotation

The Knee

 The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments are also very important.
 ACL connects the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the medial side of the lateral femoral condyle.
 Prevents forward sliding of the tibia and hyperextension of the knee.

The Knee

 PCL connects the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the lateral side of the medial femoral condyle.
 Prevents backward displacement of the tibia or forward sliding of the femur.

Clinical Conditions
 Arthritis describes about 100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative joint diseases.  Osteoarthritis
 Most common arthritis.  Normal joint use prompts the release of cartilagedamaging enzymes. If cartilage destruction exceeds cartilage replacement, we’re left with roughened, cracked, eroded cartilages.

 Eventually bone tissue thickens and forms spurs that can restrict movement.  Most common in C and L spine, fingers, knuckles, knees, and hips.

 Rheumatoid arthritis
 Chronic inflammatory disorder  Marked by flare-ups  Autoimmune disease.
 Body creates antibodies which attack the joint surfaces  The synovial membrane can inflame and eventually thicken into a pannus – an abnormal tissue that clings to the articular cartilage.  The pannus erodes the cartilage and eventually scar tissue forms and connects the 2 bone ends. This scar tissue can later ossify, fusing the bones together. This is known as ankylosis.

Clinical Conditions

Clinical Conditions
 Gouty arthritis
 When nucleic acids (such as ????) are metabolized uric acid is produced. Normally uric acid is excreted in the urine.  If blood [uric acid] rises due to decreased excretion or increased production, it may begin to form needle-shaped crystals in the soft tissues of joints.  Inflammation ensues causing painful arthritis.