ASSESSMENT OF A CASE OF

AMENORRHEA
Dr.Mohammed Abdalla Obst.Gyn.Specialist
Egypt, Domiat G. Hospital

AMENORRHEA
 Amenorrhea

is the absence or abnormal cessation of the menses. A patient is diagnosed with primary amenorrhea if she has not reached menarche by age 15.1 meets the criteria for secondary amenorrhea if established menses have ceased for longer than 6 months

 She

Etiology of Amenorrhea
Primary  
 Gonadal failure(43%)

   

Congenital absence of uterus and vagina(15%) delay(14%)

 Constitutional

Secondary   
 Chronic

anovulation(39%)

 Hypothyroidism / hyperprolactinemia(20%) 
 Weight

loss/anorexia(16%)

THE ASSESSMENT

Primary amenorrhea
vagina no Pubic hair yes no breasts have developed

yes
the (MPA) challenge

no

congenital uterovaginal agenesis complete androgen Estrogenized imperforate hymen insensitivity complete transverse )syndrome )CAIS vaginal septum

+

FSH Level

high

low

Chromosome Analysis

abnormal ovaries

abnormal hormonal stimulation of normal ovar

Secondary Amenorrhea

 Secondary

amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual periods for 6 months in a woman who had previously been regular, or for 12 months in a woman who had irregular periods.

incidence

1% of women of reproductive age.

 The

most common cause of secondary amenorrhea in reproductive age women is pregnancy and this should always be excluded by physical exam and laboratory testing for the pregnancy hormone - HCG.

History

A good history can reveal the etiologic diagnosis in up to 85% of cases of amenorrhea.

History
Galactorrhea hot flashes, breast atrophy anddecreased libido
Certainmedications

A large amount of weight loss or gain Anorexia nervosa
Cushing's disease and hypothyroidism .Sheehan's syndrome Asherman's syndrome Amenorrhea following cervicalconization Following discontinuation of oral contraception

Physical examination
 Signs 

of androgen excess

The breast exam may reveal galactorrhea deficiency may be suggested on pelvic exam by a smooth vagina that lacks the normal rugae (wrinkles) and a dry endocervix with no mucous

 Estrogen

what the doctor will do ?next

If the history and physical exam are suggestive of a : certain etiology
 for

the sake of efficiency and costeffectiveness, the workup can sometimes be more directed. ( in 85% of cases .)

Some patients will not demonstrate any obvious etiology for their amenorrhea on history and physical exam. These patients can be worked up in a logical manner using a stepwise approach.

the first tests to perform after pregnancy is ruled out are :  a progesterone withdrawal test  TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)  prolactin level.

VE- Preg.test

TSH ,PROLACTIN’, Prog.challenge test withdrawal bleeding anovulation without withdrawal bleeding hypoestrogenic ve.est,progest.+ challenge test 2wk .FSH norm Repeat+serum ,est.level hypothalamicpituitary failure FSH>30-40 repeat PROF Normal FSH compromised .outflow tract ve.est,progestchallenge test.

HSG OR hysteroscopy asherman

Ovarian failure )premature )menopause
chromosomal anomalies autoimmune disease

If the woman is under 30, a karyotype should be performed to rule out any mosaicism involving a Y .chromosome If a Y chromosome is found the gonads should be surgically .excised

it is prudent to screen for thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal dysfunction Laboratory evidence of autoimmune phenomenon is much more prevalent than clinically significant disease

autoimmune related dysfunction
 The

most common association is with thyroid disease, but the parathyroids and adrenals can also be affected.  Several studies have shown laboratory evidence of immune problems in about 15-40% of women with premature ovarian failure.  In general, ovarian biopsy is not indicated in patients with premature ovarian failure since no clinically useful information will be obtained.

Hypothalamic-pituitary failure
 Patients

who do not bleed after the progestin challenge but do after estrogen/progestin and have normal or low FSH and LH levels

Hypothalamic-pituitary failure
Some medications (e.g. phenothiazines) as well as extremes of weight loss, stress or exercise can cause this type of secondary amenorrhea. A pituitary or hypothalamic tumor would be a rare finding in these patients who were all screened with prolactin levels at the beginning of the diagnostic evaluation. However, if there is no cause apparent from the history, it would be prudent to obtain a baseline CT (or MRI) evaluation of the sellar region to rule out a space occupying lesion.

Hypothalamic-pituitary failure
Patients with normal prolactin levels and normal imaging studies have hypothalamic amenorrhea of uncertain etiology. If the amenorrhea and lack of withdrawal bleeding persists, prolactin levels should be measured annually since a small microadenoma could be present that is escaping laboratory and radiographic detection.

Hypothalamic-pituitary failure
In this condition, as well as in the other hypothalamic amenorrhea situations, the patients can be significantly hypo estrogenic (a low estrogen situation similar to menopause). If the state is persistent, hormone replacement therapy should be considered for protection against osteoporosis. One approach is to get an estradiol level and if it is less than 30 pg/ml, counsel the patient that hormonal replacement therapy is indicated

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.