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Presentation to the DVB World

Dublin, Ireland
March, 2005

Protecting Digital Broadcast Content


From Unauthorized Redistribution
An Issue For All Broadcasters

Spencer Stephens
North American Broadcasters Association
Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 Internet Redistribution of Content

 Benefits
– Broad access to educational, governmental and
public service information

 Risks
– The devaluing of capitalized entertainment
produced with the expectation of licensing
revenue and other residual value

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Unauthorized Redistribution is a
Concern For All Broadcasters

 How is broadcasting put at risk by digital


delivery?
 What’s wrong with unauthorized
redistribution?
 Why should every broadcaster care?
 Is there more than one suitable form of
protection?
 How can protection be obtained?
 Conclusions
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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 How Is Broadcasting Threatened By Digital Delivery?

 Broadcasting in digital form brings benefits to viewers and


broadcasters
 It also brings a new threat:
– DTV content is at risk of widespread unauthorized
redistribution on the Internet.

– The Music Industry experiences with NAPSTER provide


important lessons…

– The ability to protect content worldwide is necessary to


ensure Broadcasting survives in the digital world.

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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 How Is Broadcasting Threatened By Digital Delivery?

 PCs are capable of capturing high quality video and applying advanced
compression

 PCs and consumer video devices are increasingly connected to the


broadband Internet.

 Broadband Internet upload and download times are increasing rapidly


– e.g. for a compressed 22 minute DTV program:

Today In 4 Years
Standard-definition up to real-time 1 min
High Definition ~ 120 min ~ 5 min

If DTV is not protected, HIGH QUALITY DTV picture and sound content
will be extensively copied and re-distributed.

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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 What’s wrong with unauthorized redistribution?

 Local broadcaster obtains rights for, and broadcasts in its local market.
 Intended TV viewers receive the unencrypted digital TV broadcast.
 Unprotected content can be easily redistributed using peer-to-peer file sharing.
 Vast numbers of people worldwide can access the unprotected content.
 With advances in processing power, storage capacity, and broadband access…
EVERYONE BECOMES A BROADCASTER!

Digital TV
PC with
Program with
No Protection Broadband Internet
Connection Internet

Unprotected
Digital Output

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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 Why Should Every Broadcaster Care?

Broadcasters: Unauthorized Internet Redistribution Risks:


 Want compelling content  Compelling content will likely migrate to more
secure services such as satellite and cable

 Valuable businesses models will be harmed


including core advertising, syndication, sports
leagues, DVD and VHS programming sales

 Purchase / license content  If available, content may become more


expensive because of Internet risk

 Potential impact on geographical and time


related licenses. Interference with local
rules/practice on release-windows

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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 Why Should Every Broadcaster Care?

Broadcasters: Unauthorized Internet Redistribution Risks:


 Invest in producing  Future value of content reduced
original content
 Future audience appeal in other markets
reduced
 Public image and  May be compromised by unauthorized
credibility distribution, use and repurposing of their
content

 Consumers suffer from a lack of choice (in


particular a certain proportion of society which
rely on broadcast TV, e.g. poorer families that
cannot afford PayTV)

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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 Is this an issue for European broadcasters?


Second sight
Victor Keegan
Thursday February 17 2005
The Guardian

“[T]he writing may be on the wall for TiVo-like


devices because of what David Price, a
researcher with Envisional of Cambridge, calls
the free global TiVo on the internet. He is
referring to the dramatic upsurge in
downloading films and TV shows through peer-
to-peer sharing facilities on the web.”

“New Envisional figures about to be released


show Britain leads the world in piracy. [The UK
is] responsible for 38.4% of TV downloads in
the EU and 18.5% worldwide. Australia is
second with 15.6% and the US a poor third on
7.3%..”

Copyright
9 Guardian Newspapers Limited
Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 Is There More Than One Suitable Form of Protection?

 Two basic methods:


– Protection at the signal source
– Protection upon reception prior to
any digital storage or output

 In each case, receiving devices must:


– Treat received program content with
acceptable protection for re-transmission / recording.
– Enable restriction of content flow to a geographic
approximation of a home.

Content protection methods may differ by region –


but together must provide a secure system worldwide

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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 Is There More Than One Suitable Form of Protection?


 Protection at the source (e.g. Japan)
– Conditional Access (CA) is used for digital terrestrial television

– Content protection is provided through encryption solutions and


equipment supplier agreements
• (similar to DTH and Digital Cable Television.)
– Content is scrambled/encrypted before transmission
– Set top box descrambles signal using a renewable smart card.
– Copy protection and internet redistribution protection can also be
signaled
– Appropriate digital connectors and content protection methods must be
included.

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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 Is There More Than One Suitable Form of


Protection?
 Protection at reception (e.g. North America)
– Many markets require “Clear-To-Air” Digital Terrestrial Broadcasts
• Signals are unprotected prior to reception by a receiver
• Since no permission is required to receive the broadcast, the
broadcaster does not have a contractual mechanism to trigger and
control the protection of DTV content in over the air receivers.
• So a government mandate must require protection upon reception
– Receivers (i.e., TVs, Set-top boxes, PC DTV tuners) must look
for rights signaling information
– Receivers must encrypt and protect the TV signal if the rights
signaling information prohibits redistribution.

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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 Is There More Than One Suitable Form of Protection?


United States
• The “Broadcast Flag” Solution:
– Promulgated by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) in November 2003.
– Insertion of the redistribution control descriptor in the ATSC bit-
stream is at the option of the broadcaster on a program-by-
program basis.
– All receiving devices must have the ability to detect the flag and
activate appropriate content protection (as approved by the FCC),
to protect from unauthorized Internet distribution.
• This is achieved by protecting copies and outputs in receiving
equipment.

The Flag is about control of redistribution, not copy control


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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 Is There More Than One Suitable Form of Protection?

United States (continued)


•The Broadcast Flag Regulation:
– Requires new devices with television tuners (e.g. televisions,
some computers, etc.) to respond to the “broadcast flag” by
July 1, 2005.

– Requires products and devices wishing to receive unencrypted


DTV broadcasts to protect content against unauthorized
redistribution using FCC-approved output and recording
protection technologies.

– FCC recently approved 13 technologies as broadcast-flag


compliant.

The Flag is about control of redistribution, not copy control


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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 Is There More Than One Suitable Form of Protection?


United States (continued)
• Flag Solution allows:

– Unlimited copies onto physical media


(such as VHS tapes, recordable DVDs)

– Unlimited time-shift recording


(such as with TiVo-like digital recording devices)

– Option to control redistribution

The Flag is about control of redistribution, not copy control


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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

Is There More Than One Suitable Form of Protection?

Europe
• DVB sub groups CM-CP and TM-CPT are working to develop the
Content Protection and Copy Management (DVB-CPCM) system for
managing distribution, copying and redistribution of television
content.

South Korea and Taiwan


• Both countries have adopted ATSC and therefore may be interested
in a solution akin to the US “Broadcast Flag”; the rest of Asia have
adopted DVB and therefore will likely adopt a DVB-compliant
solution.

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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

 How Can Protection Be Obtained?

 For free over-the-air broadcasting to remain a viable means of


distribution, the transition to digital television must be accompanied
by a solution to prevent unauthorized redistribution of unencrypted
digital broadcast television on a worldwide basis.

 Technical solutions exist – but need to be mandated and protected


by regulation.

Content protection is needed internationally to give


Broadcasters the Option to Restrict Redistribution

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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

How Can Protection Be Obtained?

National Protection
– Each country should analyze available solutions and choose the solution
that best fits their needs.
– Regulators then need to implement legal mechanisms to mandate use of
the chosen solution and specifically to:
• Ensure acceptable content protection is enabled in consumer
devices;

• Ensure effective copyright protection as required by applicable


national, regional and international norms; and

• Ensure content signaling tools for free over-the-air broadcast


are supported throughout the delivery and reception chain.

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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

How Can Protection Be Obtained?

International Cooperation
– WIPO needs to incorporate obligations for mandate of redistribution controls
into its proposed new Broadcaster treaty.

NABA Stands Ready To Collaborate!

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Protecting Digital Broadcast Content From
Unauthorized Redistribution

Conclusions

 The protection of valuable broadcast content against unauthorized


redistribution is of international concern.

 Special attention is required for protection of unencrypted over-the-air DTV.

 Steps must be taken at national and international levels to ensure that


technical and legal protection mechanisms are in place and enforced.

 There is more than one solution that can solve this problem.

Content protection methods may differ by region –


but together must provide a secure system worldwide.

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