Kingdom Animalia

Lower Invertebrates

Characteristics:
• • • • • • • eukaryotic multicellular heterotrophic consumers no cell walls sexual and asexual reproduction locomotion 99% invertebrates

• symmetry of body plan: asymmetry – no symmetry radial – central point. can be divided into equal sections bilateral – can be divided into 2 mirrored halves • cephalization – concentration of sense organs toward anterior end (associated with development of a head) .

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• anterior – region of a bilaterally symmetrical organism toward the head end • posterior – region of a bilaterally symmetrical organism toward the tail end • dorsal – back side of a bilaterally symmetrical organism • ventral – under side of a bilaterally symmetrical organism • lateral – to the side of a bilaterally symmetrical organism .

of water through porous body. all aquatic • asymmetrical • 2 cell types: amoebocytes choanocytes – (collared cells) . Phylum Porifera sponges simplest animals invertebrates adults sessile.• • • • A. filter feeders (larvae are freeswimming) • water vascular system – pumps large amts.

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Phylum Porifera • • • • osculum – opening at top of sponge. water exits atrium – open chamber composed of spicules – framework of the sponge classified by spicule composition: 1) Class Calcarea – calcium carbonate spicules 2) Class Hexactinella – siliceous spicules 3) Class Demospongia – spongin • reproduce sexually by egg and sperm • asexually by budding .A.

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B. anemones radial symmetry entirely aquatic (marine. anemones . few fw) possess stinging cells (nematocysts) on tentacles nerve net – simple nervous system 3 classes: 1) Class Hydrozoa – ex: Hydra 2) Class Scyphozoa – ex: most jellyfish 3) Class Anthozoa – ex: corals. jellyfish. Phylum Cnidaria • • • • • • corals.

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Phylum Cnidaria • classified by life cycle stages: 1) medusa – free swimming 2) polyp – attached stage • reproduction: asexually by budding sexually by egg & sperm .B.

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C. Phylum Platyhelminthes • • • • flatworms incomplete digestive system (one opening) bilateral symmetry flame cells for excretion (nephridia) 1) Class Turbellaria – free-living ex: planarian 2) Class Trematoda – parasitic ex: liver fluke 3) Class Cestoda – parasitic ex: tapeworm .

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Phylum Nematoda • • • • • roundworms complete digestive system – 2 openings bilateral symmetry tube within a tube body plan ex: Ascaris. filarial worms.D. eyeworms. hookworms. Trichinella – cause trichinosis .

E. sw. terrestrial true coelom – fluid-filled body cavity complete digestive system all organ systems present closed circulatory system – blood is confined to vessels . Phylum Annelida • • • • • • • segmented worms name means “little ring” fw.

Phylum Annelida • classified by their number of setae – bristles for locomotion • 3 classes: 1) Class Hirudinea – no setae ex: leeches *parasitic.E. fw or sw 2) Class Polychaeta – many setae ex: bristleworm *most marine 3) Class Oligochaeta – few setae ex: earthworms *terrestrial .

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Earthworm • prostomium – liplike covering over mouth. pushes soil into mouth • clitellum – banded structure that functions in reproduction by secreting a mucus ring which carries fertilized eggs and is left behind as a cocoon • reproductive system: hermaphrodite – has both male & female sex organs ovaries – produce eggs testes – produce sperm seminal vesicles – store worm’s own sperm seminal receptacles – receive other worm’s sperm .

Earthworm • digestive system: complete (mouth & anus) mouth – takes in food pharynx – sucks in soil esophagus – transports food to crop crop – stores food gizzard – grinds food intestine – absorbs nutrients anus – releases wastes .

will be black no heart. kept moist by secreting mucus .Earthworm • circulatory system: closed. has aortic arches (pump blood) dorsal blood vessel – carries blood to aortic arches ventral blood vessel – carries blood to posterior end • respiratory system: O2 & CO2 (gases) exchanged through moist skin.

Earthworm • excretory system: nephridia – “little kidneys” remove wastes from blood • cuticle – outer skin-like covering on worm that secretes mucus • nervous system: fused nerve cells (ganglia) simple brain that sends/receives messages ventral nerve cord – carries messages to/from body from/to ganglia .

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