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Solar battery manufacturing engineering

Hur In Eun
2007. 04. 12.
■ Water in a high reservoir has
potential energy
■ The water is allowed to fall under
gravity
■ The water gains kinetic energy
■ The kinetic energy drives the
turbines
■ The turbines drives the generators
■ The kinetic energy of the shafts of
the generators is converted into
electrical energy
Summary of Typical Hydroelecric
Dam

Gravitational Mechanical Electrical


■ The two basic types of hydroelectric
systems are those based on falling
water and natural river current.
 First system , water accumulates in reservoirs
created by the use of dams.
 Second system, called a run-of-the-river
system
 Another kind of hydroelectric power generation
is the pumped storage hydroelectric system.
■ First system , water
accumulates in
reservoirs created by
the use of dams. This
water then falls through
conduits (penstocks)
and applies pressure
against the turbine
blades to drive the
generator to produce
electricity.
■ Second system, called a run-of-the-
river system, the force of the river
current (rather than falling water)
applies pressure to the turbine
blades to produce electricity. Since
run-of-the-river systems do not
usually have reservoirs and cannot
store substantial quantities of
water, power production from this
type of system depends on
seasonal changes and stream flow.
These conventional hydroelectric
generating units range in size from
less than 1 megawatt to 700
megawatts. Because of their ability
to start quickly and make rapid
changes in power output,
hydroelectric generating units are
suitable for serving peak loads and
providing spinning reserve power,
■ Another kind of hydroelectric
power generation is the
pumped storage hydroelectric
system. Pumped storage
hydroelectric plants use the
same principle for generation
of power as the conventional
hydroelectric operations based
on falling water and river
current. However, in a pumped
storage operation, low-cost off-
peak energy is used to pump
water to an upper reservoir
where it is stored as potential
energy. The water is then
released to flow back down
through the turbine generator
to produce electricity during
1) They use up
valuable and limited
natural resources.
2) They can produce a
lot of pollution.
3) Companies have to
dig up the earth or
drill wells to get coal,
oil, or gas.
4) For nuclear power
plants, there are
waste disposal
No pollution and no consumption of resources. Hydrogen is
produced from water and oxidized back into water. There are no
byproducts, toxic or otherwise, produced by the process.
Safety. Hydrogen systems have an enviable safety record; in many
cases, hydrogen is safer than the fossil fuel it replaces. In addition to
dissipating quickly into the upper atmosphere if it leaks, hydrogen is
completely non-toxic, unlike fossil fuels.
High Efficiency. Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into
electricity with greater efficiency than any other current power system.
Quiet operation. In normal operation, a fuel cell is nearly silent.
Long life and minimal maintenance. Though fuel cells have not
been in use long enough to give a definite lifespan, fuel cells may have
significantly longer lifetimes than the machines they replace.
Modularity. Fuel cells may be any size: small enough to fit in a
suitcase or large enough to generate power for an entire community.
This modularity allows power systems to be upgraded as demand
increases, reducing up front capital costs.
■ Can convert as much
as 90% of the
available energy into
electricity.
■ Best fossil fuel plant
is only about 50%
efficient.
■ The use of
hydropower prevents
the burning of 22
billion gallons of oil
or 120 million tons of
coal each year.
■ The carbon
emissions avoided is
■ You have to flood
a valley to build a
big dam
■ there is a big
impact on the
environment
■ possible loss of
habitat for some
species
■ initial costs are
• Cragside, Rothbury, England completed 1870.

3. Appleton, Wisconsin, USA completed 1882, A waterwheel on the Fox river


supplied the first commercial hydroelectric power for lighting to two paper
mills and a house, two years after Thomas Edison demonstrated incandescent
lighting to the public.

• Duck Reach, Launceston, Tasmania. Completed 1895. The first publicly owned
hydro-electric plant in the Southern Hemisphere. Supplied power to the city of
Launceston for street lighting.

7. Decew Falls 1, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada completed 25 August 1898.


Owned by Ontario Power Generation. Four units are still operational.

5. It is believed that the oldest Hydro Power site in the United States is located on
Claverack Creek, in Stottville, New York. The turbine, a Morgan Smith, was
constructed in 1869 and installed 2 years later. It is one of the earliest water
wheel installations in the United States and also generated electricity. It is
owned today by Edison Hydro[citation needed].
The La Grande Complex in Quebec,
Canada, is the world's largest
hydroelectric generating system. The
eight generating stations of the complex
have a total generating capacity of
16,021 MW. The Robert Bourassa station
alone has a capacity of 5,616 MW. A ninth
station (Eastmain-1) is currently under
construction and will add 480 MW to the
total. Construction on an additional
project on the Rupert River was started
on January 11, 2007. It will add two
Year of Max annual
Name Country Total Capacity
completion electricity production
Brazil/Parag 1984/1991/
Itaipú 14,000 MW 93.4 TW-hours
uay 2003
Guri Venezuela 1986 10,200 MW 46 TW-hours
9,800 MW(2006)22,400
Three Gorges Dam China 2004* 84,7 TW-hours
MW(when complete)
United
Grand Coulee 1942/1980 6,809 MW 22.6 TW-hours
States
Sayano
Russia 1983 6,721 MW 23.6 TW-hours
Shushenskaya
Krasnoyarskaya Russia 1972 6,000 MW 20.4 TW-hours
Robert-Bourassa Canada 1981 5,616 MW  
Churchill Falls Canada 1971 5,429 MW 35 TW-hours
Bratskaya Russia 1967 4,500 MW 22.6 TW-hours
Ust Ilimskaya Russia 1980 4,320 MW 21.7 TW-hours
Argentina/P
Yaciretá 1998 4,050 MW 19.1 TW-hours
araguay
Ertan Dam China 1999 3,300 MW(550MW×6) 17.0 TW-hours
Gezhouba
China 1988 3,115 MW 17.01 TW-hours
Dam
Itaipu Dam
 The name "Itaipu" was taken
from an isle that existed near the
construction site. Itaipu, from the
Guarani language, means "singing
stones". The American composer
Philip Glass has also written a
symphonic cantata named Itaipu in
honour of the structure.
 The amount of concrete used to
build the Itaipu Power Plant would
be enough to build 210 football
stadiums the size of Maracanãs.
Annual Production of Energy

2004 18 89,911
2005 18 87,971
2006 19 92,690
The Three Gorges Dam

The Three Gorges Dam is a Chinese


hydroelectric river dam which spans the
Yangtze River in Sandouping, Yichang,
Hubei province, China. It is the largest
hydroelectric river dam in the world, more
than five times the size of the Hoover Dam
also known as the Boulder Dam.
Grand Coulee Dam

Grand Coulee Dam is a


hydroelectric gravity dam on the
Columbia River in Washington. It
is the largest electric power
producing facility in the United
States, and the largest concrete
structure in the U.S.
Bratsk hydroelectric plant

Bratsk hydroelectric plant


(named 50 years of Great
October) is a the second level
of the Angara River
hydroelectric stations
cascade in Irkutsk Oblast,
Russia. Located near Bratsk.
Since its full commissioning in
1967, the station was the
world’s single biggest power
producer until Canada's
Churchill Falls in 1971.
Annually the station produces
22.6 billion kWt/h. Currently,
the Bratsk Power Station
operates 18 hydro-turbines,
each with capacity of 250MW,
produced by the
Leningrad Metal Works.
Karun-3 dam

The Karun-3 dam is a


hydroelectric dam on the Karun river in
the province of Khuzestan, Iran. It was
built to meet Iran's energy demands as
well as to provide flood control. The
Karun has the highest discharge of
Iran's rivers. The objectives of the
construction of Karun III Dam &
Hydro-electric Power Plant are electric
Power supply and flood control. Karun
III power generators are connected to
the National Power network as the Peak
Power generation. With this power
plant being operated, with the capacity
of 2000Mw , and an average electric
power generation of 4137GW.h/y , a
major portion of the electric power
shortage in the country will be met.
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