Solar battery manufacturing engineering Hur In Eun 2007. 04. 12.

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Water in a high reservoir has potential energy The water is allowed to fall under gravity The water gains kinetic energy The kinetic energy drives the turbines The turbines drives the generators The kinetic energy of the shafts of the generators is converted into electrical energy

Summary of Typical Hydroelecric Dam

Gravitational

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The two basic types of hydroelectric systems are those based on falling water and natural river current.
First system , water accumulates in reservoirs created by the use of dams. Second system, called a run-of-the-river system Another kind of hydroelectric power generation is the pumped storage hydroelectric system.

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First system , water accumulates in reservoirs created by the use of dams. This water then falls through conduits (penstocks) and applies pressure against the turbine blades to drive the generator to produce electricity.

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Second system, called a run-of-theriver system, the force of the river current (rather than falling water) applies pressure to the turbine blades to produce electricity. Since run-of-the-river systems do not usually have reservoirs and cannot store substantial quantities of water, power production from this type of system depends on seasonal changes and stream flow. These conventional hydroelectric generating units range in size from less than 1 megawatt to 700 megawatts. Because of their ability to start quickly and make rapid changes in power output, hydroelectric generating units are suitable for serving peak loads and providing spinning reserve power,

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Another kind of hydroelectric power generation is the pumped storage hydroelectric system. Pumped storage hydroelectric plants use the same principle for generation of power as the conventional hydroelectric operations based on falling water and river current. However, in a pumped storage operation, low-cost offpeak energy is used to pump water to an upper reservoir where it is stored as potential energy. The water is then released to flow back down through the turbine generator to produce electricity during

1) They use up valuable and limited natural resources. 2) They can produce a lot of pollution. 3) Companies have to dig up the earth or drill wells to get coal, oil, or gas. 4) For nuclear power plants, there are waste disposal

No pollution and no consumption of resources. Hydrogen is produced from water and oxidized back into water. There are no byproducts, toxic or otherwise, produced by the process. Safety. Hydrogen systems have an enviable safety record; in many cases, hydrogen is safer than the fossil fuel it replaces. In addition to dissipating quickly into the upper atmosphere if it leaks, hydrogen is completely non-toxic, unlike fossil fuels. High Efficiency. Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electricity with greater efficiency than any other current power system. Quiet operation. In normal operation, a fuel cell is nearly silent. Long life and minimal maintenance. Though fuel cells have not been in use long enough to give a definite lifespan, fuel cells may have significantly longer lifetimes than the machines they replace. Modularity. Fuel cells may be any size: small enough to fit in a suitcase or large enough to generate power for an entire community. This modularity allows power systems to be upgraded as demand increases, reducing up front capital costs.

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Can convert as much as 90% of the available energy into electricity. Best fossil fuel plant is only about 50% efficient. The use of hydropower prevents the burning of 22 billion gallons of oil or 120 million tons of coal each year. The carbon emissions avoided is

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You have to flood a valley to build a big dam there is a big impact on the environment possible loss of habitat for some species initial costs are

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Cragside, Rothbury, England completed 1870. Appleton, Wisconsin, USA completed 1882, A waterwheel on the Fox river supplied the first commercial hydroelectric power for lighting to two paper mills and a house, two years after Thomas Edison demonstrated incandescent lighting to the public. Duck Reach, Launceston, Tasmania. Completed 1895. The first publicly owned hydro-electric plant in the Southern Hemisphere. Supplied power to the city of Launceston for street lighting. Decew Falls 1, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada completed 25 August 1898. Owned by Ontario Power Generation. Four units are still operational. It is believed that the oldest Hydro Power site in the United States is located on Claverack Creek, in Stottville, New York. The turbine, a Morgan Smith, was constructed in 1869 and installed 2 years later. It is one of the earliest water wheel installations in the United States and also generated electricity. It is owned today by Edison Hydro[citation needed].

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The La Grande Complex in Quebec, Canada, is the world's largest hydroelectric generating system. The eight generating stations of the complex have a total generating capacity of 16,021 MW. The Robert Bourassa station alone has a capacity of 5,616 MW. A ninth station (Eastmain-1) is currently under construction and will add 480 MW to the total. Construction on an additional project on the Rupert River was started on January 11, 2007. It will add two

Name Itaipú Guri

Country Brazil/Parag uay Venezuela

Year of completion 1984/1991/ 2003 1986 2004* 1942/1980 1983 1972 1981 1971 1967 1980 1998 1999 1988

Total Capacity 14,000 MW 10,200 MW 9,800 MW(2006)22,400 MW(when complete) 6,809 MW 6,721 MW 6,000 MW 5,616 MW 5,429 MW 4,500 MW 4,320 MW 4,050 MW 3,300 MW(550MW×6) 3,115 MW

Max annual electricity production 93.4 TW-hours 46 TW-hours 84,7 TW-hours 22.6 TW-hours 23.6 TW-hours 20.4 TW-hours   35 TW-hours 22.6 TW-hours 21.7 TW-hours 19.1 TW-hours 17.0 TW-hours 17.01 TW-hours

Three Gorges Dam China Grand Coulee Sayano Shushenskaya Krasnoyarskaya Robert-Bourassa Churchill Falls Bratskaya Ust Ilimskaya Yaciretá Ertan Dam Gezhouba Dam United States Russia Russia Canada Canada Russia Russia Argentina/P araguay China China

Itaipu Dam
 The name "Itaipu" was taken from an isle that existed near the construction site. Itaipu, from the Guarani language, means "singing stones". The American composer Philip Glass has also written a symphonic cantata named Itaipu in honour of the structure.  The amount of concrete used to build the Itaipu Power Plant would be enough to build 210 football stadiums the size of Maracanãs. Annual Production of Energy 2004 2005 2006 18 18 19 89,911 87,971 92,690

The Three Gorges Dam
The Three Gorges Dam is a Chinese hydroelectric river dam which spans the Yangtze River in Sandouping, Yichang, Hubei province, China. It is the largest hydroelectric river dam in the world, more than five times the size of the Hoover Dam also known as the Boulder Dam.

Grand Coulee Dam
Grand Coulee Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam on the Columbia River in Washington. It is the largest electric power producing facility in the United States, and the largest concrete structure in the U.S.

Bratsk hydroelectric plant
Bratsk hydroelectric plant (named 50 years of Great October) is a the second level of the Angara River hydroelectric stations cascade in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. Located near Bratsk. Since its full commissioning in 1967, the station was the world’s single biggest power producer until Canada's Churchill Falls in 1971. Annually the station produces 22.6 billion kWt/h. Currently, the Bratsk Power Station operates 18 hydro-turbines, each with capacity of 250MW, produced by the Leningrad Metal Works.

Karun-3 dam
The Karun-3 dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Karun river in the province of Khuzestan, Iran. It was built to meet Iran's energy demands as well as to provide flood control. The Karun has the highest discharge of Iran's rivers. The objectives of the construction of Karun III Dam & Hydro-electric Power Plant are electric Power supply and flood control. Karun III power generators are connected to the National Power network as the Peak Power generation. With this power plant being operated, with the capacity of 2000Mw , and an average electric power generation of 4137GW.h/y , a major portion of the electric power shortage in the country will be met.

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